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|São Toméan Portuguese|
Used by many as L1 until their late 20s
It contains many archaic features in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, similar to Angolan Portuguese. It was once the dialect of the owners of the roças and the middle class, but now it is the dialect of the lower and middle classes, as the upper class often uses modern European Portuguese standard pronunciation, which is now also used by lower and middle classes.
São Tomé is the third country in order of percentage of Portuguese speakers (after Portugal and Brazil), with more than 95% of the population speaking Portuguese, and more than 50% using it as their first language. The rest of the population speak Portuguese creoles.
- Bibliography on São Tomean Portuguese
- Português é crescentemente a língua materna
- Língua de São Tomé e Príncipe: Crioulo? Dialecto? Ou Português?
- Português em São Tomé e Príncipe
- Universo linguístico de São Tomé e Príncipe
- As Línguas de S. Tomé e Príncipe
- Aménagement linguistique dans le monde, São Tomé-et-Príncipe