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Arab genealogical tradition
The general consensus among 14th-century Arab genealogists is that Arabs are of three kinds:
- Al-Arab al-Ba'ida (Arabic: العرب البائدة), "The Extinct Arabs", were an ancient group of tribes of prehistory that included the ‘Aad, the Thamud, the Tasm, the Jadis, the Imlaq (who included branches of Banu al-Samayda), and others. The Jadis and the Tasm are said to have been exterminated by genocide. The Qur'an records that disappearance of the 'Aad and Thamud came of their decadence. Recent archaeological excavations have uncovered inscriptions which reference 'Iram, once a major city of the 'Aad.
- The Arab genealogies agree the original pure Arabs, "Al-Arab al-Ariba" (العرب العاربة), came from Yemen and were descended from Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan, a descendant of Hud and were Qahtanite Arabs.
- According to this tradition, ‘Adnani Arabs (العرب المستعربة) were the progeny of Ishmael, the firstborn son of the patriarch Abraham, of the Jurhum tribe. The Hawazin tribe and Muhammad are considered ‘Adnani Arabs. Much of the lineage provided before Ma'ad relies on biblical genealogy, so questions persist concerning the accuracy of this segment of Adnanite Arab genealogy. According to Parolin, the Adnanites are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan but the traditional Adnanite lineage doesn't match the biblical line exactly. According to Arab tradition, the Adnanites are called Arabised because it is believed that Ishmael was speaking Hebrew and he got married from a Qahtanite Yemeni woman and learnt Arabic from her. Therefore, the Adnanites are descendants of Abraham. According to Parolin, Modern historiography "unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence".
The rules of the seventy
- The dwelling places and wanderings of the Arabian tribes, by Heinrich Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, in German
- Reuven Firestone (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis. p. 72. ISBN 9780791403310.
- Göran Larsson (2003). Ibn García's Shuʻūbiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval al-Andalus. p. 170. ISBN 9004127402.
- in general: W. Caskel, Ġamharat an-Nasab, das genealogische Werk des Hišām Ibn Muḥammad al-Kalbī, Leiden 1966.
- Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009). Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State. p. 30. ISBN 978-9089640451. "The ‘arabicised or arabicising Arabs’, on the contrary, are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan, but in this case the genealogy does not match the Biblical line exactly. The label ‘arabicised’ is due to the belief that Ishmael spoke Hebrew until he got to Mecca, where he married a Yemeni woman and learnt Arabic. Both genealogical lines go back to Sem, son of Noah, but only Adnanites can claim Abraham as their ascendant, and the lineage of Mohammed, the Seal of Prophets (khatim al-anbiya'), can therefore be traced back to Abraham. Contemporary historiography unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence; the distinction between Qahtanites and Adnanites is even believed to be a product of the Umayyad Age, when the war of factions (al-niza al-hizbi) was raging in the young Islamic Empire."
- Dresch, Paul (2016-01-06), "Introduction", The rules of Barat. Tribal documents from Yemen : Texts and translation, Textes et documents sur la péninsule Arabique, Centre français d’archéologie et de sciences sociales, pp. 1–40, ISBN 978-2-909194-51-6, retrieved 2019-12-20