X-SAMPA

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The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA; /ˌɛksˈsæmpə/, /%Eks"s] M\ ɰ Xsampa-Mslash.png velar approximant Spanish fuego ["fweM\o] N ŋ Xsampa-N2.png velar nasal English thing [TIN] N\ ɴ Xsampa-Nslash.png uvular nasal Japanese san [saN\] O ɔ Xsampa-O2.png open-mid back rounded vowel American English off [O:f] O\ ʘ Xsampa-Oslash.png bilabial click   P (or v\) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png labiodental approximant Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/ Q ɒ Xsampa-Q.png open back rounded vowel RP lot [lQt] R ʁ Xsampa-R2.png voiced uvular fricative German rein [RaIn] R\ ʀ Xsampa-Rslash.png uvular trill French roi [R\wa] S ʃ Xsampa-S2.png voiceless postalveolar fricative English ship [SIp] T θ Xsampa-T2.png voiceless dental fricative English thin [TIn] U ʊ Xsampa-U2.png near-close back rounded vowel English foot [fUt] U\ ᵿ near-close central rounded vowel English euphoria [jU\"fO@r\i@] V ʌ Xsampa-V.png open-mid back unrounded vowel Scottish English strut [str\Vt] W ʍ Xsampa-X.png voiceless labial-velar fricative Scots when [WEn] X χ Xsampa-x2.png voiceless uvular fricative Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?] X\ ħ Xsampa-Xslash.png voiceless pharyngeal fricative Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:] Y ʏ Xsampa-Y2.png near-close front rounded vowel German hübsch [hYpS] Z ʒ Xsampa-Z2.png voiced postalveolar fricative English vision ["vIZ@n]

Other symbols[edit]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description Example
. . Xsampa-fullstop.png syllable break  
" ˈ Xsampa-doublequotes.png primary stress  
% ˌ Xsampa-percentage.png secondary stress  
' (or _j) ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized  
: ː Xsampa-colon.png long  
:\ ˑ Xsampa-colonslash.png half long Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths
-   separator Polish trzy [t-S1] vs. czy [tS1] (affricate)
@ ə Xsampa-at.png schwa English arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ ɘ Xsampa-atslash.png close-mid central unrounded vowel Paicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
{ æ Xsampa-leftcurly.png near-open front unrounded vowel English trap [tr\ ʉ Xsampa-rightcurly.png close central rounded vowel Swedish sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1 ɨ Xsampa-1.png close central unrounded vowel Welsh tu [t1], American English rose's ["r\oUz1z]
2 ø Xsampa-2.png close-mid front rounded vowel Danish købe ["k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3 ɜ Xsampa-3.png open-mid central unrounded vowel English nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ ɞ Xsampa-3slash.png open-mid central rounded vowel Irish tomhail [t3\:l']
4 ɾ Xsampa-4.png alveolar flap Spanish pero ["pe4o], American English better ["bE4@`]
5 ɫ Xsampa-l eor5.png velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _e English milk [mI5k], Portuguese livro ["5iv4u]
6 ɐ Xsampa-6.png near-open central vowel German besser ["bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7 ɤ Xsampa-7.png close-mid back unrounded vowel Estonian kõik [k7ik], Vietnamese mơ [m7_M]
8 ɵ Xsampa-8.png close-mid central rounded vowel Swedish buss [b8s]
9 œ Xsampa-9.png open-mid front rounded vowel French neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
& ɶ Xsampa-amper.png open front rounded vowel Swedish skörd [x\&d`]
? ʔ Xsampa-questionmark.png glottal stop Cockney English bottle ["bQ?o]
?\ ʕ Xsampa-qmarkslash.png voiced pharyngeal fricative Arabic ع (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
*   undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor"  
/   indeterminacy in French vowels  
<   begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)  
<\ ʢ Xsampa-lessthanslash.png voiced epiglottal fricative  
>   end nonsegmental notation  
>\ ʡ Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png epiglottal plosive  
^ Xsampa-hat.png upstep  
! Xsampa-exclamation.png downstep  
!\ ǃ Xsampa-exclamationslash.png postalveolar click  
| | Xsampa-bar.png minor (foot) group  
|\ ǀ Xsampa-barslash.png dental click  
|| Xsampa-doublebar.png major (intonation) group  
|\|\ ǁ Xsampa-doublebarslash.png alveolar lateral click  
=\ ǂ Xsampa-equalsslash.png palatal click  
-\ Xsampa-dashslash.png linking mark  

Diacritics[edit]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Description
_"   ̈ Xsampa- doublequotes.png centralized
_+   ̟ Xsampa- plus.png advanced
_-   ̠ Xsampa- minus.png retracted
_/ ̌ Xsampa- slash.png rising tone
_0   ̥ Xsampa- 0.png voiceless
_<   implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)   ̩ Xsampa-equalsor equals.png syllabic
_> ʼ Xsampa- greaterthan.png ejective
_?\ ˤ Xsampa- questionslash.png pharyngealized
_\ ̂   falling tone
_^   ̯ Xsampa- hat.png non-syllabic
_}   ̚ Xsampa- rightcurly.png no audible release
` ˞ Xsampa-'rhino.png rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)   ̃ Xsampa-tildor tild.png nasalization
_A   ̘ Xsampa- A.png advanced tongue root
_a   ̺ Xsampa- a2.png apical
_B   ̏ Xsampa- B.png extra low tone
_B_L  ᷅ Xsampa- B L.png low rising tone
_c   ̜ Xsampa- c.png less rounded
_d   ̪ Xsampa- d.png dental
_e   ̴ Xsampa- e.png velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F> Xsampa-ltFgt.png global fall
_F   ̂ Xsampa- F.png falling tone
_G ˠ Xsampa- G.png velarized
_H   ́ Xsampa- H.png high tone
_H_T  ᷄ Xsampa- H T.png high rising tone
_h ʰ Xsampa- h.png aspirated
_j (or ') ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png palatalized
_k   ̰ Xsampa- k.png creaky voice
_L   ̀ Xsampa- L.png low tone
_l ˡ Xsampa- l.png lateral release
_M   ̄ Xsampa- M.png mid tone
_m   ̻ Xsampa- m.png laminal
_N   ̼ Xsampa- N.png linguolabial
_n Xsampa- n2.png nasal release
_O   ̹ Xsampa O.png more rounded
_o   ̞ Xsampa- o.png lowered
_q   ̙ Xsampa- q.png retracted tongue root
<R> Xsampa-ltRgt.png global rise
_R   ̌ Xsampa- R.png rising tone
_R_F  ᷈ Xsampa- R F.png rising falling tone
_r   ̝ Xsampa- r.png raised
_T   ̋ Xsampa- T.png extra high tone
_t   ̤ Xsampa- t.png breathy voice
_v   ̬ Xsampa- v.png voiced
_w ʷ Xsampa- w.png labialized
_X   ̆ Xsampa- X.png extra-short
_x   ̽ Xsampa- x.png mid-centralized

Charts[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Manner of articulation Bilabial Labio‐
dental
Dental Alveolar Post‐
alveolar
Retro‐
flex
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn‐
geal
Epi‐
glottal
Glottal
Nasal    m    F    n    n`    J    N    N\
Plosive p b p_d b_d t d t` d` c J\ k g q G\ >\ ?
Fricative p\ B f v T D s z S Z s` z` C j\ x G X R X\ ?\ H\ <\ h h\
Approximant    B_o    v\    r\    r\`    j    M\
Trill    B\    r    *    R\    *
Tap or Flap    *    *    4    r`    *
Lateral Fricative K K\ *    *    *   
Lateral Approximant    l    l`    L    L\
Lateral Flap    l\    *    *    *
  • Asterisks (*) mark sounds that do not have X-SAMPA symbols. Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to Unicode. Since April 2008, the latter is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v in the IPA: Labiodental flap (Gentium).svg. A dedicated symbol for the labiodental flap does not yet exist in X-SAMPA.
Coarticulated
W Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
H Voiced labialized palatal approximant
s\ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\ Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\ Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
ts voiceless alveolar affricate
dz voiced alveolar affricate
tS voiceless postalveolar affricate
dZ voiced postalveolar affricate
ts\ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tK voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kp voiceless labial-velar plosive
gb voiced labial-velar plosive
Nm labial-velar nasal stop
Consonants (non-pulmonic)
Clicks Implosives Ejectives
O\ Bilabial b_< Bilabial _> For example:
|\ Laminal alveolar ("dental") d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial
ǃ\ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal t_> Alveolar
=\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_< Velar k_> Velar
|\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_< Uvular s_> Alveolar fricative

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
1 • }
M • u
I • Y
I\ • U\
• U
e • 2
@\ • 8
7 • o
@
E • 9
3 • 3\
V • O
{ •
6
a • &
A • Q
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, J.C. "Computer-coding the IPA: a proposed extension of SAMPA" (PDF). UCL Phonetics and Linguistics. University College London. Retrieved 16 March 2016.

External links[edit]