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|Voiceless uvular trill|
|IPA Number||123 402A|
The voiceless uvular trill is less common than its voiced counterpart.
Features of the voiceless uvular trill:
- Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
- Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Baïnounk Gubëeher||Some speakers||[example needed]||Word-final allophone of /r/.|
|Dutch||Belgian||door||[doːʀ̥]||'through'||Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|French||Belgian||triste||[t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ]||'sad'||Allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants; can be a fricative [χ] instead. See French phonology|
|German||Standard||treten||[ˈtʀ̥eːtn̩]||'to step'||Possible allophone of /r/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that realize /r/ as a uvular trill [ʀ]. See Standard German phonology|
|Chemnitz dialect||Rock||[ʀ̥ɔkʰ]||'skirt'||In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q]. Doesn't occur in the coda.|
|Limburgish||Hasselt dialect||geer||[ɣeːʀ̥]||'odour'||Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [r̥] instead.|
|Spanish||Ponce dialect||perro||[ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞]||'dog'||This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect. See Spanish phonology|
- Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
- Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
- Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68, 70-71.
- Krech et al. (2009), p. 86.
- Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
- Peters (2006).
- While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol ⟨r̥⟩ for many instances of the word-final /r/.
- "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis".
- Cobbinah, Alexander Yao (2013), Nominal classification and verbal nouns in Baïnounk Gubëeher (PDF), University of London
- Demolin, Didier (2001), "Some phonetic and phonological observations concerning /ʀ/ in Belgian French", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland (eds.), 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 61–73, ISSN 0777-3692
- Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
- Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
- Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
- Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173