Sanskrit revival

Sanskrit revival is the accumulation of attempts at reviving the Sanskrit language that have been undertaken. This revival is happening not only in India but also in Western countries like Australia,[1] Germany, the United Kingdom,[2] the United States and in many European countries.[3]

Sanskrit is one of the 22 official languages in India.[4] In 2010, Uttarakhand became the first state in India to have Sanskrit as its second official language.[5] In 2019, Himachal Pradesh became the second state to have Sanskrit as the second official language.[6]

History[edit]

Ancient Sanskrit on Hemp based Paper. Hemp Fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 BCE to the Late 1800's.

In 1891 there was organized activity among the Theosophists in India promoting and participating in the revival of Sanskrit.[7] In 1894 the American Asiatic and Sanskrit Revival Society was established.[8]

In the Republic of India Sanskrit is included in the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. Many organizations, like the Samskrta Bharati, are conducting Speak Sanskrit workshops to popularize the language. The "All-India Sanskrit Festival" (since 2002) holds composition contests. The 1991 Indian census reported 49,736 fluent speakers of Sanskrit.[9]

The state of Uttarakhand has become the first state in India to declare Sanskrit as an official language. The Central Board of Secondary Education in India has made Sanskrit a third language in the schools it governs (though it is an option for a school to adopt it or not, the other choice being the state's own official language). In such schools, learning Sanskrit is an option for grades 5 to 8 (Classes V to VIII). This is true of most schools, including but not limited to Christian missionary schools, affiliated to the ICSE board too, especially in those states where the official language is Hindi. An option between Sanskrit and a local language as a second language exists for grades 9 and 10.[citation needed]

All India Radio transmits news bulletins in Sanskrit twice a day across the nation. Besides, Sanskrit learning programmes also feature on the list of most of the AIR broadcasting centres.[citation needed]

Work of Samskrita Bharati[edit]

Samskrita Bharati is an organization working for Sanskrit revival. It is a tax exempt nonprofit organization with its headquarters in New Delhi, India. The International Centre, “Aksharam,” a complex located in Bangalore, India, is its international centre. It houses a research wing, a library, audio-visual lab, and staff quarters. It also has several state-units spread across the country both in the US and India. The US chapter is a registered nonprofit tax-exempt organization with its headquarters in San Jose, California.

Samskrita Bharati functions as an umbrella organization for various organizations working for promotion of Samskrita.

The West[edit]

Being the liturgical language of Hindus, it is used during worship in Hindu temples in the West. It is taught in many South Asian studies/linguistics departments in universities across the West. Also, Sanskrit revival attempts are underway amongst expatriate Hindu populations in the west.[10] It is also popular amongst the many practitioners of yoga in the West, who find the language useful in understanding the Yoga Sutra[citation needed].

Sanskrit Speakers[edit]

According to the 2001 census of India, 14,135 people who had said Sanskrit was their mother tongue. It increased to 24,821 people in the 2011 census of India. Sanskrit has experienced a recorded a growth of over 70 per cent in one decade. However, Sanskrit speakers still accounts for just 0.00198 per cent of India's total population.[11][12]

According to the 2011 census of Nepal, there are 1,699 Sanskrit speakers in Nepal.[13][circular reference]

Sanskrit villages[edit]

The villages in India where Sanskrit is largely spoken are:[14][15][16]

  • Mattur, Karnataka
  • Jhiri, Madhya Pradesh
  • Hosahalli, Karnataka
  • Sasana, Orissa
  • Baghuwar, Madhya Pradesh
  • Ganoda, Rajasthan
  • Mohad, Madhya Pradesh

Mattur village[edit]

The Mattur village in central Karnataka, Shimoga district claims to have native speakers of Sanskrit among its population. Historically the village was given by king Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire to Vedic scholars and their families. People in his kingdom spoke Kannada and Telugu.[17]

Sanskrit literature movement[edit]

There is Sanskrit literature movement to revive Sanskrit.[18] The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has started giving "World Sanskrit Award" to eminent Sanskrit scholars to recognise their outstanding contribution to the study, teaching, research in Sanskrit language and literature. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand was conferred the first ‘World Sanskrit Award’ in 2016.[19] In 2017, Robert Goldman was awarded the World Sanskrit Award.[20]

There are also many Sanskrit writers who won Sahitya Akademi Award winners.

Modern Sanskrit universities[edit]

In the last few years sporadic efforts have been made to form Sanskrit universities in India. The list of such universities is given below in chronological order:

Sr

No

Year

Est.

Name Location State Specialization
1 1791 Sampurnanand Sanskrit University Varnasi Uttar Pradesh
2 1824 The Sanskrit College and University Kolkata West Bengal
3 1961 Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University Darbhanga Bihar
4 1962 Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Tirupati Andhra Pradesh
5 1962 Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha New Delhi Central Govt
6 1970 Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan New Delhi Central Govt Multi Campus
7 1981 Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya Puri Orissa
8 1993 Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit Kalady Kerala
9 1997 Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University Ramtek, (Nagpur) Maharashtra
10 2001 Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Rajasthan Sanskrit University Jaipur Rajasthan
11 2005 Shree Somnath Sanskrit University Somnath-Veraval,

Junagarh

Gujarat
12 2005 Sri Venkateswara Vedic University Tirupati,

Junagarh

Andhra Pradesh
13 2008 Maharishi Panini Sanskrit Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya Ujjain Madhya Pradesh
14 2018 Maharishi Balmiki Sanskrit University Kaithal Haryana

Revival Outside India[edit]

  • Bangladesh Sanskrit and Pali Education Board in Bangladesh
  • As of 2015, there are 14 German universities teaching the Sanskrit language.[21]
  • In the UK there are four universities which teach Sanskrit.
  • In Australia the revival of Sanskrit is made mainly by Indian migrants.[22]
  • As of 2007, there are about 36 universities which offer Sanskrit education including the Johns Hopkins University, Harvard University etc.[23]

Sanskrit revival by states of India[edit]

Andra Pradesh[edit]

Andhra Pradesh has several dozens Sanskrit institutes, including the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha and Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha (deemed university) at Tirupati.[24]

Assam and Northeast India[edit]

Assam and Northeast India, where Sanskrit has reached by the late vedic period, has Kamarupa Anusandhan Samiti which was established in 2012 to research Sanskrit, Ananda Ram Baruah institute of languages publishes Sanskrit manuscripts, and Assam Sanskrit Board is responsible for researching and preserving Sanskrit documents and manuscripts.[24]

Bihar[edit]

Bihar has at several dozen Sanskrit institutes, including Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University.[25]

Delhi[edit]

Delhi has at Delhi University, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan and Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha (deemed university) undertaking research and teaching in Sanskrit.[26]

Gujarat[edit]

Gujarat has Shree Somnath Sanskrit University and 50 Sanskrit pathsaalas, of which 38 are officially recognised by the government.[27]

Haryana[edit]

Haryana state has over 24 Sanskrit colleges offering education equivalent to bachelors degree, additionally masters and doctoral level degrees are also offered by the Kurukshetra University and Maharshi Dayanand University.[28] In 2018, Haryana established Maharishi Balmiki Sanskrit University, Kaithal as a teaching and affiliating university for research in Sanskrit, vedas, Indic languages, Indian culture and Indian philosophy.[29]

Himachal Pradesh[edit]

Himachal Pradesh has many Sanskrit institutes.[30]

Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Jammu and Kashmir has many Sanskrit institutes.[31]

Karnataka[edit]

Karnataka has many Sanskrit institutes.[32]

Kerala[edit]

Kerala has many Sanskrit institutes, including Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit.[33]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Madhya Pradesh has many Sanskrit institutes, including Maharishi Sandipani Rashtriya Ved Vidya Pratishthan and Maharishi Panini Sanskrit Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya.[34]

Maharashtra[edit]

Maharashtra has many Sanskrit institutes, including Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University.[35]

Odisha[edit]

Odisha has many Sanskrit institutes, including Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidayalaya.[36]

Punjab and Chandigarh[edit]

Punjab and Chandigarh have many Sanskrit institutes.[37]

Rajasthan[edit]

Rajasthan has many Sanskrit institutes, including Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Rajasthan Sanskrit University.[38]

Sikkim[edit]

Sikkim has many Sanskrit institutes.[39]

Tamilnadu[edit]

Tamilnadu has many Sanskrit institutes.[40]

Tripura[edit]

Tripura has many Sanskrit institutes.[41]

Uttar Pradesh[edit]

Uttar Pradesh has many Sanskrit institutes, including Sampurnanand Sanskrit University.[42]

West Bengal[edit]

West Bengal has at least four universities with Sanskrit departments.[43]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sanskrit is second official language in Uttarakhand". Hindustan Times. January 19, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  2. ^ "Sanskrit stages linguistic revival: Germans lead the way | merinews Mobile". www.merinews.com. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  3. ^ "Popularity of Sanskrit on rise in US, Europe". Hindustan Times. July 10, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  4. ^ "Sanskrit speakers seek to revive 'dead' language". Hindustan Times. December 17, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  5. ^ "Sanskrit is second official language in Uttarakhand". Hindustan Times. January 19, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  6. ^ http://www.uniindia.com/hp-assy-clears-three-bills-sanskrit-becomes-second-official-language/north/news/1501689.html
  7. ^ Theosophical Society (Madras, India) (1891). The Theosophist. 12. Theosophical Publishing House. p. 192. ISSN 0040-5892. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  8. ^ The Path. 9. W.Q. Judge. 1895. p. 296. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  9. ^ "Language in India". languageinindia.com. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  10. ^ "YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  11. ^ https://m.telegraphindia.com/india/10000-plus-growth-in-sanskrit-speakers/cid/1351306
  12. ^ https://www.pratidintime.com/latest-census-figure-reveals-increase-in-sanskrit-speakers-in-india/
  13. ^ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/en/Languages_of_Nepal
  14. ^ https://detechter.com/seven-sanskrit-speaking-villages-in-india/
  15. ^ https://mdaily.bhaskar.com/news/NAT-TOP-4-indian-villages-where-sanskrit-is-a-primary-language-4848406-PHO.html
  16. ^ https://www.cteindia.org/five-indian-villages-where-sanskrit-is-spoken/
  17. ^ This village speaks gods language 13 Aug 2005 Times of India Retrieved on September 14, 2008
  18. ^ Sanskrit Literature movement.
  19. ^ https://www.bestcurrentaffairs.com/first-world-sanskrit-award-given/
  20. ^ https://news.berkeley.edu/2017/09/06/robert-goldman-wins-world-sanskrit-award-for-2017/
  21. ^ http://www.merinews.com/mobile/article/World/2015/04/16/sanskrit-stages-linguistic-revival-germans-lead-the-way/15905790
  22. ^ https://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/malayalam/en/article/2017/03/17/ancient-language-sanskrit-being-revived-australia
  23. ^ https://m.hindustantimes.com/india/popularity-of-sanskrit-on-rise-in-us-europe/story-Ki0YbSVG9NLb6yKkMR3QEL.html
  24. ^ a b Andhra Pradesh in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  25. ^ Bihar in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  26. ^ Delhi in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  27. ^ Gujrat in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  28. ^ Haryana in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  29. ^ Maharishi Balmiki Sanskrit University to be set up at Kaithal, Business Standard, 15 Mar 2018.
  30. ^ Himachal Pradesh in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  31. ^ Jammu and Kashmir in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  32. ^ Karnataka in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  33. ^ Kerala in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  34. ^ Madhya Pradesh in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  35. ^ Maharashtra in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  36. ^ Odisha in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  37. ^ Punjab and Chandigarh in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  38. ^ Rajasthan in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  39. ^ Sikkim in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  40. ^ Tamilnadu in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  41. ^ Tripura in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  42. ^ Uttar Pradesh in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.
  43. ^ West Bengal in Sanskrit Studies In India, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan.

External links[edit]