Situ language

Eastern rGyalrong
Native toChina
Language codes
ISO 639-3(included in jya)

Situ (Chinese: 四土话; pinyin: Sìtǔ huà) is a Rgyalrong language spoken in Sichuan, China. The name "Situ", literally "four Tusi", comes from a historical name of the Ma'erkang region.[2]


Gates (2012: 102-103)[3] lists the following locations where Zbu is spoken. It is spoken by over 35,000-40,000 people in 57 villages.

  • southern half of Ma’ěrkāng/'Bar-kams County (53 villages)
    • Zhuókèjī, Mǎ’ěrkāng/'Bar-kams, and Sōnggǎng/rDzong-'gag Towns, including surrounding villages
    • Sūomò/Somang and Báiwān/Brag-bar Townships
    • Báiwān/Brag-bar and Dǎngbà/Dam-pa Townships
  • Jīnchuān/Chu-chen County (4 villages)
    • Jímù/Kye-mo Township (although Nilong Village primarily has Lavrung speakers)
    • possibly also Kǎlājiǎo and Sāwǎjiǎo Townships
  • northwestern Li County, Sichuan
  • southernmost Hóngyuán County (recent migrants)


Gates (2012: 103)[3] lists 7 dialects of Situ.

  • Jiaomuzu Township 脚木足乡, western Barkam County
  • Jimu Township 集木乡, Jinchuan County
  • Dangba Township 党坝乡, southwestern Barkam County
  • Bawang-Songgang Townships 巴旺乡-松岗镇, west-central Barkam County
  • Ben Town 本镇, central Barkam County
  • Zhuokeji Town 卓克基镇, central Barkam County
  • Suomo Township 梭磨乡, eastern Barkam County


Verbal agreement[edit]

Data adapted from Lin (1993).[4] Columns indicate the patient, and rows the agent. For example, the item tə-no-n in row "2sg" and column "3" means "you(singular) drive him/her/it/them.two/them".

1sg 1du 1pl 2sg 2du 2pl 3
1sg ta-no ta-no-ntʃ ta-no-ɲ no-ŋ
1du ta-no ta-no-ntʃ ta-no-ɲ no-tʃ
1pl ta-no ta-no-ntʃ ta-no-ɲ no-i
2sg kə-w-no-ŋ kə-w-no-tʃ kə-w-no-i tə-no-n
2du kə-w-no-ŋ kə-w-no-tʃ kə-w-no-i tə-no-ntʃ
2pl kə-w-no-ŋ kə-w-no-tʃ kə-w-no-i tə-no-ɲ
3sg wə-no-ŋ wə-no-tʃ wə-no-i tə-w-no tə-w-no-ntʃ tə-w-no-ɲ no-u
3du wə-no-ŋ wə-no-tʃ wə-no-i tə-w-no tə-w-no-ntʃ tə-w-no-ɲ no-ntʃ
3pl wə-no-ŋ wə-no-tʃ wə-no-i tə-w-no tə-w-no-ntʃ tə-w-no-ɲ no-ɲ


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Situ". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Rgyalrong Culture" 嘉绒人文. Ma'erkang City Government website.
  3. ^ a b Gates, Jesse P. 2012. Situ in situ: towards a dialectology of Jiāróng (rGyalrong). M.A. thesis, Trinity Western University.
  4. ^ Lin Xiangrong 林向荣 1993. 《嘉戎语研究》[A study on the rGyalrong language] Chengdu: Sichuan Minzu chubanshe.