This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Voiced bilabial trill|
The voiced bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ʙ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
Features of the voiced bilabial trill:
- Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates. In most instances, it is only found as the trilled release of a prenasalized stop.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Komi-Permyak||[ʙuɲgag]||'dung beetle'||Generally paralinguistic. This is the only true word it is found in.|
|Lizu||[tʙ̩˥˩]||'bean'||Syllabic; allophone of /u/ after initial /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.|
|Ngwe||Lebang dialect||[àʙɨ́ ́]||'ash'|
|Pirahã||kaoáíbogi||[kàò̯áí̯ʙòˈɡì]||'evil spirit'||Allophone of /b/ before /o/|
|Pumi||[pʙ̩˥]||'to dig'||Syllabic; allophone of /ə/ after /pʰ, p, b, tʰ, t, d/.|
|Sangtam||[t ͡ʙʰʌ ̀]||'plate'||Phonemic, as /t ͡ʙ/, found in /t ͡ʙaŋ/ 'needle'|
The Knorkator song "[Buchstabe]" (the actual title is a glyph) on the 1999 album Hasenchartbreaker uses a similar sound to replace "br" in a number of German words (e.g. [ˈʙaːtkaʁtɔfəln] for Bratkartoffeln).
In many of the languages in which the bilabial trill occurs, it occurs only as part of a prenasalized bilabial stop with trilled release, [mbʙ]. That developed historically from a prenasalized stop before a relatively high back vowel like [mbu]. In such instances, the sounds are usually still limited to the environment of a following [u]. However, the trills in Mangbetu may precede any vowel and are sometimes preceded by only a nasal.
- Ladefoged (2005:165)
- Wichmann, Yrjö; Uotila, T. E. (1942). Syrjänischer Wortschatz nebst Hauptzügen der Formenlehre. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
- Chirkova & Chen (2013:78)
- Chirkova, Katia (2012). "The Qiangic Subgroup from an Areal Perspective: A Case Study of Languages of Muli" (Archive). In Languages and Linguistics 13(1):133-170. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
- Dimock (2005:19)
- Coupe, Alexander (2016), "Prestopped bilabial trills in Sangtam", Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, 10-14 August 2015.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Rangelov, Tihomir (2019). The bilabial trills of Ahamb (Vanuatu): acoustic and articulatory properties.
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Lizu" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242[permanent dead link]
- Dimock, Laura (2005). "The Bilabial Trill in Unua" (PDF). Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics. 17: 17–33. ISSN 1170-1978.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)