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The Domain Name System of the Internet consists of a set of top-level domains which constitute the root domain of the hierarchical name space and database. In the growth of the Internet, it became desirable to expand the set of initially six generic top-level domains in 1984. As a result, new top-level domain names have been proposed for implementation by ICANN. Such proposals included a variety of models ranging from adoption of policies for unrestricted gTLDs that could be registered by anyone for any purpose, to chartered gTLDs for specialized uses by specialized organizations. In October 2000, ICANN published a list of proposals for top-level domain strings it had received.
- .geo - Generic geographical locations.
- .africa - General category for African websites.
- .ln and .le - Currently being sold by Dennis Hope's "Lunar Embassy Commission" alongside .lunar, .moon, .venus, .mars, .jupiter, .saturn, .uranus, .neptune, .pluto. People who purchase novelty deeds for outer space property from him are also given free domains. None of these TLDs are supported at present by root servers.
- .toronto - was proposed by City of Toronto staff.
Internationalized country code top-level domains
The following ccTLDs (Country code top-level domains) have been requested using a procedure known as Internationalized domain name (or IDN) ccTLD Fast Track Process. It is possible that some requests have been withdrawn.
|DNS name||IDN ccTLD||Country||Transliteration||Script||ccTLD||Year of application|
|xn--qxa6a||.ευ ||European Union||ey||Greek||.eu||2010|
|xn--wgv71a||.日本||Japan||Nippon or Nihon||Kanji (both Kyūjitai and Shinjitai)||.jp||2008|
|xn--vcst06ab2a||.日本国||Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku||Kanji (Shinjitai)||2012|
|xn--q7ce6a||.ລາວ ||Laos||Lao or Laao||Lao||.la||2008|
The following countries have national languages which use other script than Latin, but have no internationalized country code top-level domain, and none proposed in the above list:
- North Korea
Language and community
These proposals are centered on creating an independent Internet identity for linguistic and cultural communities. They are mostly inspired by the success of the .cat domain created for websites in the Catalan language or about the Catalan culture.
|Domain name||intended use||sponsor||year of proposal||comments|
|Welsh language and Wales||dotCYM Cyf||2006||It was proposed by dotCYM for Welsh language and Wales, but ICANN reserved for eventual assignment to the Cayman Islands. See also .cymru and .wales.|
|.eng||England||DotEng||2008||The DotEng.org website was set up by John Sewell of Maidenhead in Berkshire. Mentioned in PC Pro Online: Campaign begins for .eng domain, Stuart Turton, 23 April 2008|
|.ker||Cornish language and Cornwall (Kernow) in general||Cornish World Magazine||2008|
|.lli||Leonese language and Leonese culture||puntuLLI||2007||Several companies, associations, organisations and institutions are involved in this campaign.|
|.nai||Native, Aboriginal, and Indigenous peoples of the Americas||nai||1999||The original proposal for a Native American managed TLD predates ICANN, and its form was adopted by ICANN as the "sponsored" type of application and eventual contract in the 2001 new gTLD round. .nai's mission is to implement a top-level name space with an indigenous policy, provide an alternative to the several thousand indigenous public administrations, and the larger numbers of indigenous non-governmental, linguistic and cultural institutional, public and private economic enterprises, bands and individuals in the Western Hemisphere currently using name spaces operated under for-profit or colonial policies, and promote the economic development of Indian Country.|
|Scotland||dotSCO||2005||dotSCO began in late 2005 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Scots community around the world. The campaign now appears to be defunct, effectively replaced by now approved .scot.|
|.sic||Székely Land||Pontsic Foundation||2009||pontSIC began in late 2008 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Székely community around the world. The campaign was started by the Szekler National Council, and now are involved several companies and institutions. As of September 2009 there are over 33,200 signatories.|
- Note: The dotCYMRU, dotEUS, dotSCOT and dotBZH have formed the ECLID, the European Cultural and Linguistic Internet Domains umbrella group to lobby for the successful and speedy application for the bids.
Domains for children
Several entities have proposed a top-level domain named kids. As of 2009[update], none of these proposals have been implemented.
This article needs to be updated.June 2018)(
Applications for a kids domain have included:
- Blueberry Hill Communications, Inc., a domain name registration and hosting company in California, submitted a proposal Registry services would be subcontracted to Neustar and Melbourne IT. Registrars are selected under same criteria and process currently imposed by ICANN. This proposal would not rely on objective criteria for categorizing content.
- DotKids, established in 2000 in Rosemont, Illinois intends to utilize SARAF Software Solutions Inc. for software development of a kids registry. DotKids would deal only with ICANN accredited registrars; content rating information is to be retained in the registry and is to describe ratings for an entire site.
- ICM Registry, Inc. request the kids TLD as an integrated solution for improving child safety on the Internet by implicitly attempting to restrict content across both TLDs and targeting a narrow registrant group.
- .KIDS Domains, Inc. is a California for-profit corporation; the proposed registry operator is Toronto-based domain name registrar Tucows Inc. Kids would be a restricted TLD. .KIDS Domains therefore does not intend to allow other registrars to register domain names.
Current projects also aimed at creating a TLD for children include:
- The DotJunior Project, an organisation established in late 2014 trying to launch a .Junior TLD for child safety purposes.
In US a sub-domain for children had established since 2003 based on "Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002, PL 107-317".(us) exists a second-level domain kids.us. However, on 27 July 2012 NTIA decided to suspend it.
Technical domain name themes
- .mail – A domain for e-mail networks, proposed to facilitate fighting e-mail spam.
- .web – A domain for general use on the world wide web.
Specialized and professional topics
- .eco – environmental causes – Limited existence in 2016 and full launch in 2017.
- .med – medical practitioners and organizations – exists from 2016.
- .shop – electronic commerce sites – exists from 2016.
- .sport – sport sites
- "Names Council Solicitation of Comments for Consideration of New Generic Top-Level Domains". ICANN. 2000-04-01.
- "TLD Applications Lodged". ICANN. 2000-10-10.
- Hope, David. "The Lunar Embassy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- REPORT ... on the implementation, functioning and effectiveness of the .eu Top-Level Domain
- IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Israel
- IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Japan
- "About '.日本'". jprs.co.jp.
- IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Laos
- "The campaign for a KER Internet domain name". googlepages.com.
- "First Minister announces support for Scots internet domain". dotSCO.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- "SIC domain". Support New TLDs. Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- Summary of Application of Blueberry Hill
- "Summary of Application of dotKids Inc". icann.org.
- "Summary of Application of ICM Registry". icann.org.
- Summary of Application of .Kids Domains
- "dotJunior". dotjunior.com.
- "KIDS.us - Play, Learn, and Surf..." cms.kids.us.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2013-01-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "BBC NEWS - Technology - Al Gore says domain .eco logical". bbc.co.uk.
- "Launch of .eco (Dot Eco) Application to Empower Global Community – Press Releases on CSRwire.com". csrwire.com.
- https://nic.eco/ and https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3A.eco
- ".med : your safe namespace for medicine". .med.
- http://www.nic.med/Policies.aspx and https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3A.med
- "Home of the dotShop (.shop) top-level domain (TLD) name from Commercial Connect LLC - Commercial Connect, LLC". commercialconnect.net.
- http://www.nic.shop and https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3A.shop
- "Setting a new world record » The .Sport Registry". dotsport.info.
- "Donuts full application list" (PDF). Donuts Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Natasha Singer (August 17, 2013). "When You Can't Tell Web Suffixes Without a Scorecard". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- domaintyper. "List of new gTLDs Famous Four Media is applied for". domaintyper.com.