Archdiocese of Bombay
|Area||10,103 km2 (3,901 sq mi)|
|(as of 2012)|
|Established||1 September 1886|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of the Holy Name, Mumbai|
|Patron saint||Saint Gonsalo Garcia|
Saint Francis Xavier
|Auxiliary Bishops||Dominic Savio Fernandes|
|Vicar General||Most Rev. Dominic Savio Fernandes,|
Most Rev. John Rodrigues,
Most Rev. Allwyn D'silva,
Most Rev. Barthol Barretto
|Episcopal Vicars||Fr Caesar D'mello,|
Fr. Felix D’Souza,
Fr Barthol S. Machado,
Fr Harold Vaz,
|Judicial Vicar||Fr. K.T. Emmanuel|
|Bishops emeritus||Percival Joseph Fernandez|
Agnelo Rufino Gracias
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bombay (or Mumbai) is a Latin particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in western India's state of Maharashtra. The archdiocese has been a Metropolitan see since its elevation by Pope Leo XIII on 1 September 1886.
As of 2006, the archdiocese had 277 diocesan priests, 283 religious priests, 383 male religious orders and 1,530 female religious orders. The archdiocese serves a total of 506,976 Catholics in 121 parishes scattered across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (formerly Bombay).
The Portuguese first reached the west coast of India when Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut in 1498. They finally established themselves at Goa in 1510. In 1526, they established a factory in Bassein.In 1534, the islands of Bassein, Salsette, Bombay and Karanja were ceded to the Portuguese by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. In this very year, the Archdiocese of Goa was created and the whole of the western coast around Bombay formed part of that archdiocese. Missionary activities in Bassein (Burma), Salsette and Bombay commenced from 1534 onwards, thus laying the foundation of the future Archdiocese of Bombay. The Portuguese missionaries who accompanied the conquerors were the Franciscans, Jesuits, Dominicans and Augustinians.
In 1665, the Bombay Island was ceded to the British as a part of the marriage dowry to Charles II of England by Catherine of Braganza of Portugal. In 1669 the pre-diocesan jurisdiction was renamed as Apostolic Vicariate of Great Mogul, exceptionally after the imperial Muslim prince above the princely states of Hind(ustan). The year 1692 marked the end of the Jesuit presence in Bombay.
The Decree expelling the Portuguese Franciscans from Bombay was issued by the British on 24 May 1720. On 17 May 1784, it lost huge territory to establish the Mission sui juris of Hindustan, nucleus of the Archbishopric of Agra.
Later, the British allowed the Italian Carmelites to take charge of the Catholic community in Bombay. In 1794, the double jurisdiction was devised by the British, which let them interfere in the religious life of the Catholics. In 1820it was renamed after its see to Apostolic Vicariate of Bombay.
On 12 December 1853 the Carmelites decided to give up the administration of the Bombay Mission. The Holy See accepted their resignation and thus ended, after a period of 133 years (1720–1853), the Carmelite administration of the Vicariate of Bombay. On 16 February 1854 the Propaganda Fide officially divided the Bombay Vicariate into the northern Vicariate of Bombay, entrusted the Bombay Vicariate to the Capuchin Fathers (comprising the islands of Bombay, Colaba, Aurangabad, Khandesh, Malwa, Gujarat and Sindh as far as Kabul and Punjab) and the newly established southern Apostolic Vicariate of Poona (comprising the islands of Salsette and Bassein, and the regions of the Konkan and Deccan or Bijapur), entrusted to the Jesuit Fathers.
Finally, the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Bombay was established by Pope Leo XIII on 1 September 1886. The archdiocese received territorial jurisdiction over Bombay Island and over the northern districts of the Vicariate of Bombay with Poona as a suffragan diocese. Mangalore and Trichinopoly were added as suffragan sees in 1893, in which year the First Provincial Council was held (Acta et Decreta, Bombay, 1898).
It lost further territory repeatedly : on 1948.05.20 to establish the Diocese of Karachi (in Pakistan), on 1949.05.05 to establish the Diocese of Ahmedabad, on 1966.09.29 to establish the Diocese of Baroda, on 1988.04 to establish the Diocese of Kalyan and on 1998.05.22 to establish the Diocese of Vasai (its suffragan).
Apostolic Vicar of Idalcan
Apostolic Vicars of Great Mogul
- Custodio do Pinho (1669-1694), appointed Apostolic Vicar of Malabar
- Fernand Palma d'Artois, O.C.D. (1696-1701)
- Pietro d’Alcántara di Santa Teresa Leonardi, O.C.D. (1704-1707)
- Maurice di Santa Teresa Baistrocchi, O.C.D. (1708-1726)
- Pietro d’Alcántara della Santissima Trinità Gagna di Cherasco, O.C.D. (1728-1744)
- Innocent of the Presentation of Mary Strattmann, O.C.D. (1746-1753)
- John Dominic of St. Clara Chiavassa, O.C.D. (1756-1772)
- Charles of St. Conrad Vareschi, O.C.D. (1773-1785)
- Angelin vom heiligen Joseph Geiselmayer, O.C.D. (1785-1786)
- Viktor von der heiligen Maria Schwaiger, O.C.D. (1787-1793)
- Pietro d’Alcántara di San Antonio Ramazzini, O.C.D. (1794-1820)
Apostolic Vicars of Bombay
- Pietro d’Alcántara di San Antonio Ramazzini, O.C.D. (1820-1840)
- Aloysius Mary of St. Teresa Fortini, O.C.D. (1840-1848)
- John Francis William Whelan, O.C.D. (1848-1850)
- Anastasius Hartmann, O.F.M. Cap. (1854-1858), appointed Apostolic Vicar of Patna
- Waltar Steins Bisschop, S.J. (1860-1867), appointed Apostolic Vicar of Western Bengal and later Bishop of Auckland
- Johann Gabriel Léon Louis Meurin, S.J. (1867-1886), appointed Bishop of Port-Louis
Archbishops of Bombay
- George Porter, S.J. (1886-1889)
- Theodore Dalhoff, S.J. (1891-1906)
- Hermann Jurgens, S.J. (1907-1916)
- Alban Goodier, S.J. (1919-1926)
- Joachim Lima, S.J. (1928-1936)
- Thomas Roberts, S.J. (1937-1950)
- Cardinal Valerian Gracias (1950-1978)
- Cardinal Simon Pimenta (1978-1996)
- Cardinal Ivan Dias (1996-2006)
- Cardinal Oswald Gracias (2006-present)
- Aloysius Mary of St. Teresa Fortini, O.C.D. (1837-1840)
- John Francis William Whelan, O.C.D. (1842-1848)
The Examiner (formerly called the Bombay Catholic Examiner), is a diocesan news weekly published at the Examiner Press of the Archdiocese of Bombay. It was established on 10 July 1849 by a Jesuit father. Tej-Prasarini is a media and communication institution run by the Salesians of Don Bosco of the Archdiocese of Bombay. It combines a multimedia production centre with training programmes in creativity, media and peace education. It is a member of SIGNIS, the World Catholic Association for Communication. The Archdiocese has now official opened its very own Catholic Communication Centre on 5 November 2011.
Archdiocesan Board of Education
The Archdiocesan Board of Education, registered in 1985 as an Association under the Societies Registration Act –XXI / 1860, is a certified body for Catholic Institutions in Maharashtra and the Districts of Thane and Raigad. Functioning as a Federation of Schools for its first 20 years, the Consultation of Catholic Schools held in November 2004, reviewed the role of the ABE and recommended that it be an umbrella body for all Catholic Institutions, and that its role be extended to meet all the needs of Catholic Education.
The Board carries out tasks like co-ordination, research and documentation, planning and liaising with the State Department of Education and other Diocesan Bodies for its vast network of Educational Institutes and offers services in legal and administrative problems. It also publishes a bulletin called 'Shikshan Vichar'.
In April 2012, complaints were filed by Catholic Social activists against the atheist activist Sanal Edamaruku at several police stations around the city under section 295 of the Indian Penal Code, which states that persons can be arrested and charged on the allegations of hurting the religious sentiments of a particular community. Edamaruku had previously made derogatory statements regarding the Pope, Catholic Church and priests, besides claiming to have exposed the "miracle" of the dripping Jesus in Mumbai, confronted Church leaders on a live TV channel a month earlier and has suggested that he will be arrested any moment. In early July 2012, this was borne out when police arrived at his house with the intent to arrest him.
In a statement, the Auxiliary Bishop of Mumbai said: "The Church is always cautious in attributing supernatural causes to out of the ordinary phenomena. Whenever possible, it always tries to find 'scientific' explanations for similar events. It does not pay great attention to things like this, although it accepts the possibility that God can intervene in human life in 'extraordinary' ways: what we call 'miracles'. "
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- "Archdiocese of Goa". New Advent. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- "A young town". The Economist. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "An era in the service of truth". The Examiner. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- "History". Tej-Prasarini. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- "Christian forums file FIRS after IRA chief calls 'miracle water' a scam". Midday. 15 April 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Doctorow, Cory. "Indian skeptic charged with "blasphemy" for revealing secret behind "miracle" of weeping cross". Boing Boing. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Sanal Edamaruku's situation worsens: still facing arrest over debunking of Catholic miracle". New Humanist. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Water from the cross of Irla. Indian atheist accuses Church of "manufacturing" miracles for money". AsiaNews. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Kerr, Robert (1812), "Discoveries, Navigations, and Conquests of the Portuguese in India, from 1505 to 1539", A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, 6, George Ramsay and Company, retrieved 8 August 2008
- Maharashtra State Gazetteer, Portuguese Settlements on the Western Coast (PDF), Government of Maharashtra, retrieved 8 August 2008
- Robert, Kerr (1812), "Discoveries, Navigations, and Conquests of the Portuguese in India, from 1505 to 1539", A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, 6, George Ramsay and Company, retrieved 8 August 2008