Vlaams Belang

Flemish Interest

Vlaams Belang
LeaderTom Van Grieken
Founded14 November 2004
Preceded byVlaams Blok
HeadquartersMadouplein 8 bus 9
1210 Brussels
Youth wingVlaams Belang Jongeren
Membership (2014)Increase 17,255 [1]
IdeologyFlemish nationalism[2][3]
Right-wing populism[3][4]
Separatism[2][3]
Social conservatism[5]
National conservatism[6]
Euroscepticism[7]
Political positionRight-wing[8] to far-right[9]
European affiliationIdentity and Democracy Party
European Parliament groupIdentity and Democracy
ColoursYellow, Black
Chamber of Representatives
(Flemish seats)
18 / 87
Senate
(Flemish seats)
2 / 35
Flemish Parliament
23 / 124
Brussels Parliament
(Flemish seats)
1 / 17
European Parliament
(Flemish seats)
3 / 12
Flemish Provincial Councils
24 / 175
Website
www.vlaamsbelang.org

Vlaams Belang (Dutch: [ˈvlaːms bəˈlɑŋ], "Flemish Interest", VB) is a right-wing populist,[3][4] Flemish nationalist[2][3] political party in the Flemish Region and Brussels of Belgium.

Vlaams Belang is a reconfigured version of Vlaams Blok, which dissolved after a trial in 2004 condemned the party for racism. The Vlaams Blok then refounded itself as Vlaams Belang, with some changes to the more controversial portions of its statute.[10] It has since sought to change its image from a radical to a more conservative party, and has distanced itself from some of its former programs.[6] Nonetheless, most other parties have continued the cordon sanitaire which was originally agreed on against the former party, effectively blocking the Vlaams Belang from taking part in government at any level. Additionally, attempts on cutting public subsidies specifically for the party were made through the Belgian draining law.

Like its Vlaams Blok predecessor, Vlaams Belang was initially popular with the Flemish electorate and was one of the most successful national-populist parties in Europe. However, from 2008 the party experienced a downturn in support and membership which coincided with the rise of the more moderate nationalist New Flemish Alliance party. Under the current leadership of Tom Van Grieken the VB has begun to regain popular support. Following 2019 federal elections, there has been some media speculation that the cordon sanitaire on the party may be lifted for the first time.

History[edit]

Background, Vlaams Blok[edit]

The direct predecessor of the Vlaams Belang was the Vlaams Blok, which was formed by the nationalist right-wing of the People's Union which had emerged in the late 1970s. The ideology of the Vlaams Blok started out with its radical nationalist rejection of the People's Union compromise on the Flemish autonomy issue, and later increasingly focused on immigration and security, exploitation of political scandals, and defense of traditional values.[11] The immigration positions of the Vlaams Blok were subject to much controversy, and the party was forced to disband in 2004 after a political trial ruled that it sanctioned discrimination.[12] By then, the party was the most popular Flemish party, supported by about one in four of the Flemish electorate,[13] and was one of the most successful parties considered to be right-wing populist in Europe as a whole.[14]

In Belgium in 2001, Roeland Raes, the ideologue and vice-president of Vlaams Blok, gave an interview on Dutch TV where he cast doubt over the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In the same interview he questioned the scale of the Nazis' use of gas chambers and the authenticity of Anne Frank's diary. In response to the media assault following the interview, Raes was forced to resign his position but vowed to remain active within the party.[15]

Upon complaints filed by the governmental Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism and the Dutch-speaking Human Rights League in Belgium, in 2001 three non-profit organisations that in effect constituted the core of the Vlaams Blok party were charged with violation of the Law on Racism and xenophobia by assisting "a group or organisation that clearly and repeatedly commits discrimitation or segregation," here the political party. By April 2004, the Appellate Court of Ghent came to a final verdict, forbidding their and the party's continued existence for its "repeated incitement to discrimination." In November that year, the Court of Cassation rejected their last appeal to annul the verdict; the delay had allowed using the name Vlaams Blok for election candidacy.[16][17]

Vlaams Belang (2004–2008)[edit]

After the Supreme Court ruling, the leadership of the VB seized the occasion to dissolve itself, and start afresh under a new name.[18] On 14 November, the Vlaams Blok thus disbanded itself, and the Vlaams Belang was established. The Vlaams Belang instituted a number of changes in its political program, carefully moderating some of the more radical positions of the former Vlaams Blok.[19] Nevertheless, the party leader Frank Vanhecke made it clear that the party would fundamentally remain the same; "We change our name, but not our tricks. We change our name, but not our programme."[12]

Former Vlaams Blok chairman Frank Vanhecke was chosen as chairman of the Vlaams Belang on 12 December 2004.[20] Like its predecessor, the Vlaams Belang has continued to be subjected to the cordon sanitaire, wherein all the traditional Flemish parties have agreed to systematically exclude the party, and never form a coalition with it. This situation was however altered slightly with the emergence of the smaller right-wing party List Dedecker (founded in 2007), which has not joined in on the agreement.[21] In an interview with the popular weekly Humo, Flemish Prime Minister Yves Leterme for instance declared that a local chapter of his Christian Democratic and Flemish party (CD&V) that would form a coalition or close agreements with the Vlaams Belang, would no longer be considered part of the CD&V.[22]

The VB contested the 2006 municipal elections on the theme of "Secure, Flemish, Liveable". The VB enjoyed a massive increase of votes, and its council members almost doubled, from 439 to about 800. The election result was described by the party as a "landslide victory."[23] In Antwerp, the VB's vote count ran behind that of the Socialist Party, which increased their share of the vote dramatically.[23] Nevertheless, the VB, which was in a coalition with the minor VLOTT party, slightly increased their vote in the city to 33.5%.[23] In the 2007 general election, the party won 17 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and five seats in the Senate, remaining more or less at status quo. Earlier the same year, the party joined the short-lived European Parliament group Identity, Tradition and Sovereignty alongside parties such as the French National Front.[24]

Decline in support (2008–2018)[edit]

In 2008, Bruno Valkeniers was chosen as new party chairman for the VB, having contested the position unopposed.[25] In 2009, the party contested elections for the Flemish Parliament and the European Parliament. The party was reduced from 32 to 21 seats (from the Vlaams Blok's record 24%, to 15%) in the Flemish parliament, and from three to two seats in the European parliament. In the 2010 general election, the party was again reduced, to 12 seats in the Chamber, and three in the Senate. This was largely due to the great success of the more moderate new party New Flemish Alliance, which also campaigned on Flemish independence.[26] After the party suffered heavy losses during the local elections of 2012 Bruno Valkeniers stepped down as party chairman and was succeeded by Gerolf Annemans.[citation needed]

In the 2014 federal and regional elections the party again suffered a big loss and was reduced to 5.9% of the Flemish vote. The European list, pulled by Annemans, scored slightly better with 6.8%. Annemans resigned as party leader, a function he only performed for two years, and argued for a rejuvenation of the party. The following party chairman election was won by the only candidate, Tom Van Grieken, then 28 years old and at the time the youngest leader of a political party in Belgium.[27] After assuming leadership of the party, Van Grieken sought to soften and moderate its image further.[28]

Resurgence (2018–present)[edit]

During the 2018 Belgian local elections the party saw a resurgence in support, obtaining 13.1% of the Flemish vote with an outlier of more than 40% in the city of Ninove where it fought locally under the name of Forza Ninove.[29][30] The party also campaigned against the Global Compact for Migration, which some commentators credit to successfully pressuring the rival N-VA to adopt a position against the Compact.[31]

On May 26, 2019 in what was known as “Super Sunday” in Belgium (owing to the fact the Federal, Regional and European elections took place on the same day) the party made substantial gains in all three elections which some political analysts described as a significant comeback.

The party polled second place in the Flemish region with 18.6% of the overall vote, increasing its number of MPs in the Chamber of Representatives to 18 (its best result since 2007). In the Flemish Parliament the party also finished second, gaining 23 representatives.[32][33]

In response to the results there has been some speculation that the N-VA leader Bart De Wever may break the Cordon sanitaire imposed on the party by refusing to rule out talks with the VB as their strong results could make forming a coalition more difficult.[34][35] The ending of the Cordon Sanitaire was further speculated after the VB leader Tom Van Grieken was invited to a customary meeting with King Philippe for the first time along with the leaders of the other main parties. The former Vlaams Blok party had previously been denied a meeting with the King in 1991 and 2003.[28]

Ideology[edit]

The policies of the Vlaams Belang focus mainly on the issues of Flemish independence, opposition to multiculturalism, and defence of traditional Western values.

Flemish nationalism[edit]

The VB's main goal is to establish an independent Flemish republic. The party seeks a peaceful secession of Flanders from Belgium, citing in its program the dissolution of the Union between Sweden and Norway (1905), Czechoslovakia (1992), and the independence of Montenegro (2006) as examples that such would be possible. The reason to seek independence is given as the "enormous cultural and political differences between Flemings and Walloons," and according to the party, Belgian governments are also "paralyzed by ongoing disputes between Flemish and Walloon politicians."[36] Other stated reasons for this are the financial transfers from Flanders to the capital of Brussels and to Wallonia (Belgium's other half), which Vlaams Belang considers to be unjustified.[citation needed]

Immigration and minorities[edit]

The Vlaams Belang official immigration policy has been slightly moderated from that of the former Vlaams Blok. In its new program, the party simply call for the repatriation of those immigrants who "reject, deny or combat" Flemish culture as well as certain European values, including freedom of expression and equality between men and women. Filip Dewinter has stated that women wearing the hijab have "effectively signed their contract for deportation."[37]

The former Vlaams Blok was according to political scientist Cas Mudde only very rarely accused of anti-Semitism – and even then, it was strongly condemned by the party leadership.[38] Accused of being anti-Muslim,[39][40] the party favors the expulsion of all who opposed Western values and after the March, 2016 terrorist attacks in Brussels, called for closed borders. Currently the party sees itself as strongly pro-Israel, regarding Jews and Israelis as allies against radical Islam.[41] In Antwerp, sections of the city's large Jewish community actively support the party, as they feel threatened by the new wave of anti-Semitism from the growing Muslim population.[42] In 2010, the party was part of a delegation to Israel (along with some other rightist parties), where they issued the "Jerusalem Declaration," which defended the right of Israel to exist and defend itself against terrorism.[43] Israeli Deputy Minister Ayoob Kara in turn visited the party in Antwerp in 2011.[44] In March 2014, a party mission to the West Bank headed by Dewinter met with Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Ofir Akunis.[45]

Law and order[edit]

In order to secure Flemish cities, the party wants to implement a policy of zero tolerance. It supports the abolition of the Belgian parole law, which allows convicts to be released after only one third of their prison sentence has been served. The party also oppose drug liberalization. Citing "a massive overrepresentation of immigrants in crime statistics," the party also wants to deport criminal and illegal foreigners, as well as seeking to "combat Islamic terror threat."[46]

Foreign policy[edit]

The party describes itself as pro-European in terms of protecting European cultural identity and cooperation between nations to secure peace, but takes a eurosceptic stance towards the European Union as a whole. In its program, the VB is strongly against any evolution towards a Federal European Superstate, argues for Flemish withdrawal from the Schengen Agreement and the reinstatement of border controls, abolition of the Eurozone and opposes the accession of Turkey to the European Union.[47]

Economy[edit]

The party's economic policy has been changed significantly from the Vlaams Blok. While the Vlaams Blok called for a rather mixed economy, the Vlaams Belang has moved towards neoliberalism.[37]

External views[edit]

Politicians, like prime minister Guy Verhofstadt (VLD), Karel De Gucht (VLD) have called the Vlaams Belang or its leaders "fascist". However, history professor Eric Defoort has stated the use of this terminology creates "a distorted image of their antagonist, whom they can then scold with missionary zeal."[48][49]

Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a prominent critic of Islam in the Netherlands, and to whom Vlaams Belang on different occasions referred to defend its points of view on Islam, called the party "a racist, anti-Semitic, extremist party that is unkind to women and that should be outlawed."[50] According to Vlaams Belang, Ali had been misinformed. The party considered this to be part of a smear campaign. Vlaams Belang underlined that Ali supposedly made the statement on the occasion of a debate organised by the left-liberal think tank Liberales, whose president is Dirk Verhofstadt. Vlaams Belang added that Dirk Verhofstadt is known for regularly publishing accusations against the party.[51] Vlaams Belang also wrote an open letter to Ali.[52]

International relations[edit]

In the European Parliament, the party has generally been part of the Non-Inscrits. In 2007, the party was however part of the short-lived European Parliament group Identity, Tradition and Sovereignty alongside parties such as the French National Front.[24] The party has also had some contacts with the Freedom Party of Austria, the Italian Northern League, the Danish People's Party, the Slovak National Party, the German Freedom Party, and the Sweden Democrats.[43][53]

In the eighth European Parliament, the party sits with the National Front, the Northern League, the Freedom Party of Austria, the Dutch Party for Freedom, the Polish Congress of the New Right, Alternative for Germany and a former member of the UK Independence Party in the Europe of Nations and Freedom parliamentary group.

Outside the EU, it has ties to the Israeli Likud,[54] the Swiss People's Party, the U.S. Republican Party,[55] and United Russia.[56]

Party chairmen[edit]

Electoral results[edit]

Note that the results also include those of the former Vlaams Blok.

Federal Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Representatives

The main six Flemish political parties and their results for the Chamber of Representatives. From 1978 to 2014, in percentages for the whole Kingdom.
Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote % of language
group vote
# of overall seats won # of language
group seats won
+/- Notes
1981 66,422 1.1
1 / 212
1985 85,391 1.4
1 / 212
Steady 0
1987 116,534 1.9
2 / 212
Increase 1
1991 405,247 6.6
12 / 212
Increase 10
1995 475,677 7.8
11 / 150
Decrease 1
1999 613,399 9.9
15 / 150
Increase 4
2003 767,605 11.6
18 / 150
18 / 88
Increase 3
2007 799,844 12.0
17 / 150
17 / 88
Decrease 1
2010 506,697 7.8
12 / 150
12 / 88
Decrease 5
2014 247,746 3.67
3 / 150
3 / 88
Decrease 9
2019 810,177 11.95
18 / 150
18 / 88
Increase 15

Senate

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote % of language
group vote
# of overall seats won # of language
group seats won
+/- Notes
1985 90,120 1.5
0 / 70
1987 122,953 2.0
1 / 70
Increase 1
1991 414,481 6.8
5 / 70
Increase 4
1995 463,896 7.7
3 / 40
3 / 25
Decrease 2
1999 583,208 9.4
4 / 40
4 / 25
Increase 1
2003 741,940 11.3
5 / 40
5 / 25
Increase 1
2007 787,782 11.9
5 / 40
5 / 25
Steady 0
2010 491,519 7.6
3 / 40
3 / 25
Decrease 2

Regional parliaments[edit]

Brussels Parliament[edit]

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote % of language
group vote
# of overall seats won # of language group
seats won
+/- Notes
1989 9,006 2.1 (#11)
1 / 75
1995 12,507 3.0
2 / 75
Increase 1
1999 19,310 4.5 31.9 (#1)
4 / 75
Increase 2
2004 21,297 34.1 (#1)
6 / 89
6 / 17
Increase 2
2009 9,072 17.5 (#3)
3 / 89
3 / 17
Decrease 3

Flemish Parliament[edit]

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote % of language
group vote
# of overall seats won # of language group
seats won
+/-
1995 465,239 12.3 (#4)
15 / 124
1999 603,345 15.5 (#3)
20 / 124
Increase 5
2004 981,587 24.2 (#1)
32 / 124
Increase 12
2009 628,564 15.28 (#2)
21 / 124
Decrease 11
2014 232,813 5.98
6 / 124
Decrease 15
2019 783,977 18.5
23 / 124
Increase 17

European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote % of electoral
college vote
# of overall seats won # of electoral
college seats won
+/- Notes
1984 73,174 1.3 2.1 (#6)
0 / 24
0 / 13
1989 241,117 4.1 6.6 (#6)
1 / 24
1 / 13
Increase 1
1994 463,919 7.8 12.6 (#4)
2 / 25
2 / 14
Increase 1
1999 584,392 9.4 15.1 (#3)
2 / 25
2 / 14
Steady 0
2004 930,731 14.3 23.2 (#2)
3 / 24
3 / 14
Increase 1
2009 647,170 9.9 15.9 (#3)
2 / 22
2 / 13
Decrease 1
2014 284,891 4.26 6.76 (#6)
1 / 21
1 / 12
Decrease 1
2019 811,169 12.05 11.45% (#2)
3 / 21
0 / 12
Increase 2

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Open VLD heeft de meeste leden en steekt CD&V voorbij". deredactie.be. 30 October 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Wingfield, George (2008). Belgium. Infobase Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7910-9670-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Flanders/Belgium". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  4. ^ a b Hans-Jürgen Bieling (2015). "Uneven development and 'European crisis constitutionalism', or the reasons for and conditions of a 'passive revolution in trouble'". In Johannes Jäger; Elisabeth Springler (eds.). Asymmetric Crisis in Europe and Possible Futures: Critical Political Economy and Post-Keynesian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-65298-4.
  5. ^ Bèland, Daniel (2008). Nationalism and Social Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 196.
  6. ^ a b Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). Western Europe 2008. Stryker Post Pubns. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-887985-98-7.
  7. ^ Belgians' pride in EU role quells euroscepticism. EUobserver. Published 6 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  8. ^ Political Geography
    p.145
    Google Books.
    Authors - Joe Painter and Alex Jeffery.
    Published by Sage in Los Angeles, United States.
    First published in 2009.
  9. ^
    • Art, David (2011). Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 106–107.
    • Coffé, Hilde; Dewulf, Jeroen (2014). Wavering between Radical and Moderate: The Discourse of the Vlaams Belang in Flanders (Belgium). Doublespeak: The Rhetoric of the Far Right since 1945. ibidem. pp. 162–163.
    • Downs, William M. (2012). Political Extremism in Democracies: Combating Intolerance. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 6, 85.
    • Erk, Jan (2005). "From Vlaams Blok to Vlaams Belang: The Belgian Far-Right Renames Itself". West European Politics. 28 (3): 493–502. doi:10.1080/01402380500085681.
    • Hainsworth, Paul (2008). The Extreme Right in Western Europe. Routledge. p. 6.
    • Jamin, Jérôme (2012). Extreme-Right Discourse in Belgium: A Comparative Regional Approach. Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe: From Local to Transnational. Routledge. p. 68.
    • Laible, Janet (2010). 'Back to the Future' with Vlaams Belang? Flemish Nationalism as a Modernizing Project in a Post-Modern European Union. Multiplicity of Nationalism in Contemporary Europe. Lexington Books. pp. 136, 142.
    • Leman, Johan (2012). 'Flemish Interest' (VB) and Islamophobia: Political, legal and judicial dealings. From the Far Right to the Mainstream: Islamophobia in Party Politics and the Media. Campus Verlag. pp. 69–90.
    • Vogt, Roland (2014). Belgium: A Nation-State without a National Identity?. European National Identities: Elements, Transitions, Conflicts. Transaction. p. 14.
  10. ^ http://media.leidenuniv.nl/legacy/Jan%20Erk%20-%20From%20Vlaams%20Blok%20to%20Vlaams%20belang.pdf
  11. ^ De Winter, 2004, p. 2.
  12. ^ a b Liang, 2007, p. 98.
  13. ^ De Winter, 2004, p. 6.
  14. ^ Coffé, 2005, p. 205.
  15. ^ Belgium's far right party in Holocaust controversy, The Guardian, Friday, March 9, 2001.
  16. ^ "Blok versus Liga: geen proces over bevoegdheid beroepshof". Het Belang van Limburg (in Dutch). 6 September 2002. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  17. ^ Van den Wyngaert, C. (2006). "Strafrecht, strafprocesrecht en internationaal strafrecht". Maklu. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-90-466-0065-8.
  18. ^ Coffé, 2005, p. 216.
  19. ^ Erik, 2005, p. 493.
  20. ^ Erik, 2005, p. 498.
  21. ^ Raymaekers, Bart (2008). Lectures for the 21st century. Leuven University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-90-5867-648-1.
  22. ^ "Leterme geeft voorakkoorden toe". De Standaard (in Dutch). 28 August 2006.
  23. ^ a b c "Poll gain for Belgium's far right". BBC News. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  24. ^ a b Mahony, Honor (9 January 2007). "Far-right group formed in European Parliament". EUobserver. Brussels. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  25. ^ "New party chair for Vlaams Belang". flandersnews.be. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  26. ^ Beesley, Arthur (22 June 2010). "Debt and far-right populism could be a dangerous cocktail". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  27. ^ https://www.lesoir.be/art/684441/article/actualite/fil-info/fil-info-belgique/2014-10-19/tom-van-grieken-designe-nouveau-president-du-vlaams-belang
  28. ^ a b https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/29/belgian-king-meeting-far-right-leader-sparks-controversy
  29. ^ "So who won the election?work=vrt". Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  30. ^ "Tradional parties hammered in Belgian local election.work=euractiv". Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Global Compact for Migration – A Missed Opportunity for Europe.work=theglobalobservatory". Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  32. ^ "Far-right surge in triple election shocks Belgiumwork=Politico". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  33. ^ "Belgium's 'Black Sunday' sees far-right surge, threatens new government crisis". Euractive. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  34. ^ "Belgium's 'Black Sunday' sees far-right surge, threatens new government crisis=Euractive". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  35. ^ "Belgium's far-right not ruled out of potential coalition". The Brussels Times. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  36. ^ "2. The Program: 2.1 Flemish independence". Vlaams Belang. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  37. ^ a b Erik, 2005, p. 495.
  38. ^ Mudde, Cas (2003). The ideology of the extreme right. Manchester University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7190-6446-3.
  39. ^ Taylor, Matthew (July 26, 2011). "Breivik sent 'manifesto' to 250 UK contacts hours before Norway killings". The Guardian.
  40. ^ Bilefsky, Dan; Fisher, Ian (October 11, 2006). "Across Europe, Worries on Islam Spread to Center". New York Times.
  41. ^ Liphshiz, Cnaan (12 December 2008). "Far-right Belgian party Vlaams Belang says invited to Jerusalem meet". Haaretz. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  42. ^ Smith, Craig S. (12 February 2005). "Fear of Islamists Drives Growth of Far Right in Belgium". The New York Times. Antwerp. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  43. ^ a b Gutsch, Jochen-Martin (6 January 2011). "Riding the Wave of Islamophobia: The German Geert Wilders". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  44. ^ "Dewinter ontvangt Israëlische minister Ayoob Kara". De Morgen (in Dutch). 1 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  45. ^ "Netanyahu associate meets with far-right Belgian group". i24news.tv. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  46. ^ "2. The Program: 2.3 Crime: a strong approach". Vlaams Belang. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  47. ^ "program". Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  48. ^ "Zeg niet zomaar "fascist" tegen Dewinter". De Standaard (in Dutch). 23 December 2004.
  49. ^ "De waarheid kwetst". De Standaard (in Dutch). 17 December 2004.
  50. ^ "Hirsi Ali wil Vlaams Belang verbieden". De Standaard (in Dutch). Antwerp. 31 January 2006.
  51. ^ "Beledigen is een recht". Vlaams Belang (in Dutch). 10 February 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  52. ^ Vanhecke, Frank (31 January 2006). "Open brief aan Ayaan Hirsi Ali". Vlaams Belang (in Dutch).
  53. ^ Phillips, Leigh (25 October 2010). "Far-right 'lite' to push for EU referendum on Turkish accession". EUobserver. Brussels. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  54. ^ "The Likud Connection: Europe's Right-Wing Populists Find Allies in Israel - SPIEGEL ONLINE". m.spiegel.de.
  55. ^ http://www.eurallfree.org/?q=node/452
  56. ^ "Is Russia supporting Wilders & Co's Eurosceptic alliance? NRC". DutchNews.nl. 18 December 2013.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

News articles[edit]