|Voiced pharyngeal trill|
(voiced epiglottal fricative)
The voiced epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, also analyzed as a fricative, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʢ⟩.
Few languages distinguish between pharyngeal and epiglottal fricatives/trills, and in fact the fricatives in Arabic are routinely described as "pharyngeal". However, according to Peter Ladefoged, the Aghul spoken in the village of Burkikhan, Dagestan has both (as well as an epiglottal stop).
Features of the voiced epiglottal trill/fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
- Its place of articulation is epiglottal, which means it is articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Arabic||Iraqi||عَام||[ʢaːm]||'year'||Corresponds to /ʕ/ (ﻉ) in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology|
- John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p 695.
- Kodzasov, S. V. Pharyngeal Features in the Daghestan Languages. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Tallinn, Estonia, Aug 1-7 1987), pp. 142-144.
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
- Zeki Hassan, John Esling, Scott Moisik, & lise Crevier-Buchman (2011) "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /ʕ, ħ/ in Iraqi Arabic". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 831–834), Hong Kong.
- Mr. Christfried Naumann, Doctoral Student, Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. June 26, 2009.
- List of languages with [ʢ] on PHOIBLE