Virgin Islands of the United States
"United in Pride and Hope"
|Anthem: "Virgin Islands March"|
Location of the United States Virgin Islands
|Sovereign state||United States|
|Before purchase||Danish West Indies|
|Transfer from Denmark||March 31, 1917|
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Devolved presidential constitutional dependency|
|Albert Bryan (D)|
|Tregenza Roach (D)|
|Stacey Plaskett (D)|
|Legislature||Legislature of the Virgin Islands|
|346.4 km2 (133.7 sq mi) (168th)|
• Water (%)
|Highest elevation||1,555 ft (474 m)|
• 2010 census
|297/km2 (769.2/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2008)|| 0.894|
very high · 59th
|Currency||United States dollar (US$) (USD)|
|Time zone||UTC-4:00 (AST)|
|ISO 3166 code|
The United States Virgin Islands (abbreviated USVI; also called the US Virgin Islands or American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean and an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles to the east of Puerto Rico and west of the British Virgin Islands.
The U.S. Virgin Islands consists of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas, and many other surrounding minor islands. The total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles (346.36 km2). The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas.
Previously known as the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1917. They are classified by the United Nations as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, and are currently an organised, unincorporated United States territory. The U.S. Virgin Islands are organised under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions.
In 2010, the population was 106,405, with current estimates putting the population at 107,000 (July 2018), most of whom are of Afro-Caribbean descent. Tourism and related categories are the primary economic activities.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics and government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport and communications
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The islands were named "Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes" by Christopher Columbus in 1493 after the legend of Saint Ursula and the 11,000 virgins. The name was later shortened to "the Virgin Islands."
The U.S. Virgin Islands were originally inhabited by the Ciboney and Arawaks, with some scholars thinking that the islands were inhabited from as early as 1000 BC. The Caribs arrived circa 1500 AD.
Arrival of Europeans
Christopher Columbus, on his second voyage in 1493, is thought to have been the first European to see the islands, giving them their current name. The Spanish later settled in 1555, with English and French settlers arriving on St Croix from 1625. There followed a complex period in which the islands were disputed between Spain, France, Britain and also the Netherlands.
Denmark also took an interest in the islands, and the Danish West India Company settled on St. Thomas in 1672 and St. John in 1694, later purchasing St. Croix from France in 1733. The islands became royal Danish colonies in 1754, named the Danish West Indian Islands (Danish: De dansk-vestindiske øer). The islands proved ideal for sugar plantations - sugarcane, produced by slaves from Africa, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Other plantation crops included cotton and indigo dye.[better source needed] During the 17th-18th centuries, a sizable Jewish community also began to settle on the islands.
In 1733, St. John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World when Akan-Akwamu slaves from the Gold Coast (modern Ghana) took over the island for six months. The Danish were able to defeat the enslaved Africans with help from the French in Martinique. Instead of allowing themselves to be recaptured, more than a dozen of the ringleaders shot themselves before the French forces could capture them. It is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers by a ratio of 8:1.
After another slave rebellion occurred on Saint Croix, slavery was abolished by governor Peter von Scholten on July 3, 1848, now celebrated as Emancipation Day. Over the following years, strict labor laws were implemented several times, leading to the 1878 St. Croix labor riot.
With the plantations no longer as profitable, Danish settlers began to abandon their estates, causing a significant drop in population and the overall economy. Additionally, the 1867 hurricane and earthquake and tsunami further impacted the economy. For the remainder of the period of Danish rule, the islands were not economically viable and significant transfers had to be made from the Danish state budget to the authorities in the islands.
The United States began to take an interest in the islands, and in 1867, a treaty to sell St. Thomas and St. John to the U.S. was agreed but never effected. A number of reforms aimed at reviving the islands' economy were attempted, but none had great success. A second draft treaty to sell the islands to the United States was negotiated in 1902 but was defeated in the upper house of the Danish parliament in a tie vote (because the opposition carried a 97-year-old life member into the chamber).
The onset of the First World War brought the reform period to a close and again left the islands isolated. During the submarine warfare phases of the war, the United States, fearing that the islands might be seized by Germany as a submarine base, again approached Denmark about buying them. After a few months of negotiations, a selling price of $25 million in United States gold coin was agreed, equivalent to $575.61 million in 2018 dollars. At the same time, the economics of continued possession weighed heavily on the minds of Danish decision makers, and a consensus in favor of selling emerged in the Danish parliament.
The Treaty of the Danish West Indies was signed in August 1916, with a referendum on the sale held in Denmark in December 1916 in which voters approved the decision to sell. The deal was finalized on January 17, 1917, when the United States and Denmark exchanged their respective treaty ratifications. The United States took possession of the islands on March 31, 1917 and the territory was renamed the 'Virgin Islands of the United States.' Every year, Transfer Day is recognized as a holiday, to commemorate the acquisition of the islands by the United States.
U.S. citizenship was granted to many inhabitants of the islands in 1927 and 1932. The U.S. dollar was adopted in the territory in 1934 and from 1935 to 1939 the islands were a part of the United States customs area. The 1936 Organic Act and the 1954 Revised Organic Act established the local government. In 1970 Virgin Islanders elected their first governor, Melvin H. Evans, and from 1976 the islands began work on creating their own constitution. Tourism began to develop, over time becoming the most important sector of the Islands' economy.
Water Island, a small island to the south of St. Thomas, was initially administered by the US federal government and did not become a part of the United States Virgin Islands territory until 1996, when 50 acres (20 ha) of land was transferred to the territorial government. The remaining 200 acres (81 ha) of the island were purchased from the United States Department of the Interior in May 2005 for $10, a transaction that marked the official change in jurisdiction.
In 1966 Hess Oil began construction on an oil refinery. Until February 2012, the Hovensa plant located on St. Croix was one of the world's largest petroleum refineries, refining 494,000 bbl/d (78,500 m3/d), and contributed about 20% of the territory's GDP. The refinery ceased operation in 2012, and the facility stopped exporting petroleum products in 2014. In the final year of full refinery operations, the value of exported petroleum products was $12.7 billion (2011 fiscal year). Since refining ended, the 34-million-barrel tank farm has operated as a crude oil and petrochemical storage facility for third-party customers. The refinery's closure provoked a local economic crisis. Following the acquisition of the 1,500-acre complex by ArcLight Capital Partners, LLC, in 2016, Limetree Bay Ventures, LLC, was formed, and is currently executing a project to refurbish and restart the refinery, with a processing capability of up to 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m3/d).
Hurricane Hugo struck the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1989, causing catastrophic physical and economic damage, particularly on the island of St. Croix. The territory was again struck by Hurricane Marilyn in 1995, killing eight people and causing more than $2 billion in damage. The islands were again struck by Hurricanes Bertha, Georges, Lenny, and Omar in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2008, respectively, but damage was not as severe in those storms.
In September 2017, Category 5 Hurricane Irma caused catastrophic damage, particularly to St. John and St. Thomas. Just two weeks later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria's weaker outer eyewall crossed St. Croix. Sustained winds at the Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge on St. Croix reached 99 to 104 mph (159 to 167 km/h) and gusted to 137 mph (220 km/h). Weather stations on St. Croix recorded 5 and 10 inches of rain from the hurricane, and estimates for St. John and St. Thomas were somewhat less. The hurricane killed two people, both in their homes: one person drowned and another was trapped by a mudslide. A third person had a fatal heart attack during the hurricane. The hurricane caused extensive and severe damage to St. Croix. After both hurricanes, the office of V.I. congresswoman Stacey Plaskett stated that 90% of buildings in the Virgin Islands were damaged or destroyed and 13,000 of those buildings had lost their roofs. The Luis Hospital suffered roof damage and flooding, but remained operational.
The U.S. Virgin Islands are in the Atlantic Ocean, about 40 miles (64 km) east of Puerto Rico and immediately west of the British Virgin Islands. They share the Virgin Islands Archipelago with the Puerto Rican Virgin Islands of Vieques and Culebra (administered by Puerto Rico), and the British Virgin Islands.
The territory consists of three main islands: St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, as well as several dozen smaller islands. The main islands have nicknames often used by locals: "Twin City" (St. Croix), "Rock City" (St. Thomas), and "Love City" (St. John). The combined land area of the islands is roughly twice the size of Washington, D.C.
The U.S. Virgin Islands are known for their white sand beaches, including Magens Bay and Trunk Bay, and deepwater harbors along the Anegada Passage, including Charlotte Amalie (the capital) and Christiansted. Like most Caribbean islands, the islands of the Virgin Islands, including St. Thomas, are volcanic in origin and hilly. The highest point is Crown Mountain on St. Thomas at 1,555 feet (474 m).
St. Croix, the largest of the U.S. Virgin Islands, lies to the south and has a flatter terrain due to being coral in origin. The National Park Service manages more than half of St. John, nearly all of Hassel Island, and many acres of coral reef.
There are several national parks, such as the Virgin Islands National Park, Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, Buck Island Reef National Monument, Christiansted National Historic Site, and Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve.
The United States Virgin Islands enjoy a tropical climate, with little seasonal change throughout the year. Rainfall is concentrated in the high sun period (May through October), while in the winter the northeast trade winds prevail. Summer and winter high temperatures differ by 5 °F (3 °C) or less on average.
|Climate data for St. Thomas, Virgin Islands|
|Record high °F (°C)||93 |
|Average high °F (°C)||85 |
|Average low °F (°C)||72 |
|Record low °F (°C)||63 |
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.38 |
Politics and government
The U.S. Virgin Islands are an organized, unincorporated United States territory. Although they are U.S. citizens, U.S. Virgin Islanders residing in the territory are ineligible to vote for the president of the United States. People born in the U.S. Virgin Islands derive their U.S. citizenship from congressional statute.
The U.S. Democratic and Republican parties allow U.S. Virgin Islands citizens to vote in their presidential primary elections for delegates to the respective national conventions. The main political parties in the U.S. Virgin Islands themselves are the Democratic Party of the Virgin Islands, the Independent Citizens Movement, and the Republican Party of the Virgin Islands. Additional candidates run as independents.
At the national level, the U.S. Virgin Islands elect a delegate to Congress from their at-large congressional district. The elected delegate, while able to vote in committee, cannot participate in floor votes. The current House of Representatives delegate is Stacey Plaskett, a Democrat. Like other territories, the U.S. Virgin Islands does not have U.S. Senators.
At the territorial level, fifteen senators – seven from the district of St. Croix, seven from the district of St. Thomas and St. John, and one senator at-large who must be a resident of St. John – are elected for two-year terms to the unicameral Virgin Islands Legislature. There is no limit as to the number of terms they can serve.
The U.S. Virgin Islands have a District Court, Superior Court and the Supreme Court. The District Court is responsible for federal law, while the Superior Court is responsible for U.S. Virgin Islands law at the trial level and the Supreme Court is responsible for appeals from the Superior Court for all appeals filed on or after January 29, 2007. Appeals filed prior to that date are heard by the Appellate Division of the District Court. Appeals from the federal District Court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. District Court judges are appointed by the U.S. president, while Superior Court and Supreme Court judges are appointed by the governor.
On October 21, 1976, President Gerald Ford signed Pub.L. 94–584 authorizing the people of the United States Virgin Islands to organize a government pursuant to a constitution, which would be automatically approved if Congress did not act within 60 days.
In 2004, the 25th Legislature of the Virgin Islands established the Fifth Constitutional Convention, a constitutional convention gathered in order to draft a new constitution. On May 26, 2009 the U.S. Virgin Islands Fifth Constitutional Convention adopted a proposed Constitution of the Virgin Islands, which was submitted by President Barack Obama to Congress on March 1, 2010. However, in June 2009, Governor John de Jongh, Jr. had rejected the resulting constitutional draft, saying the terms of the document would "violate federal law, fail to defer to federal sovereignty and disregard basic civil rights." A lawsuit filed by members of the Convention to force Governor de Jongh to forward the document to President Barack Obama was ultimately successful. The President of the United States forwarded the proposal to Congress—which then had 60 days to approve or reject the document—in May 2010, along with a report noting concerns raised by the United States Department of Justice that the powers sought exceeded what would be considered allowable under territorial status and restating the issues noted by Governor de Jongh. A U.S. Congressional resolution disapproving of the proposed constitution and requesting that the Fifth Constitutional Convention reconvene to consider changes to address these issues was signed into law (Pub.L. 111–194) by President Obama on June 30, 2010.
Months later, a federal lawsuit was filed in the Federal District Court of the Virgin Islands in 2011. The lawsuit claimed that the United States had to provide U.S. Virgin Islanders with the ability to be represented in Congress and vote for U.S. President. The case is Civil No. 3:11-cv-110, Charles v. U.S. Federal Elections Commission et al. (3:11-cv-00110-AET-RM). It alleged that racial discrimination present in an all-white and segregated U.S. Congress of 1917 was the impetus to deny the right to vote to a majority non-white constituency. The case was ultimately dismissed and closed on August 16, 2012 by District Judge Anne E. Thompson from the Federal District Court of the Virgin Islands, Division of St. Croix.
As of early 2017, the territory still did not have its own constitution.
Administratively, the U.S. Virgin Islands are divided into two (2) districts: the Saint Thomas & Saint John district, and the Saint Croix district. However, the U.S. Census Bureau divides each of the 3 main islands into 3 separate statistical entities (which are further divided into twenty (20) sub-districts). Below is the U.S. Census Bureau's division model.
|Districts||St. Thomas||St. John||St. Croix|
Each of the 3 main islands of the U.S. Virgin Islands is counted as a county-equivalent by the U.S. Census Bureau, with the following FIPS codes: 78010 for Saint Croix, 78020 for Saint John, and 78030 for Saint Thomas.
While a Danish possession, the Islands were divided into "quarters" (five on St. John and nine on St. Croix) which were further divided into many dozens of "estates". Estate names are still used to write addresses; estates and quarters are used in describing real estate, especially on St. John and St. Croix. More densely populated towns such as Frederiksted and Christiansted on St. Croix were historically referred to as "districts", in contrast to the surrounding plantation land.
A 1993 referendum on status attracted only 31.4% turnout, and so its results (in favor of the status quo) were considered void. No further referenda have been scheduled since.
In 2016, the United Nations's Special Committee on Decolonisation recommended to the UN's General Assembly that this larger body should assist in "decolonization" and help the people of the territory to "determine freely their future political status". Specifically, the Special Committee recommended that the "views of the people of the United States Virgin Islands in respect of their right to self-determination should be ascertained" and that the UN should "actively pursue a public awareness campaign aimed at assisting the people of the United States Virgin Islands with their inalienable right to self-determination and in gaining a better understanding of the options for self-determination".
Governors of the U.S. Virgin Islands
Law enforcement services are provided by the United States Virgin Islands Police Department (USVIPD).
Defence is the responsibility of the United States. There are some military facilities and personnel on the islands, supported by the U.S. government:
- United States Army Reserve
- Virgin Islands National Guard
Tourism is the Islands' biggest industry; with 2.5-3 million annual visitors the sector is responsible for about 60% of the GDP. Other major sectors are the public sector, some limited agriculture, and small scale manufacturing, most notably rum production.
A 2012 Economic report from the U.S. Census Bureau indicated a total of 2,414 business establishments generating $6.8 billion in sales, employing 32,465 people and paying $1.1 billion in payroll per year. Between 2007 and 2012, sales declined by $12.6 billion, or 64.9 percent. (In 2007, total sales were $19.5 billion and the number employed was 35,300.)
According to a report on the first half of 2016 by the VI Bureau of Economic Research, the unemployment rate was 11.5 percent. In May 2016 the islands' Bureau of Economic Research indicated that there were 37,613 non-agricultural wage and salary jobs in the islands. This report states that the "leisure and hospitality sector" employed an average of 7,333 people. The retail trade sector, which also serves many tourists, averaged another 5,913 jobs. Other categories which also include some tourism jobs include Arts and Entertainment (792 jobs), Accommodation and Food (6,541 jobs), Accommodation (3755 jobs), Food Services and Drink (2,766 jobs). A large percentage of the 37,613 non-farm workers are employed in dealing with tourists. Serving the local population is also part of the role of these sectors.
In a May 2016 report, some 11,000 people were categorized as being involved in some aspect of agriculture in the first half of 2016, but this category makes up a small part of the total economy. At that time, there were approximately 607 manufacturing jobs and 1,487 natural resource and construction jobs. The single largest employer was the government. In mid-February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a very high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million. Since January 2017, the U.S. Virgin Islands government has been unable to raise financing from the bond market at favorable instance rates, and as of June 2019 have not issued any new bonds since then.
The median income for a household in the territory was $24,704, and the median income for a family was $28,553 according to the 2010 Census. Males had a median income of $28,309 versus $22,601 for females. The per capita income for the territory was $13,139. The average private sector salary was $34,088 and the average public sector salary was $52,572. About 28.7% of families and 32.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.7% of those less than 18 years old and 29.8% of those 65 or more years old. Nearly 70% of adults had at least a high school diploma and 19.2% had a bachelor's degree or higher.
Analysts reviewing the economy often point to the closure of the HOVENSA oil refinery, the islands’ largest private sector employer, in early 2012 as having a major negative impact on the territory's economy. In late 2013 the Reserve Bank of New York's Research and Statistics Group pointed out that manufacturing employment dropped by 50% in May 2012, and by another 4% by November 2012, and that the GDP fell by 13%, "mainly due to an 80% drop-off in exports (mostly refined petroleum)". On the other hand, tourism and some other service industries were growing. As well, the 2010 census indicated that a relatively high share of the adult population is in the labor force: 66%, versus 65% on the mainland and well below 50% in Puerto Rico. The bottom line in this report however is that "it may also be worthwhile to look at the physical infrastructure and human capital built up over the years, with an eye toward using it for other types of productive economic activity".
A May 2016 report by Bloomberg expressed concern about the islands' tax-supported debt load. By January 23, 2017 this had increased to $2 billion. That translated to a per capita debt of $19,000, which was higher than the per capita debt in Puerto Rico which was undergoing a severe financial crisis at the time. A Debtwire analyst writing in Forbes indicated that nothing short of a miracle would prevent a financial collapse. Another area of concern was the structural budget deficit which was at $110 million in mid February 2017. The government instituted a new law in March 2017 with new or increased taxes on rum, beer, tobacco products and sugary drinks, as well as internet purchases and timeshare unit owners.
Tourism, trade, and other service-oriented industries are the primary economic activities, accounting for nearly 60% of the GDP. Approximately 2.5 million tourists per year visit, most arriving on cruise ships. Such visitors do not spend large amounts of money ($146.70 each on average) but as a group, they contributed $339.8 million to the economy in 2012.
However, the travel industry warned in late 2014 that work needs to be done for USVI tourism practices to meet 21st century demands. "The needs of the community and the tourists may be diametrically opposed; however, for tourism to flourish cooperation is a necessity. From reduced energy costs to increased educational opportunities, from improved healthcare to a continued reduction in crime, these and many other challenges must be tackled."
Additionally, the islands frequently are a starting point for private yacht charters to the neighboring British Virgin Islands. Euromonitor indicates that over 50% of the workforce is employed in some tourism-related work.
The manufacturing sector consists of mainly rum distilling. The agricultural sector is small, with most food being imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. Most energy is also generated from imported oil, leading to electricity costs four to five times higher than the U.S. mainland. The Virgin Islands were the highest oil consumers per capita in the world in 2007. The Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority also uses imported energy to operate its desalination facilities to provide fresh water.
The CIA World Factbook lists the value of federal programs and grants — $241.4 million in 2013, 19.7% of the territory's total revenues — and that "the economy remains relatively diversified. Along with the tourist industry, it appears that rum exports, trade, and services will be major income sources in future years".
Tax and trade
The U.S. Virgin Islands are an independent customs territory from the mainland United States and operate largely as a free port. U.S. citizens thus do not have to clear customs when arriving in the U.S. Virgin Islands, but do when traveling to the mainland. Local residents are not subject to US federal income taxes on U.S. Virgin Islands source income; they pay taxes to the territory equal to what their federal taxes would be if they lived in a state.
Transport and communications
The U.S. Virgin Islands is the only U.S. jurisdiction that drives on the left. This was inherited from what was then-current practice on the islands at the time of the 1917 transfer of the territory to the United States from Denmark. However, because most cars in the territory are imported from the mainland United States, the cars in the territory are left-hand drive. However, not all U.S. vehicle regulations are in force, and there are vehicles on the road that cannot be sold in the U.S. Additionlly, headlights use the U.S. pattern which casts light to the right, tending to blind oncoming drivers. Traffic signals are located on the opposite side of the road, and many standard road signs have been altered to fit the left-side driving.
As in other U.S. territories, U.S. Virgin Islands mail service is handled by the United States Postal Service, using the two-character state code "VI" for domestic mail delivery. ZIP codes are in the 008xx range. As of January 2010[update], specifically assigned codes include 00801–00805 (St Thomas), 00820–00824 (Christiansted), 00830–00831 (St. John), 00840–00841 (Frederiksted), and 00850–00851 (Kingshill). The islands are part of the North American Numbering Plan, using area code 340, and island residents and visitors are able to call most toll-free U.S. numbers.
The U.S. Virgin Islands are located in the Atlantic Standard Time zone and do not participate in daylight saving time. When the mainland United States is on Standard Time, the U.S. Virgin Islands are one hour ahead of Eastern Standard Time. When the mainland United States is on daylight saving time, Eastern Daylight Time is the same as Atlantic Standard Time.
In 2010 the census put the population of the U.S. Virgin Islands at 106,405. Current estimates putting the population at 107,000 (July 2018). In 2010 there are 40,648 households, and 26,636 families.
In 2010 there were 40,648 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 24.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.34.
In the territory, the population in 2010 was distributed with 31.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and up, there were 87.7 males. The annual population growth is −0.12%.
The literacy rate for the adult population was 94.9% in 2010.
The racial makeup of the U.S. Virgin Islands was:
- Black or Afro-Caribbean: 76.0% (66.1% Non-Hispanic Black)
- White: 15.7% (13.5% Non-Hispanic Whites)
- Asian: 1.4%
- Mixed: 2.1%
- Other: 4.5%
- Hispanic or Latino of any race: 17.4% (10.3% Puerto Rican, 5.4% Dominican)
English is currently the dominant language. Spanish is spoken by about 17% of the population, and other languages are spoken by 11% of the population. English has been the predominant language since 1917 when the islands were transferred from Denmark to the United States. Under Danish rule, the official language was Danish, but it was solely the language of administration and spoken by Danes, a tiny minority of the overall population that primarily occupied administrative roles in colonial Danish West Indian society. However, place names and surnames of Denmark-Norway origin are still commonly found throughout the islands.
Although the U.S. Virgin Islands was a Danish possession during most of its colonial history, Danish never was a spoken language among the populace, black or non-Danish white, as the majority of plantation and slave owners were of Dutch, English, Scottish, Irish, or Spanish descent. Even during Danish ownership, Dutch, another Germanic language like Danish, was more common, at least during some of those 245 years, specifically on St. Thomas and St. John, where the majority of the European settlers are Dutch. In St. Croix, English was the dominant language. St. Croix was owned by the French until 1733 when the island was sold to the Danish West Indian and Guinea Company. By 1741 there were five times as many English on the island as Danes. English Creole emerged on St. Croix more so than Dutch Creole, which was more popular on St. Thomas and St. John. Other languages spoken in the Danish West Indies included Irish, Scots, Spanish, and French, as well as Virgin Islands English Creole.
Virgin Islands Creole English, an English-based creole locally known as "dialect", is spoken in informal situations. The form of Virgin Islands Creole spoken on St. Croix, known as Crucian, is slightly different from that spoken on St. Thomas and St. John. Because the U.S. Virgin Islands are home to thousands of immigrants from across the Caribbean, Spanish and various French creole languages are also widely spoken. Spanish is mostly spoken by Puerto Ricans; Puerto Rican migration was prevalent in the 1930s, 40s and 50s, when many Puerto Ricans relocated to Saint Croix for work after the collapse of the sugar industry. In addition, the U.S. Navy purchase of two-thirds of the nearby Puerto Rican island of Vieques during World War II resulted in the displacement of thousands of Viequenses, many of whom relocated to Saint Croix because of its similar size and geography. Puerto Ricans in Saint Croix, most of whom have lived on the island for more than a generation, have kept their culture alive while integrating it into the native Crucian culture and society. For example, in informal situations, many Puerto Ricans in Saint Croix speak a unique Spanglish-like combination of Puerto Rican Spanish and the local Crucian dialect of creole English.
Christianity is the dominant religion in the U.S. Virgin Islands. According to Pew Research Center, 94.8% of the population was Christian in 2010. The largest Christian denominations in the 2010 census were Baptist, Roman Catholic, and Episcopalian.
Owing to both their Danish past and American present, Protestantism on the islands has long been widespread. It was first introduced when Lutheranism was brought to the islands in the Danish colonization. The Danish crown also allowed other religious traditions on the islands including Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, the Moravian Church and other Protestant groups. Historically, St. Thomas and St. Croix are known for missionary efforts undertaken by the Moravian missionaries. They were allowed on the islands by the Danish royal court, but came under scrutiny when they denounced slavery.[page needed] A number of neo-Protestant traditions including Pentecostalism, various evangelical Protestants and the Seventh-day Adventists arrived later with the switch of allegiance from Denmark to the United States.
There is also a strong Roman Catholic presence. Rastafari is also prevalent. St. Thomas is home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the Western Hemisphere as Sephardi Jews began to settle the island in the 18th century as traders and merchants. The St. Thomas Synagogue in Charlotte Amalie is the second oldest synagogue on American soil and oldest in terms of continuous usage.
In 2010, the national average life expectancy was 79.61 years. It was 76.57 years for men and 82.83 for women.
The United States Virgin Islands Department of Education serves as the territory's education agency, and has two school districts: St. Thomas-St. John School District and St. Croix School District.
The University of the Virgin Islands provides higher education leading to associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees, with campuses on St. Thomas and St. Croix.
The culture of the Virgin Islands reflects the various people that have inhabited the present-day U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, which despite their political separation have kept close cultural ties. The culture derives chiefly from West African, European and American traditions, in addition to the influences from the immigrants from the Arab world, India and other Caribbean islands. The islands were strongly influenced by the British, Dutch, French and Danish during the long periods the islands were under these powers.
The islands have a number of AM and FM radio stations (mostly on St. Thomas and St. Croix) broadcasting music, religious, and news programming. (See List of radio stations in US Territories.) Full and low-power television stations are split between St. Thomas and St. Croix. (See List of television stations in the U.S. Virgin Islands.) Newspapers include:
- The Avis, printed daily on St. Croix.
- The Virgin Islands Daily News, printed daily on St. Thomas.
- St. John Tradewinds, distributed weekly on St. John.
- St. Thomas – St. John This Week, online only.
- St. Thomas Source, online only.
- St. Croix Source, online only.
- St. John On Island Times, news and information on St. John, USVI.
- January 1: New Year's Day
- January 6: Three Kings Day
- January (third Monday): Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
- February (third Monday): Presidents' Day
- March 31: Transfer Day (celebrates the transfer of the islands from Denmark to the US)
- March - April: Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Monday
- May (fourth Monday): Memorial Day
- July 3: Emancipation Day
- July 4: U.S. Independence Day
- September (first Monday): Labor Day
- October (second Monday): Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day/Columbus Day
- November 1: D. Hamilton Jackson Day (also known as "Liberty Day", or "Bull and Bread Day")
- November 11: Veterans Day
- November (fourth Thursday): Thanksgiving Day
- December 25: Christmas
- December 26: Christmas Second Day (also known as "Boxing Day")
- Outline of the United States Virgin Islands
- Index of United States Virgin Islands-related articles
- Bibliography of the United States Virgin Islands
- "U.S. Virgin Islands – 2010 Census Results" (PDF). census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- "Gross Domestic Product Per Capita for U.S. Virgin Islands". May 5, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017. Cite journal requires
- "CIA – The World Factbook-US Virgin Islands".
- "Encyclopedia Britannica - USVI". Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- "U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 Census Population Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands". US Census Bureau. August 24, 2011. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012.
- "A Brief History of the Danish West Indies, 1666–1917". Danish National Archives. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- "Virgin Islands History". VI Now. 2015.
In the Danish West Indies slaves labored mainly on sugar plantations. Cotton, indigo and other crops were also grown. Sugar mills and plantations dotted the islands hilly landscapes. Each island's economy prospered through sugar plantations and slave trading. While St. John and St. Croix maintained a plantation economy, St. Thomas developed into a prosperous center of trade. Slave rebellion on St. John and St. Croix are well documented. Legitimate trade and business on St. Thomas influenced a different society where many more slaves were given freedom and an opportunity outside of plantation life.
- "Historical Synagogue".
- "St. John Slave Rebellion". St. John Off the Beaten Track. Sombrero Publishing Co. 2000. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- Hatch 1972:33
- http://slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/page/annaberg - (1992, 70)
- "Monuments and sites in St. Croix". The slave ship Fredenborg: An information project. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Archived from the original on December 29, 2005.
- Lewishon, Florence (1964). Divers Information on The Romantic History of St. Croix: From the Time of Columbus until Today. Dukane Press. pp. 48–57.
- Olwig, Karen Fog, ed. (January 14, 2014). Small Islands, Large Questions: Society, Culture and Resistance in the Post-Emancipation Caribbean. Routledge. p. 136.
- Jensen, Peter (1998). From Serfdom to Fireburn and Strike: The History of Black Labor in the Danish West Indies 1848-1917. Christiansted, St. Croix: Antilles Press. p. 139.
The liberalization of labor conditions in the 1879, then, did not necessarily result in any improvements in the laborers' conditions, on balance, since it was obtained on the planters' and not the laborers' terms.
- A Brief History of the Danish West Indies, 1666–1917, Danish National Archives
- Convention between the United States and Denmark for cession of the Danish West Indies Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, 39 Stat. 1706
- Transfer Day, Royal Danish Consulate, United States Virgin Islands
- United States Department of the Interior (1934). Annual Report of the Department of the Interior 1934. US Government Printing Office.
- various United States governmental bureaus (1950). Statistical Abstract of the United States. US Government Printing Office.
- Poinski, Megan. "Water Island appears frozen in time, but big plans run under the surface – V.I. says land acquired from the feds is about to undergo large-scale improvements". The Virgin Islands Daily News, November 18, 2005, online edition. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- "U.S. Virgin Islands Economic Review – VI" (PDF). VI Bureau of Economic Research. VI Bureau of Economic Research. May 15, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Daniel Shea (Daily News Staff) (January 19, 2012). "HOVENSA closing – News". Virgin Islands Daily News. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
-  Archived April 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Limetree Bay – About Us". Limetree Bay Ventures LLC. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
- Eaton, Collin (July 2, 2018). "St. Croix oil refinery gets $1.4 billion investment, plans to restart". Reuters. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
- O'Connor, Brian (September 21, 2017). "St. Croix barely escapes worst of Maria's wrath". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- National Weather Service, SFO San Juan (November 22, 2017). "Major Hurricane Maria". National Weather Service.
- Carlson, Suzanne (October 3, 2017). "Five hurricane-related deaths confirmed". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- O'Connor, Brian (September 22, 2017). "Federal disaster relief begins on St. Croix". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- J.B. Wogan (October 6, 2017). "After Hurricanes, Public Housing May Never Get Rebuilt". Governing.
- O'Connor, Brian (September 21, 2017). "Maria leaves St. Croix with a working hospital". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- "CIA World Factbook- USVirgin Islands". Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- Slawych, Diane. "Love is in the air". CANOE.ca. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- "The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- "Average Conditions Saint Thomas, VI". weather.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
- "CIA World Factbook- US Virgin Islands". Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- "8 U.S. Code § 1406 - Persons living in and born in the Virgin Islands". LII / Legal Information Institute.
- "Presidential election in the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2016". Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia. July 1, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Lin, Tom C.W., Americans, Almost and Forgotten, 107 California Law Review (2019)
- "Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S. Territories". Time.
- "Legislature of the Virgin Islands". Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia. July 1, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Poinski, Megan, "Governor Rejects Constitution Draft", article in The Virgin Islands Daily News, June 13, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
- Corbin, Dr. Carlyle G. (January 5, 2017). "Choose or Lose: U.S. Virgin Islands in 2017". Pacific Island Times. Pacific Island Times. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Office of the White House Press Secretary (June 30, 2010). "Statement by the Press Secretary on S.J.Res. 33". Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- "USVI Constitutional Convention mandated to reconsider autonomous proposals". Virgin Islands News Online. June 30, 2010.
- "Opinion" (PDF), Charles v. U.S. Federal Election Commission et. al. (Court Filing), D.V.I., No. 3:11-cv-00110 (Docket 18), August 20, 2012, retrieved July 25, 2017 – via Recap
"Order" (PDF), Charles v. U.S. Federal Election Commission et. al. (Court Filing), D.V.I., No. 3:11-cv-00110 (Docket 19), August 20, 2012, retrieved July 25, 2017 – via Recap
- Lou Mattei (Daily News Staff) (September 29, 2012). "Constitutional Convention meeting marred by arguments, technical snarls – News". Virgin Islands Daily News. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Mattei, Lou; Virgin Islands Daily News (October 29, 2012). "Constitutional Convention Meeting Marred by Arguments, Technical Snarls". High Beam Research. Cengage Learning. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Mattei, Lou, Virgin Islands Daily News (October 29, 2012). "Constitutional Convention Meeting Marred by Arguments, Technical Snarls". High Beam Research. Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Lou Mattei (Daily News Staff) (September 29, 2012). "Constitutional Convention meeting marred by arguments, technical snarls – News". Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Senator Marvin A. Blyden – Legislature of the Virgin Islands".
- "Historical Evolution of the Legislature of the Virgin Islands". Legislature of the Virgin Islands.
- USGS. How many counties are there in the United States? Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- "Census.gov. 2010 Census - U.S. Virgin Islands Districts and Subdistricts. Retrieved September 21, 2018".
- "2010 FIPS Codes for Counties and County Equivalent Entities. Census.gov. Retrieved September 21, 2018".
- "U.S. Virgin Islands Districts". www.statoids.com.
- "St John Map of Estates on St John |US Virgin Islands Real Estate". American Paradise. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "American Virgin Islands Maps – Map of St. Croix Condos". American-virgin-islands.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Special Committee on Decolonisation (August 4, 2016). "Question of the U.S. Virgin Islands". Overseas Review. Overseas Review. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
Recognizing that the specific characteristics and the aspirations of the people of the United States Virgin Islands require flexible, practical and innovative approaches to the options for self-determination, without any prejudice to territorial size, geographical location, size of population or natural resources
- "U.S. Virgin Islands Economic Review - VI" (PDF). VI Bureau of Economic Research. VI Bureau of Economic Research. May 15, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- "Economic Census Shows the U.S. Virgin Islands Generated $6.8 Billion in Sales in 2012". US Census. Department of Commerce. July 15, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- Baribeau, Simone (January 23, 2017). "United States Virgin Islands Risks Capsizing Under Weight Of Debt". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
How far behind is the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) from facing the same sort of financial crisis as Puerto Rico? Not very.
- Gilbert, Ernice (February 16, 2017). "GOVERNMENT HAS TWO DAYS CASH ON HAND LEFT, FINANCE COMMISSIONER REVEALS". VI Consortium. VI Consortium. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- "U.S. TERRITORIES Public Debt Outlook" (PDF). US GAO. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- "Fact Finder". US Census. Department of Commerce. 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- Bram, Jason (November 15, 2013). "A Long Road to Economic Recovery for the U.S. Virgin Islands". Liberty Street Economics. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
Looking ahead, we note that the tropical weather and picturesque beaches will continue to draw tourists, and natural resources bode well for rum production.
- Chappatta, Brian (May 31, 2016). "More in Debt Than Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands Rejects Rescue". Bloomberg. Bloomberg. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Gilbert, Ernice (February 15, 2017). "FINANCIAL CRISIS: MAPP EXECUTIVE ORDER SUSPENDS HIRING, TRAVEL, WAGE NEGOTIATIONS AND LIMITS USE OF GOV'T VEHICLES". VI Consortium. VI Consortium. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- "The Sin Tax is Now Law". NewsofStJohn.com. March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- Garely, Dr. Elinor (November 9, 2014). "Interview: The Honorable Beverly Nicholson-Doty, Commissioner of Tourism, United States Virgin Islands". E Turbo News. eTurboNews, Inc. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
Dr. Elinor Garely, Editor-in-Chief, TourismExecutives.com
- "Travel and Tourism in US Virgin Islands". Euromonitor. Euromonitor. 2015. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Andrew (February 19, 2012). "USVI, NREL Partner to Reduce Fossil FuelS 60% by 2025". CleanTechnica. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Energy > Oil > Consumption > Per capita: Countries Compared". Archived from the original on July 7, 2017.
- "U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA)". Viwapa.vi. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Central America and Caribbean – VIRGIN ISLANDS – Economy". CIA. CIA. 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- "U.S. INSULAR AREAS, Application of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). U.S. General Accounting Office. November 1997: 37. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
US federal individual and corporate income taxes as such are not currently imposed in US insular areas.Cite journal requires
- "Virgin Islands Tourist Tips". Here.VI Search. WebMastersVI.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Virgin Islands General Information". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "St Thomas, VI". Zip-Codes.com. Datasheer, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Christiansted, VI". Zip-Codes.com. Datasheer, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "St John, VI". Zip-Codes.com. Datasheer, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Frederiksted, VI". Zip-Codes.com. Datasheer, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "Kingshill, VI". Zip-Codes.com. Datasheer, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Census 2010 News | U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 Census Population Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "U.S. Virgin Islands". Pew Research. Pew Research. 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- "Census 2010 News | U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 Census Ethnic Counts for the U.S. Virgin Islands". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- "Virgin Islands Demographics". VI Moving Center. VI Moving Center. 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
Resource: 2010 United States Census of Population and Housing
- An introduction to pidgins and creoles – John A. Holm
- "Virgin Islands Language". Vinow. VI Now. 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
St. Croix was owned by the French until 1733 when the Danes bought it. By 1741 there were five times as many English on the island as Danes. English Creole emerged on St. Croix more so than Dutch Creole, which was more popular on St. Thomas and St. John until the 1800s.
- Detailed Tables – American FactFinder Archived November 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine United States Census Bureau Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Îles Vierges américaines. Tlfq.ulaval.ca. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
- "Religions in U S Virgin Islands - PEW-GRF". www.globalreligiousfutures.org.
- Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, III: The Nineteenth Century Outside Europe: The Americas, the Pacific, Asia and Africa. (1961) pp 278-79
- Hastings, S. U.; MacLeavey, B. L. (1979). Seedtime and Harvest: A Brief History of the Moravian Church in Jamaica 1754–1979. Kingston (Jamaica): Moravian Church. OCLC 10506410.
- "Chabad Lubavitch Jewish Center of the Virgin Islands – Your Soul Resort In America's paradise". Jewishvirginislands.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Home." Virgin Islands Department of Education. Retrieved October 13, 2010. Go to the "Schools" tab and two school districts are listed.[dead link]
- "Life in Denmark and 2017 centennial in St.Thomas of U.S. Virgin Islands". Archived from the original on May 13, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "Virgin Islands Daily News | virginislandsdailynews.com | A Pulitzer Prize Winning Newspaper, Virgin Islands Guide, Virgin Islands InfoVirgin Islands Daily News". Dailynews.vi. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Welcome to the Frontpage". Stjohntradewindsnews.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Virgin Island Vacation Guide – What to Do, Restaurants, Hotels in St Thomas & St John". virginislandsthisweek.com.
- "St. Thomas Source".
- "St. Croix Source".
- "St John On Island Times". St John On Island Times. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- United States Virgin Islands Government House Official website
- "Virgin Islands". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- US Census Bureau: Island Areas Census 2000
- United States Virgin Islands at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- United States Virgin Islands at Curlie
- Wikimedia Atlas of the United States Virgin Islands
- Real-time, geographic and other scientific resources of Virgin Islands at the United States Geological Survey.
- Official Tourism Website