Post-merger integration

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Post-merger integration or PMI is a complex process of combining and rearranging businesses to materialize potential efficiencies and synergies that usually motivate mergers and acquisitions. The PMI is a critical aspect of mergers; it involves combining the original socio-technical systems of the merging organizations into one newly combined system.


The process of combining two or more organizations into a single organization involves several organizational systems, such as assets, people, resources, tasks, and the supporting information technology.[1] The process of combining these systems is known as 'integration'. Integration Planning is one of the most challenging areas to address pre-close during a merger or acquisition.[2][3] Even though culture clash between companies can cause integration problems, only 4% of the executives in a survey by Pritchett, LP reported that their organizations include culture-specific questions in their due diligence checklists.[4] Culture specific due diligence may include cultural screening and creating a cultural profile of the target firm. GE Capital conducts a cultural assesment of prospective candidates against metrics such as trust in existing managers, language barriers, and operating processes to then facilitate a culture work out session between both sides.[5]

An example of a typical structure for an integration consists of three layers: a steering committee, an integration management office (led by an integration manager) and a variety of additional teams organized by function (i.e. sales, human resources, finance, and information technology, etc.) and/or by business unit, product line, process, or geographic location. [6]

The integration management office, or IMO, manages core functions of the integration effort and provides structure for integration delivery.[7] In a survey by Global PMI Partners of 143 M&A executives, 67% of respondents incorporate IMOs during an acquisition on at least half of their initiatives in a cross-border setting.[8][verification needed]

Organizational lifecycle[edit]

Integration fits within an organizational lifecycle or specific business mergers and acquisitions cycle where businesses buy, integrate, then dispose of businesses:

  • Definition of vision & strategy
  • Selection of growth method: organic vs inorganic
  • Target identification
  • Pre-deal evaluation & due diligence
  • Negotiation & deal completion
  • Post-merger integration
  • Acquisition integration
  • Ongoing improvement
  • Disposal

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anthony F., Buono; Bowditch, James L. (1989). The human side of mergers and acquisitions: Managing collisions between people, cultures, and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. ISBN 1-55542-135-0.[pages needed]
  2. ^ "Merger Integration Due Diligence". Dr. K.M.Popp. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  3. ^ M&A Transaction Survey of 50 executive M&A respondents (2013); ModalMinds Inc.;[dead link]
  4. ^ Pritchett LP (2018), Corporate Culture: The "X Factor" in Merger Success and Failure;
  5. ^ Lee Marks, Mitchell; H. Mirvis, Philip (December 2011). "A framework for the human resource role in managing culture in Mergers and Acquisitions". Human Resource Management. 50: 859–877.
  6. ^ Pritchett, LP (2019), The 5 Critical Elements of an M&A Integration Plan;
  7. ^ Hofmeyer, Stefan; Whitaker, Scott C.; et al. (2016). Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-1-119-04223-5.[pages needed]
  8. ^ Global PMI Partners, Cross-Border M&A Integration Survey, November 2015;

External links[edit]