How to help – open tasks and things to do

Contributors – a list of project participants. Please introduce yourself.

Advice on using Wikipedia for mathematics self-study

**Articles**

Recent activity on mathematics articles

500 most popular articles

**Editor resources**

Mathematics reference resources

Manual of style for mathematics

Conventions – naming and terminology conventions

Guide to creating mathematical formulas and comparison of different encodings

**Subpages and subprojects**

WikiProject Mathematics Competitions

Proofs – essay on proofs and proof style

Foundations of mathematics – an essay

**Related projects**

**Discussion pages**

This project aims to enable Wikipedians to cooperate, make suggestions and share ideas on the organization and improvement of the mathematics coverage of Wikipedia. Everyone is welcome to join in this endeavor.

Many such suggestions and guidelines have been developed since the project began. A particularly useful collection can be found in the Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics, which contains a detailed discussion of issues related to writing mathematics articles on Wikipedia.

However, it is important for all of us to remember that these are only suggestions: they should help to give us focus, and inspire our contributions, but no one should feel obliged to follow (or even read) them. This WikiProject is *not* prescriptive. The suggestions are intended to be helpful for those who are not sure what to write, or how they can contribute, but they should not distract anyone wanting to contribute from our main purpose: to write and improve mathematics articles!

## Contents

## Project background and scope[edit]

This WikiProject began in 2002 to assist the creation, improvement and organization of articles in the area of mathematics. The initial goals of the project were to provide:

- a standard "bare bones" format for mathematical articles
- useful links for article writers
- a location to discuss issues relating to this section of Wikipedia
- standards for mathematical notation using wikified HTML and TeX.

In its broadest terms, *mathematics* includes its overlaps with physics, computer science, operations research, and other areas. However, there are now separate WikiProjects in many of these areas, and so the focus of WikiProject Mathematics has shifted towards articles which are primarily mathematical (although it still includes many aspects of theoretical physics, for example).

Much progress has been made. The overall organisation of the project is now pretty much in place, and a "house style" for mathematical articles is reasonably well established. The indices of mathematics articles now has over 30000 entries, and this list is automatically updated by a bot using the list of mathematics categories to identify relevant articles. There are also lists of articles by topic which organize articles by subdiscipline and other criteria.

When contributing new articles which are (even only remotely) related to mathematics (including biographies of mathematicians, and so on), please add at least an approximate mathematical category. This enables us to identify, and hence review and add to (or mercilessly savage!), each other's contributions.

The main issues for the project are now probably the following ones:

*Bringing stubs up to a reasonable standard.*There are always plenty of pages that are definition-only. We need to add motivation and examples.*Developing important articles into good expositions.*As anyone who teaches the subject knows, the gap between stating some true facts, and really putting over a topic, is quite large. Here we can consider also the need to add history and proper attributions.*Expanding coverage to bring the subject up-to-date.*This is a huge task, so the main requirements are patience and determination. In particular, a lot of work is still needed to bring the more advanced material up-to-date, so expert contributions are to be encouraged.*Keeping track of all relevant articles, by listing, categorising, and assessing them*. As mentioned above, it is important to add even an approximate category to each mathematical article. There is also a subproject whose aim is to assess the broad field, and the importance and quality of our articles. Anyone can contribute to this task by adding or updating {{maths rating}} templates on article talk pages.*Identifying pseudo-mathematics, hoaxing, and other unattributable material.*Most Wikipedians, naturally enough, don't feel qualified to pronounce on articles purporting to be mathematical, so it is up to us to identify crankery, hoaxes, and material with dubious or unverifiable sources. Anything suspect should be reported on the talk page of this page.

## Things to do[edit]

Looking for something to do? The following table lists some of the places on Wikipedia where mathematics-related requests, suggestions, and tasks have been collected together.

What | Where |
---|---|

Catch up on the latest conversations | WikiProject Mathematics talk page |

Expand a mathematics "stub" | Mathematics stubs |

Apply your expert knowledge to improve an article | Mathematics articles needing expert attention |

Request or write a mathematics article | Requested articles: Mathematics |

Request or provide an image | Requested images: Mathematics |

Suggest or edit a mathematics article needing attention | Pages needing attention: Mathematics |

Suggest or edit a redirect which could have its own article | Redirects with possibilities: Mathematics |

Add or improve references in a mathematics article | Articles lacking reliable references |

Turn a "red link" blue | Mathematical redlinks |

Maintain the mathematics portal | Portal:Mathematics |

Review or contribute to current mathematics activity | Current activity |

Help to resolve a dispute | Requests for comment: Mathematics |

Ask or answer a question about mathematics | Reference desk: Mathematics |

Assess an article's importance and quality | Assessment section |

Improve our biographical coverage of mathematicians | Wikipedia:WikiProject Women in Red/Mathematics, Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/missing mathematicians |

Articles up for deletion | Wikipedia:WikiProject Deletion sorting/Mathematics |

Work on drafts | Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/List of math draft pages |

- Start missing articles from List of Italian mathematicians.

## Some issues to think about[edit]

Probably the hardest part of writing a mathematical article (actually, *any* article) is the difficulty of addressing the level of mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader. For example, when writing about a field, do we assume that the reader already knows group theory? A general approach is to start simple, then move toward more abstract and general statements as the article proceeds. The suggestions below are intended to help us achieve this.

When describing a concept in terms of some other concept (for example, explaining rational numbers in terms of integers), be sure to:

- add a (prominent) link to the relevant article (in this case, integer) — as with other Wikipedia articles, avoid duplicate links;
- if it makes sense, add a very quick (and naive) explanation/description (in this case, "positive or negative whole numbers" might work).

If the relevant article has not been written yet, then create a good stub, and add a mathematical category. This will list the article in several places (for instance on the list of mathematics articles) and there is a reasonable chance that someone will expand on it.

Some terminology varies from author to author in the literature. It is therefore a good idea to check any pre-existing articles related to a topic to see if there is already an established usage. Proposals for changes in usage are always welcome: the talk page of this page is one forum where issues such as this can be raised.

New contributors may find it helpful to spend a bit of time perusing some of the existing content; this should provide some idea of what type of information is already available, and how much detail is appropriate in a Wikipedia mathematics article.

The project Wikipedia:WikiProject General Audience, whose goal is to help make articles more accessible, is also worth consulting.

Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines provides guidance for writing readable and well-referenced scientific and mathematical articles.

## Conventions[edit]

The following pages attempt to describe certain conventions for articles with mathematical content. Please read, comment on, improve, criticize, and if appropriate, follow these standards.

- Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/Conventions (a working list of terminology conventions)
- Wikipedia:Naming conventions (theorems)
- Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics)
- Wikipedia:Algorithms on Wikipedia (proposed)
- Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines

Also see:

### Classification[edit]

There is no one single, prescribed method for classifying mathematics articles. Both the lists and the categories have grown organically, rather than being imported. See also areas of mathematics.

## List of publications in mathematics[edit]

There is an effort to organize a list of important publications in many areas of science. Such a list captures the major achievements in each field and might be a valuable asset for one trying to learn a new field. The List of important publications in computer science is the oldest and most mature list and might show the goal of the lists. The rest of the list needs many more contributions. Please help improve the mathematics related lists:

- List of important publications in mathematics
- List of important publications in statistics
- List of important publications in computer science.

There is also a list of mathematics journals.

## Assessment of mathematics articles[edit]

Mathematics article ratings | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Priority | Quality | |||||||||||

FA | FL | A | GA | B | C | Start | Stub | List | Other | Unassessed | Total | |

Top | 9 | 17 | 196 | 11 | 6 | 239 | ||||||

High | 2 | 6 | 258 | 562 | 21 | 13 | 862 | |||||

Mid | 12 | 2 | 1 | 29 | 503 | 732 | 2,295 | 93 | 69 | 3,736 | ||

Low | 2 | 31 | 377 | 958 | 5,609 | 5,097 | 213 | 3 | 21 | 12,311 | ||

NA | 66 | 66 | ||||||||||

Other | 4 | 14 | 21 | 1 | 41 | 81 | ||||||

None | 5 | 32 | 239 | 136 | 9 | 55 | 476 | |||||

Total | 25 | 2 | 1 | 83 | 1,339 | 2,299 | 8,178 | 5,347 | 311 | 3 | 183 | 17,771 |

The subproject Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/Wikipedia 1.0 provides a system to assess mathematics articles for their quality and importance, and to classify them broadly by field. This system was originally developed as part of Wikipedia 1.0, and these assessments will be used to help us to determine which articles will appear in the Wikipedia 1.0 CD.

However, article assessments are useful more generally to track the project's progress, identify weak spots in its coverage, and highlight articles which could become Good Articles or Featured Articles. Articles are assessed by placing (or updating) a {{maths rating}} template on the talk page of the article. Furthermore, the template provides an opportunity to add a brief comment on the article suggesting improvements that could be made.

The table above summarizes the current state-of-play. The links in this table point to assessment pages on which articles are listed by field and quality, complete with any comments that editors have made.

*Any* article can be assessed for its mathematical content, and *anyone* can rate an article. The only exceptions are the Good Article and Featured Article quality grades. These should only be added to articles which have been through the standard Wikipedia Good Article Nomination and Featured Article Candidacy procedures. Editors are also encouraged to use the A-class assessment process to assign A-class quality to an article.

## Recognized content[edit]

### Good articles[edit]

As of 30 November 2016 the mathematics Good Articles are:

##### Mathematicians[edit]

Cauer, Wilhelm – Gleason, Andrew M. – Holmboe, Bernt Michael – Hypatia – Ramanujan, Srinivasa – Ross, Arnold – Steinhaus, Hugo – Størmer, Carl – Turing, Alan – Ulam, Stanislaw – (10 articles)

##### Mathematics and mathematical problems[edit]

Addition – Alexandrov's uniqueness theorem – Ars Conjectandi – Binary logarithm – Book embedding – Commutative property – Curve-shortening flow – Derivative – Dirac delta function – Directed acyclic graph – Dual graph – e (mathematical constant) – Exponentiation – Fast inverse square root – Field (mathematics) – Final stellation of the icosahedron – Finite subdivision rule – Fleiss' kappa – Graph homomorphism – Group testing – Hidden Markov model – Hilbert space – Homotopy groups of spheres – International Mathematical Olympiad – Kawasaki's theorem – Malfatti circles – Matrix (mathematics) – Maximum spacing estimation – Mayer–Vietoris sequence – Nearest-neighbor chain algorithm – Paterson's worms – Patterns in nature – Penrose tiling – Prime number – Pseudoforest – Pythagorean theorem – Pythagorean tiling – Representation theory of the Lorentz group – Reuleaux triangle – Reversible cellular automaton – Rule 90 – Rule 184 – Shapley–Folkman lemma – Sylvester's sequence – Taylor series – Tessellation – Turán's brick factory problem – Vector space – Wieferich prime – Znám's problem – (50 articles)

##### Mathematical physics[edit]

Quantum electrodynamics – (1 article)

### A-class articles[edit]

The A-class assessment process used to select A-class articles. One article was promoted by this process:

- Peano axioms (10 April 2007)

### Featured content[edit]

As of 9 October 2014, 25 mathematics articles are featured articles:

Featured articles | ||

Article | Featured^{[1]} | Main Page |

Marian Rejewski | Discussion 19 January 2006 | 10 March 2006 |

Actuary | Discussion 30 July 2006 | 10 September 2006 |

Leonhard Euler | Discussion 8 October 2006 | 11 November 2006 |

0.999... | Discussion 10 October 2006 | 25 October 2006 |

Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector | Discussion 17 January 2007 | 30 December 2010 |

Polar coordinate system | Discussion 31 January 2007 | 17 February 2007 |

1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · · | Discussion 17 March 2007 | 15 April 2007 |

Johannes Kepler | Discussion 20 March 2007 | 15 July 2007 |

Introduction to general relativity | Discussion 24 July 2007 | 18 April 2010 |

Georg Cantor | Discussion 31 July 2007 | 15 September 2007 |

Archimedes | Discussion 23 October 2007 | 29 January 2008 |

Emery Molyneux | Discussion 18 April 2008 | DYN 9 February 2008 |

Émile Lemoine | Discussion 24 April 2008 | 5 June 2008 |

Edward Wright (mathematician) | Discussion 19 June 2008 | 24 August 2009 |

Emmy Noether | Discussion 22 June 2008 | 4 September 2008 |

General relativity | Discussion 27 June 2008 | 19 April 2012 |

Group (mathematics) | Discussion 17 September 2008 | 5 November 2008 |

Problem of Apollonius | Discussion 13 October 2008 | 22 November 2008 |

Euclidean algorithm | Discussion 19 May 2009 | 18 June 2009 |

Robert Hues | Discussion 6 June 2009 | 16 June 2010 |

Numerical weather prediction | Discussion 26 March 2011 | 10 August 2011 |

Logarithm | Discussion 1 June 2011 | 5 June 2011 |

Pi | Discussion 4 June 2012 | 22 July 2012 |

Parity of zero | Discussion 21 August 2013 | 29 August 2013 |

Josiah Willard Gibbs | Discussion 17 February 2014 | 11 February 2016 |

#### Featured images[edit]

There are also seventeen featured mathematical images:

- File:Lyapunov-fractal.png
- File:BML 144 89 38.ogv
- File:BML 144 89 39.ogv
- File:FieldsMedalBack.jpg
- File:FieldsMedalFront.jpg
- File:NURBS 3-D surface.gif
- File:Anscombe's quartet 3.svg
- File:Desargues theorem alt.svg
- File:Mandel zoom 00 mandelbrot set.jpg
- File:Gospers glider gun.gif
- File:Lorenz attractor yb.svg
- File:Pi-unrolled-720.gif
- File:Tetrahedral group 2.svg
- File:Villarceau circles.gif
- File:8-cell-simple.gif
- File:Knot table.svg
- File:Pythagoras-2a.gif

There is one former featured image:

#### Featured lists[edit]

There is a featured list:

### Former featured articles[edit]

As of 9 October 2014 there are at least 25 mathematics articles which are former featured articles:

Former featured articles | |||

Article | Featured^{[1]} | De-featured^{[1]} | Main Page |

Ordinal | 26 January 2002 | 19 January 2004 | |

Statistics | 26 January 2002 | 19 January 2004 | |

Pythagorean theorem | 26 January 2002 | Discussion 21 March 2004 | |

Illegal prime | 28 August 2003 | Discussion 13 July 2004 | |

Computational complexity theory | 26 January 2002 | Discussion 23 August 2004 | |

Vacuous truth | Discussion 6 January 2004 | Discussion 20 September 2004 | |

Triangle | Discussion 10 May 2004 | Discussion 3 March 2005 | |

Fractal | Discussion 12 July 2004 | Discussion 15 September 2005 | |

Algorithm | 24 July 2002 | Discussion 28 May 2006 | 20 July 2004 |

Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace | 16 October 2005 | Discussion 19 September 2006 | 1 November 2005 |

Ackermann function | 18 December 2003 | Discussion 21 October 2006 | 24 September 2004 |

Regular polytope | Discussion 9 October 2004 | Discussion 23 January 2007 | 18 November 2004 |

Margin of error | Discussion 12 October 2004 | Discussion 3 March 2007 | 19 October 2004 |

Galileo Galilei | 4 November 2003 | Discussion 12 September 2007 | 24 July 2004 |

Lists of mathematics topics | Discussion 27 October 2005 | Discussion 31 December 2007 | |

Carl Friedrich Gauss | Discussion 10 July 2005 | Discussion 4 January 2008 | August 4, 2005 |

Game theory | Discussion 4 December 2005 | Discussion 18 March 2008 | 13 January 2006 |

Prisoner's dilemma | 19 January 2004 | Discussion 16 April 2008 | 16 March 2004 |

Trigonometric functions | Discussion 20 December 2003 | Discussion 19 July 2008 | 6 March 2004 |

Isaac Newton | Discussion 19 October 2005 | Discussion 14 March 2009 | 13 December 2005 |

Cryptography | Discussion 2 July 2006 | Discussion 26 May 2011 | 22 July 2006 |

Monty Hall problem | Discussion 25 June 2005 | Discussion 13 June 2011 | 23 July 2005 |

Blaise Pascal | Discussion 4 August 2005 | Discussion 12 September 2011 | 19 August 2005 |

Infinite monkey theorem | Discussion 29 September 2004 | Discussion 4 October 2012 | 31 October 2004 |

Stephen Hawking | Discussion 3 September 2012 | Discussion 23 February 2014 | 5 June 2011 |

- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}The discussion links (where they exist) point to the featured article candidate discussion or the featured article removal candidate discussion — prior to June, 2003, there was no formal FA nomination process, and there was no formal FA removal process, prior to March, 2004. Dates for pages listed before Phase II conversion are given as 26 January 2002.The symbol: , indicates an article that has an audio recording of the article text (see the article for a link to its recording).

### Featured article candidates[edit]

There are no other mathematics Featured Article candidates at present.

Visit the WikiProject Mathematics on Wikidata |

### Userboxes[edit]

Code | Result | |||
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{{Template:User interest mathematics}} |
| Usage | ||

{{Template:User WP Mathematics}} |
| Usage | ||

{{Template:User WikiProject Mathematics}} |
| Usage |