Xukuru language

Xukuru
Native toBrazil
RegionPernambuco
Ethnicity6,400 Xukuru people (1999)[1]
Extinct(date missing)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3xoo
Glottologxuku1239[3]

Xukuru (Xucuru, Shukurú, Ichikile) is an extinct and poorly attested language of Brazil. It is also known as Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó, Ichikile. It is known only from a few word lists and a sketch by Lapenda (1962).[4]

It was originally spoken in the Serra de São José and on the Meio River, Capibaribe River and Taperoa River in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba. Loukotka (1968) reports the most recent locations as the Serra Ararobá and Cimbres.[5]

Classification[edit]

Loukotka (1968) considers Xukuru to form a small family with Paratió.[5]

Other languages with this name[edit]

Xukuru-Kariri is a variety of Xokó, which may be a Kariri language. The name Kiriri is shared by Dzubukuá, another Kariri language, and by Katembri. The name Kiriri-Xoko is shared with yet another variety of Xokó.

Vocabulary[edit]

Pompeu (1958)[edit]

Xucurú vocabulary from Pompeu (1958),[6] cited from Kurt Nimuendajú:[7][6]

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xucurú
homem man xenúpre
mulher woman moéla
fogo fire intôa
água water teu
pedra stone kébra
cabeça head kreká
orelha ear bandulak
bôca mouth mãz
nariz nose korõzá
língua tongue izarágo
dente tooth ciladê
mão hand kereké
foot poyá
casa house sek
olho (olha) eye (see) pigó

Meader (1978)[edit]

Xukuru is also known from a word list elicited in 1961 by Paul Wagner from Antônio Caetano do Nascimento, the chief of Brazinho village in the Serra Urubu of Pernambuco State. The list is reproduced below, with English translations also given.[8]

Portuguese gloss
(original)
English gloss
(translated)
Xukuru
água water křikišε
arco bow fřεša
azul blue ιniyε
bebo I drink taiyε̨
fazer beber to drink uřιnka/o
boca mouth opigomə̨
branco white piřaːša
carne de boi beef iːša de mařiñu
carne de porco pork iːša de pʰužu
casa home šεkI / šεkʰ
está chovendo it is raining křišišε
cobra snake katə̨go / šabatə̨na / sązařa
comer (fazer) eat křιŋgɔ
corda (de índio) rope (of Indian) kəšta
correr (fazer) run mutəgo
dia day 'aːdamε
dormir to sleep muřiša
flecha arrow bεštə
fogo fire kiya
fumo smoke mažε
fumando (fazendo) smoking ε/ιštə̨ŋgu
joelho knee žəže
lua moon kιlaRmɔ
machado axe takɔ de supapʰo
mãe mother tšiɔkɔ
mandioca cassava iːəmu
farinha de mandioca cassava flour įəmu
matar kill kopago/u
menino boy ambεkO / křipʰu/i
milho corn šιgu / šiːgřu / siːgu
morto (defunto) dead (deceased) kupʰu
mulher / moça woman / girl ɔkřιpi / tšɔkɔ
nariz nose šikřį
noite night batukį
noite clara clear night kilařižmąų / kιlařižmąų
noite sem luar moonless night batřokį / batokį
nuvem cloud nǫmbřu
olho eye aloži / lə̨že/ε
pai dad taiɔpʰu
panela de barro clay pot mɔiː
pau stick křə̨ži
foot poiya
pés-de-bode goat feet poia de mε̨mε̨ŋgo
pedra stone kařašiši / kašiši / kebřə
pequeno small křeɔ
perna fina thin leg žatiři
pessoa ruim bad person taːnañago
piolho louse kuša
preta black woman takažu křεga
preto black man takažu pu
sangue blood bǫdąso
sol sun aːdɔmε
terra earth lιmulagu
velho old iakɔ / taiəpu / přɔ
vem cá come here iąkɔ / iə̨nkɔ
verde green piřaša / takaιnyε
abóbora pumpkin porou
até logo see you later ambeřa
banana banana pakɔvɔ
beiju kiss šɔšɔgu
bicho-de-pé type of insect bušu / bušudu
bode goat mε̨mε̨ŋgo
boi ox mařį
bolsa handbag aiyɔ
bom-dia good morning břεmε̨/æ̨
brasa ember toe
brigar (mentir?) (fazer) fight (lie?) ařago
cabaça gourd kuřekɔ/a
caboclo caboclo taispu/U
caboclo velho old caboclo přɔ / sanumpI/i
cachaça cachaça uřiːka žɔgu
cachimbo smoking pipe šaduřε
café coffee fǫfǫ
cágado tortoise šabutε
cansado tired nanəgu
carneiro ram labudu
cavalo horse pitšιŋgə
chapéu hat křeakřugu
chefe chief přə
chorando crying šualya
cintura waist hododoːgu
dar na cabeça give in the head kupago
dinheiro money εntaiu
doce sweet kažuřə
duas horas da tarde two o'clock in the afternoon ŋgutimæ
escuro dark bətukį / batyukį
espingarda shotgun kašuvemini / nazařinə
espírito (homem) spirit (of man) kopʰu ařaga
fava fava bean kuřikə
feijão bean saka
fica quieto stay quiet naiyεtigořε / naiyε biago
fome (está com) hungry (be) šuřakI/i
fósforo match (lighter) křiya
galinha chicken tapuka
gato cat žetona
gato do mato / leão wildcat / lion tə̨tə̨ŋgu / tątągu
homem mal feito ugly man křugu/i
ladrão thief šikřεgugu
lagartinha small caterpillar kuřišiba
lenha firewood křə̨ži
língua dos Xukurus Xukuru language břɔbɔ
maça apple kuřikɔ
madeira wood křə̨ž
mentira a lie (not truth) uːegwe
mulata mulatto křεšuagu
nome da tribo Xukuru tribe šukuřuiz
Nossa Senhora Our Lady (Virgin Mary) təməį
Nosso Senhor Our Lord (Jesus) tupə̨
onça / rato jaguar / rat pipʰiu
padre father pažε
panela / jarro pot / pitcher mə̨yį
patim skate iːə̨kə̨
pato duck tapukə
peba six-banded armadillo
(Euphractus sexcinctus)
šabutε / šababutε
peru turkey papιsaka / isaka
ponto de boi point of ox kakřiə̨kʰɔ
porco pig pužu
prato de barro clay plate šεtkibųgu
preá price bεŋo / bεŋgo
prender (fez) catch abřeřa
com raiva angry mařau
rapadura rapadura kařuža
rede net tipʰoia
roubar (fazer) steal ařagu / šιkřugu / šikřεgu
roupa (genérico) clothing (generic) takʰɔ
roupa rasgada rags, ripped clothing takə ařagu
saia skirt tinəŋgɔ
sapato shoe šaba
sapo toad sařapə
sede thirst sεři
soldado soldier ařεdæři / kəmakwį
titica useless ižari / šapřuiz
titica grande very useless žaři
trovão thunder təkəmařu / takəmařau
urinar urinate žιgu
urubu vulture gřaːsia
vai dar de corpo will give body šιkumə
viagem (fazer) travel ųbřeːřa / muntəgu

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xukurú at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Xukuru at Ethnologue (12th ed., 1992).
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Xukurú". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Lapenda, Geraldo Calábria. 1962. O dialecto Xucuru. Doxa (Revista Oficial do Departamento de Cultura do Diretório Acadêmico da Faculdade de Filosofia de Pernambuco da Universidade do Recife), ano X, n. 10, p. 11-23.
  5. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  6. ^ a b Pompeu Sobrinho, Thomaz. 1958. Línguas Tapuias desconhecidas do Nordeste: Alguns vocabulários inéditos. Boletim de Antropologia (Fortaleza-Ceará) 2. 3-19.
  7. ^ Nimuendajú, Kurt. “Revista do Instituto Arqueológico, Histórico e Geográfico Pernambucano”. ns. 155, 158.
  8. ^ Meader, Robert E. (1978). Indios do Nordeste: Levantamento sobre os remanescentes tribais do nordeste brasileiro (in Portuguese). Brasilia: SIL International.

External links[edit]