Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles

Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles are the subject of the study called textual criticism of the New Testament. Textual variants in manuscripts arise when a copyist makes deliberate or inadvertent alterations to a text that is being reproduced. An abbreviated list of textual variants in this particular book is given in this article below.

Most of the variations are not significant and some common alterations include the deletion, rearrangement, repetition, or replacement of one or more words when the copyist's eye returns to a similar word in the wrong location of the original text. If their eye skips to an earlier word, they may create a repetition (error of dittography). If their eye skips to a later word, they may create an omission. They may resort to performing a rearranging of words to retain the overall meaning without compromising the context. In other instances, the copyist may add text from memory from a similar or parallel text in another location. Otherwise, they may also replace some text of the original with an alternative reading. Spellings occasionally change. Synonyms may be substituted. A pronoun may be changed into a proper noun (such as "he said" becoming "Jesus said"). John Mill's 1707 Greek New Testament was estimated to contain some 30,000 variants in its accompanying textual apparatus[1] which was based on "nearly 100 [Greek] manuscripts."[2] The most recent estimate puts the number of non-spelling variants among New Testament manuscripts around 500,000.[3]

Legend[edit]

A guide to the symbols used in the body of this article.

Notable manuscripts[edit]

Notable textual variants[edit]

Acts 1:5

ἔως τῆς πεντηκοστῆς – D, copsa

Acts 1:10.11

εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν – omitted by D, 33c, 242, 326*

Acts 2:5

κατοικοῦντες Ἰουδαῖοι, ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς – A, B
κατοικοῦντες εν Ἰερουσαλὴμ, ἄνδρες Ἰουδαῖοι – C3 (Ἰουδαῖοι ἄνδρες), D (εὐλαβεῖς ἄνδρες), Ea (Ἰουδαῖοι κατοικοῦντες), Ψ, 049, 056, 0142, 33, 81, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 629, 630, 945, 1241, 1505, 1739, 1877, 2127, 2412, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect
κατοικοῦντες ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς – א, itph, syrp
κατοικοῦντες Ιουδαιοι – 603
Acts 2:11-22 from Uncial 076

Acts 2:14

ενδεκα – majority
δεκα αποστολος – D*

Acts 4:24

συ – 74, א, A, B, 2495
συ ει – vgcl
συ ο θεος – D E P Ψ 049 056 0142 104 326 330 436 451 614 629 945 1241 1505 1739 2412 2492 Byz Lect e gig
συ ει ο θεος – 2127, 680, 1443, d, copsa
κυριε ο θεος – 33, 181, 1877, syrp, h
κυριε συ – 88 (arm συ κυριος)
κυριε – ar

Acts 5:3

ὁ Πέτρος Ἁνανία – majority of manuscripts of all the Alexandrian, Caesarean, and Byzantine text-types
Πέτρος πρὸς Ἁνανίαν – D, Ψ
πρὸς αὐτόν ὁ Πέτρος Ἁνανίαν – E, 321

Acts 5:28

ου παραγγελια – אc, Dgr, E, P, (Ψ ουχι), 049, 056, 0142, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 629, 630, 945, 1241, 1505, 1739, 1877, 2127, 2412, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect, e, h, p, syrp, h, copsa, arm, eth
παραγγελια – 74, א*, A, B, 147, ar, d, gig, vg, copsa

Acts 8:37

εἶπε δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος, εἰ πιστεύεις ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας, ἔξεστιν ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ειπε, πιστεύω τὸν υἱὸν του θεου ειναι τὸν Ιησουν Χριστον – 104, 323, 453, 945, 1739, 1891, 2818, 59
εἶπε δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Φίλιππος, ἐὰν πιστεύεις ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου, σωθήσει ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ειπε, πιστεύω εἰς τὸν Χριστὸν τὸν υἱὸν του θεου – Εa, ite
εἶπε δὲ, εἰ πιστεύεις ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας, ἔξεστιν ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ εὐνοῦχος ειπεν αὐτῷ, πιστεύω τὸν υἱὸν του θεου ειναι τὸν Ιησουν Χριστον – 88
verse omitted by 45, 74, א, A, B, C, P, Ψ, 049, 056, 0142, 33, 81, 88*, 104, 181, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 1241, 1505, 2127, 2412, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect

Acts 8:39

πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἐπέπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸν εὐνοῦχον, ἄγγελος δέ κύριου ἥρπασεν τὸν Φίλιππον (the Holy Spirit fell on the eunuch, and an angel of the Lord caught up Philip) – A, 36a, 94, 103, 307, 322, 323, 385, 453, 467, 945, 1739, 1765, 1891, 2298, itp, vg, syrh

Acts 10:25

Codex Bezae has an addition: "And as Peter was drawing near to Caesarea one of the servants ran forward and announced that he was come."

Acts 11:20

Ελληνιστας – B Db E P Ψ 049 056 0142 81 88 104 181 326 330 436 451 614 629 630 945 1241 1505 1739 1877 2127 2412 2492 2495 Byz Lect
Ελληνας – 74 Sinaiticusc, A D arm
ευαγγελιστας – Sinaiticus

Acts 12:25

εις Ιερουσαλημ (to Jerusalem) – א, B, H, L, P, 049, 056, 0142, 81, 88, 326, 330, 451, 629, 1241, 1505, 1877, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect
εξ Ιερουσαλημ (from Jerusalem) – 74, A, 33, 69, 630, 2127
απο Ιερουσαλημ (from Jerusalem) – D, Ψ, 181, 436, 614, 2412, 147, 809, 1021, 1141, 1364, 1439, ar, d, gig, vg, Chrysostom
εις Αντιοχειαν (to Antioch) – 97mg, 110, 328, 424mg, 425c
εις την Αντιοχειαν (to Antioch) – 38
απο Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (from Jerusalem to Antioch) – E, 322, 323
εξ Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (from Jerusalem to Antioch) – 429, 945, 1739, e, p, syrp, copsa geo
εις Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (to Jerusalem to Antioch) – 104, copsa (some mss.)

Acts 13:33

εν τω ψαλμω γεγραπται τω δευτερω (it is written in the second Psalm) – 75, א, A, B, C, Ψ, 33 81 181 326 630 945 1739
εν τω ψαλμω τω δευτερω γεγραπται (it is written in the second Psalm) – Ε Π 049 88 104 330 436 451 614 629 1241 1505 1877 2127 2412 2492 2495 Byz
εν τω δευτερω ψαλμω γεγραπται (it is written in the second Psalm) – 056 0142
εν τω πρωτω ψαλμω γεγραπται (it is written in the first Psalm) – D* it
εν τοις ψαλμοις γεγραπται (it is written in Psalms) – 45
εν τω ψαλμω γεγραπται (it is written in Psalm) – 522 1175
Acts 15:22–24 from the Codex Laudianus, written in parallel columns of Latin and Greek.

Acts 15:23

γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων – 45, 74, א*, A, B, copbo
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων ταδε – אc, E, (33), Byz, syrh
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην περιεχουσαν ταδε – C, ar, c, gig, w, geo
γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων περιεχουσαν ταδε – D, d
γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων εχουσαν τον τυπον τουτον – Ψ
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην και πεμψαντες περιεχουσαν ταδε – 614.[4]

Acts 15:24

ψυχας υμων (your souls) – 33, 45, 74, א, A, B, D, 33, 81, 629
ψυχας υμων λεγοντες περιτεμνεσθαι και τηρειν τον νομον (your souls, saying: you must be circumcised and keep the law) – C, Ea (περιτεμνεσθαι δει), P, Ψ, 049, 056, 0142, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 630, 945, 1241, 1739, Byz

Acts 15:34

verse omitted by majority of the mss.
verse contained in C, 33, 88, 181, 326, 436, 614, 630, 945, 1739, 2412

Acts 17:26

εξ ενος – 74, א, A, B, 33, 81, 181, 629, 630, 1739, vg, copsa, bo
εξ ενος αιματος – D, E, P, 049, 056, 0142, 88, 104, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 945, 1241, 1505, 1877, 2127, 2412, 2492, 2495, Byz Lect
εξ ενος στοματος – Ψ, 603
omitted by ethro

Acts 18:26

την οδον – D, d, gig
την οδον του θεου – 74, א, A, B, 33, 88, 181, 326, 436, 614, 2412, 60, 1356
την οδον του κυριου – E, 1505, 2495, 598
τον λογον του κυριου – 945, 1739
τον λογον του θεου – 630
την του θεου οδον – P, Ψ, 049, 0142, 104, 330, 451, 1241, 1877, 2127, 2492, Byz, Lect

Acts 19:20

του κυριου ο λογος – א A B
ο λογος του κυριου – majority
η πιστις του κυριου – D, syrp

Acts 20:15

και μειναντες εν Τρωγυλλιω (and after remaining at Trogyllium) – D P 049 88 181 326 330 451 614 945 1241 1505 1877 2127 2412 2492 2495
και μειναντες εν Στρογγυλιω (and after remaining at Strogyllium) – 056 0142
και μειναντες εν Στογυλιω (and after remaining at Stogyllium) – 104
μεινοντες εις το Γυλλιον (Gyllium) – Ψ
omit – 74 א A B C Egr 33 630 1739

Acts 20:28

εκκλησιαν του Θεου (church of God) – א B 614 1175 2495 al vg sy boms
εκκλησιαν του κυριου (church of the Lord) – 74, A, C*, D, E, Ψ, 33, 453, 945, 1739, 1891, 36a
εκκλησιαν του κυριου και του Θεου (church of the Lord and God) – C3, Byz

Acts 21:1

Παταρα – א B E P Ψ 049 056 0142 33 88 104 181 326 330 436 451 614 629 630 945 1241 1505 1739 1877 2127 2412 2492 2495 Byz ar e vg syrp, h copbo arm eth
Πατερα – 74 A C
Παταρα και Μυρα – 41 Dgr gig (itph Hyram) vgmss copsa

Acts 24:6b-8a

verse omitted by majority of the mss.
verse contained (with textual differences) in E, Ψ, 056, 0142, 33, 88, 181, 424, 436, 483, 614, 630, 945, 1505, 2412, 2495

Acts 24:20

ευρον αδικημα – 74 א A B 33 81 181
ευρον εν εμοι αδικημα – C E P Ψ 049 056 0142 88 104 326 330 436 451 614 629 Byz
74 with text Acts 27:14-21

Acts 27:16

Καυδα (name of island) – 74, B, 1175, Old-Latin version, Vulgate, and Peshitta.[5]
Κλαυδα – א A 33 81 614 945 1739 2495, vgmss (Codex Cavensis) syrh
Κλαυδην – Byz
Γαυδην – Ψ

Acts 27:37

ως εβδομηκοντα (about seventy) – Epiphaniuspt
ως εβδομηκοντα εξ (about seventy-six) – B copsa Epiphaniuspt
εβδομηκοντα εξ (seventy-six) – 522 680
εκατον εβδομηκοντα εξ (one hundred seventy-six) – copbomss
διακοσιοι δεκα εξ (two hundred sixteen) – 1156
διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα (two hundred seventy) – 69 Ephraem
διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα πεντε (two hundred seventy-five) – A copsa
διακοσιαι εβδομηκοντα εξ (two hundred seventy-six) – rell

Acts 27:41

απο της βιας (from the force) – א*
υπο της βιας (by the force) – A B arm geo
a vi maris (from the sea) – latt
των κυματων (of the waves) – 1441 (w/obeli)
υπο των κυματων (by the waves) – Ψ 1678 2464 eth
υπο της βιας των ανεμων (by the force of the winds) – 629
απο της βιας των κυματων (from the force of the waves) – 104 599
υπο της βιας των κυματων (by the force of the waves) – 74 א2 rell

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adam Fox, John Mill and Richard Bentley: A Study of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament 1675–1729 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954), pp. 105–115; John Mill, Novum Testamentum Graecum, cum lectionibus variantibus MSS (Oxford 1707)
  2. ^ Metzger and Ehrman (2005), p.154
  3. ^ Peter J. Gurry, "The Number of Variants in the Greek New Testament: A Proposed Estimate" New Testament Studies 62.1 (2016), p. 113
  4. ^ NA26, p. 366.
  5. ^ NA26, p. 403.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]