Romanization of Lao

Lao romanization systems are transcriptions of the Lao alphabet into the Latin alphabet.



The table below shows the Lao consonant letters and their transcriptions according to IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet,) BGN/PCGN romanization (1966 system) and LC (US ALA-LC romanization,) as well as the transcriptions used in the Unicode names of the letters, and in official Lao government usage.

Character Initial position Final position
/k/ k /k/ k
/kʰ/ kh /k/ k
/kʰ/ kh /k/ k
/ŋ/ ng /ŋ/ ng
/tɕ/ ch /t/ t c
/s/ s /t/ t s
/s/ x s /t/ t s
/ɲ/ gn ny ny
/d/ d /t/ t d
/t/ t /t/ t
/tʰ/ th /t/ t th
/tʰ/ th /t/ t th
/n/ n /n/ ne n
/b/ b /p/ p b
/p/ p /p/ p
/pʰ/ ph ph
/f/ f /p/ p f
/pʰ/ ph /p/ p ph
/f/ f /p/ p f
/m/ m /m/ m
/j/ y y
/r/,/l/ r /n/ ne n, r
/l/ l /n/ ne n, l
/ʋ/,/w/ v v, w w
/h/ h h
/ʔ/ o, –
/h/ h h

Vowel nuclei[edit]

The table below shows the Lao vowel nuclei, combined with the consonant ກ.

IPA BGN LC Unicode IPA BGN LC Unicode IPA BGN LC Unicode IPA BGN LC Unicode
ກະ/ກັກ /a/ a a a ກາ /aː/ a ā aa
ກິ /i/ i i i ກີ /iː/ i ī ii ເກັຽະ/ກັຽກ /iə/ ia ia ເກັຽ/ກຽກ ia īa
ກຶ /ɯ/ u ư y ກື /ɯː/ u ư̄ yy ເກຶອະ/ເກຶອກ /ɯə/ ua ưa ເກືອ ua ư̄a
ກຸ /u/ ou u u ກູ /uː/ ou ū uu ກົວະ/ກັວກ /uə/ oua ua ກົວ/ ກວກ oua ūa
ເກະ/ເກັກ /e/ é e ເກ /eː/ é ē e
ແກະ/ແກັກ /ɛ/ è æ ແກ /ɛː/ è ǣ ei
ໂກະ/ກົກ /o/ ô o ໂກ /oː/ ô ō o
ເກາະ/ກັອກ /ɔ/ o ກໍ/ກອກ /ɔː/ o ō̜
ເກິະ/ເກິກ /ɤ/ eu œ ເກີ/ ເກືກ /ɤː/ eu œ̄
ໄກ/ໃກ/ກັຍ /ai/ ai ai ai/ay ກາຍ/ກາຽ /ai/ āi
ເກົາ /au/ ao ao
ກໍາ /am/ am am am

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Report on the current status of United Nations romanization systems for geographical names - Lao (PDF; this document refers to the Lao Commission Nationale de Toponymie. There is no Lao romanization system officially adopted by the UN.)
  • Library of Congress romanization table for Lao (PDF)
  • Unicode code chart for Lao
  • ANSI Z39.35-1979, System for the Romanization of Lao, Khmer, and Pali; ISBN 0-88738-968-6.

Rome and Romanization Student’s Name: Institutional Affiliation: Date:

Rome and Romanization Romanization is the acculturation of people in the Roman Empire during an era where they adopted the traditions and customs of the Roman conquerors. The process affected the entire Roman Empire during the beginning of the early second century. Multitudes of people from Levant to Spain and North Africa to Britain were all affected by the process as they struggled to adopt the Roman ways of life. The process involve a top to bottom method where the conquerors first ensured that the elite and the aristocrats adopted the Roman way of life and then spread it to other citizens. Since the Romans allowed the societies in the Roman Empire to maintain most of their cultures, the process was simple since people did not view it as a conquest. This paper seeks to assess the changes in farming communities, changes from local languages to Latin and militarization. The Roman society started from several farming communities in central Italy. The Romans transformed into a city-state under heavy influence of a lineage of Kings and political domination of the Etruscans during the 7th and the 6th century BCE (Spawforth, Millett & Mitchell, 2016). Partiscum is one of the cities that were most affected by the Romanization process. The remains of the Roman inspired buildings indicate a major change in their traditional building styles during the Roman rule. The first notable influence of the process of Romanization is that all male citizens were required to join military service and follow military rules and obligations. Some farmers had to source for military equipment without the help of the Roman Empire, this exercise was too expensive and it changed farmers into military personnel for defence purposes. Militarization of farmers in the Roman Empire changed their lives as some had to give up their regular lifestyles to conform to the Roman military lives. Romanization of Italy was one of the most significant effects of the process of Romanization on the Roman Empire. The evidence of the process can be seen in Italy through archaeological sites such as the Colloseum, a Flavian amphitheatre built between the 70th to 73nd A.D. Old cities in other countries around Europe and the world. Greek, Italian and Etruscan towns started being remodelled into Roman ways. Roman styled temples and the inscription of Latin inscriptions to replace Samnite and Greek inscriptions is also a clear indicator on the process of Romanization on the Roman world (Andreotti, 2018). Romanization was not limited to Italy; colonies for Roman veterans were present in different regions including Greece, Asia Minor, Gaul and North Africa. The Roman Empire spread their influence by spreading language and ways of life. Soldiers were offered land after recruitment, they also learned basic literacy and most of them abandoned their native languages and started using Latin. The impacts of Romanization were widespread in different regions that were conquered by the Roman Empire. Militarization of the native citizens was the most common effect of the process. Farmers in Italy were recruited into military service and most of them abandoned farming. In other regions of the Roman World, people who got recruited from the military were given large tracts of land as a token for accepting to serve under the Roman Empire. The soldiers and citizens also embraced the Latin language despite having the freedom to continue using their native languages. The process of Romanization was both detrimental and significant for communities in countries that were under Roman rule, and archaeological artefacts in the modern colonies are evidence of the process.

References Andreotti, G. C. (2018). Epilogue: A New Paradigm for Romanization?. In Roman Turdetania (pp. 186-190). BRILL. Spawforth, A., Millett, M., & Mitchell, S. (2016). Romanization. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics.