# Wikipedia:Mathematical symbols

This page is a quick reference for the "standard" mathematical symbols in HTML that should work on most browsers, and is intended mainly for people editing mathematical articles on Wikipedia.

Numbers:

 ¼ ½ ¾ ¼ ½ ¾

Fractions:

 ​1⁄2 ​1⁄3 ​7⁄9 {} {} {}

Underline text:

 underline overline underline {}

Strikeout text:

 strikeout strikeout

Font:

 italics bold ''italics'' '''bold'''

→ General font specification:

 Φ (A) ` Φ (A) ` {}

Superscripts/subscripts:

 x2 x3 x21 x2 x3 x{};

Analysis:

 ƒ ∂ ∫ ∑ ∏ √ ∞ ∇ ℘ ℑ ℜ ƒ ∂ ∫ ∑ ∏ √ ∞ ∇ ℘ ℑ ℜ

Arrows:

 ← ↓ → ↑ ↔ ↵ ⇐ ⇓ ⇒ ⇑ ⇔ ← ↓ → ↑ ↔ ↵ ⇐ ⇓ ⇒ ⇑ ⇔

Logic:

 ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

Sets:

 ∈ ∉ ∋ ∅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊃ ⊂ ⊄ ∪ ∩ ℵ ∈ ∉ ∋ ∅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊃ ⊂ ⊄ ∪ ∩ ℵ

Relations:

 ≠ ≤ ≥ < > ≡ ≢ ∼ ≅ ≈ ∝ ≠ ≤ ≥ < > ≡ ≢ ∼ ≅ ≈ ∝

Binary operations:

 ± − × ÷ ⁄ ⊥ ⊕ ⊗ ∗ ± − × ÷ ⁄ ⊥ ⊕ ⊗ ∗

Delimiters:

 ⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ 〈 〉 « » ⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ ⟨ ⟩ « »

Miscellaneous:

 † ‡ ¦ ∠ ∴ ◊ • ♠ ♣ ♥ ♦ † ‡ ¦ ∠ ∴ ◊ • ♠ ♣ ♥ ♦

Punctuation:

 ′ ″ ‾ ° ⋅ · … – — ˆ ′ ″ ‾ ° ⋅ · … – — ˆ

Spacing:

 thin ( ) n-width ( ) m-width ( ) non-breaking spaces ( )

Greek:

 α β γ ... Α Β Γ ... α β γ Α Β Γ

Unicode: &#x22A2; (for example) gives the character ⊢ with unicode number x22A2 (hexadecimal). Warning: many of the more obscure unicode characters do not yet work on all browsers. Additionally, this makes it very hard to read the wikitext.

It might be easier to just copy and paste the symbols instead of using them by reference. For example, the unicode symbols at Letterlike symbols can be copied and pasted, for example ℝ instead of &#8477; . Many symbols can also be inserted by clicking on the corresponding link under the edit pane.