U language

Native speakers
40,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3uuu

The U language, or P'uman 濮满, is spoken by 40,000 people in the Yunnan province of China and possibly Burma. It is classified as an Austroasiatic language in the Palaungic branch. In China, U speakers are classified as ethnic Bulang.


U is spoken in Shuangjiang County of Yunnan and other nearby counties.[3]

  • Wang & Chen (1981) covers the dialect of Pengpan 碰拚, Dafengshan Township 大凤山乡, Shuangjiang County.
  • Zhou & Yan (1983) covers the dialect of Pangpin 胖品,[4] Yongge Township 永革乡, Shuangjiang County.
  • Yan & Zhou (2012) cover U of Gantang 甘塘,[5][6] Yongde County as well as U of Pangpin 胖品.
  • Svantesson (1991:67) documents the U dialect of Paɑ̃ Xɛp (Bangxie 邦协), Shahe Township 沙河乡, Shuangjiang County.[7]

There 2 main dialects of U in Shuangjiang County: one spoken in Gongnong 公弄 (now part of Mengku Town 勐库镇), and one spoken in Bangbing 邦丙 and Dawen Mangga 大文乡忙嘎; the Dawen dialect is reportedly mutually intelligible with that of Shidian County (Shuangjiang County Ethnic Gazetteer 1995:160).

Avala (autonym: a21 va21 la21) is spoken in Bangliu 邦六,[8] Manghuai Township 芒怀乡, Yun County 云县, Yunnan, China.[9][10]


U has four tones, high, low, rising, falling, which developed from vowel length and the nature of final consonants.


Further reading[edit]

  • Simao Prefecture Ethnic Minority Affairs Bureau [思茂行署民族事务委员会编]. 1991. A study of the Bulang people [布朗族研究]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社]. ISBN 7-222-00803-9
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof. 1988. "U." In Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 11, no. 1: 64-133.
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美. 2016. Bulangyu Lawahua de zhicheng daici i55 布朗语拉瓦话的指称代词i55. In Minzu Fanyi 民族翻译. doi:10.13742/j.cnki.cn11-5684/h.2016.01.010
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美. 2016. Bulangyu duoxiang dingyu ji qi yuxu yanjiu 布朗语多项定语及其语序研究. M.A. dissertation. Beijing: Minzu University 中央民族大学.
  • Tao Yuming [陶玉明]. 2012. The Bulang people of China [中国布朗族]. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Press [宁夏人民出版社].
  • Wang Xingzhong [王兴中] & Zhao Weihua [赵卫华]. 2013. Geography and multilingualism in Lincang [临沧地理与双语使用]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社]. ISBN 978-7-222-08581-7
  • Yan Qixiang [颜其香] & Zhou Zhizhi [周植志]. 2012. Mon-Khmer languages of China and the Austroasiatic family [中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academy Press [社会科学文献出版社].

Gazetteers and other Chinese government sources with lexical data

  • Nanjian County Gazetteer Commission [南涧县志编纂委员会编] (ed). 1993. Nanjian County Gazetteer [南涧彝族自治县志]. Chengdu: Sichuan Reference Press [四川辞书出版社].
  • Na Ruzhen [納汝珍], et al. (eds). 1994. Zhenkang County Ethnic Gazetteer [镇康县民族志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南民族出版社].
  • Simao Prefecture Ethnic Minority Affairs Bureau [思茅行暑民族事务委员会] (ed). 1990. A study of the Bulang people [布朗族研究]. m.s.
  • Xiao Dehua [萧德虎], et al. (eds). 1992. Zhenkang County Gazetteer [镇康县志]. 1992. Chengdu: Sichuan People's Press [四川民族出版社].
  • Yunnan Gazetteer Commission [云南省地方志编纂委员会] (ed). 1998. Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer, Vol. 59: Minority Languages Orthographies Gazetteer [云南省志. 卷五十九, 少数民族语言文字志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社].

External links[edit]