Voiceless dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant
IPA Number155 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAl_0
Voiceless postalveolar lateral approximant
l̠̊
Voiceless dental lateral approximant
l̪̊

The voiceless alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent the dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants are ⟨⟩ and ⟨⟩, combinations of the letter for the voiced alveolar lateral approximant and a diacritic indicating voicelessness above or below the letter. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l_0.

Voiceless lateral approximants are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • There are four specific variants of [l̥]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Dental or denti-alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Trondheim dialect[1] lt [s̪al̪̊t̪] 'sold' Laminal denti-alveolar; allophone of /l/. Also described as a fricative [ɬ̪].[2] See Norwegian phonology
Turkish[3] yol [ˈjo̞ɫ̪̊] 'way' Velarized laminal denti-alveolar.[3] It is a frequent realization of /ɫ/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.[4] See Turkish phonology

Alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Danish Standard[5] plads [ˈpl̥æs] 'square' Before /l/, aspiration of /p, t, k/ is realized as devoicing of /l/.[5] See Danish phonology
English[6] clean About this sound[kl̥iːn]  'clean'
Estonian[7] mahl [mɑ̝hːl̥] 'juice' Word-final allophone of /l/ after /t, s, h/.[7] See Estonian phonology
Moksha калхне [ˈkal̥nʲæ] 'these fishes' Contrasts plain voiceless, plain voiced, palatalized voiceless and palatalized voiced versions.
Tibetan ལྷ [l̥a] 'deity' Contrasts voiceless and voiced lateral approximants
Ukrainian[8] смисл [s̪mɪs̪l̥] 'sense' Word-final allophone of /l/ after voiceless consonants.[8] See Ukrainian phonology
Washo madukwáwLu [maduˈkwawl̥u] 'sunflower'
Xumi Lower[9] [RPʁul̥o] 'head' Contrasts with the voiced /l/.[9][10]
Upper[10] [EPbəl̥ɐ] 'to open a lock'

Postalveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Turkish[3] dil [ˈd̪il̠̊ʲ] 'tongue' Palatalized.[3] It is a frequent realization of /l/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.[4] See Turkish phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vanvik (1979:36)
  2. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:79)
  3. ^ a b c d Zimmer & Orgun (1999:154–155)
  4. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  5. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:65–66)
  6. ^ "Phonemic vs Phonetic Transcription". australianlinguistics.com. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  8. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:10)
  9. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  10. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.

References[edit]

External links[edit]