Portal:Mexico

The Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico

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Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (About this soundlisten); Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (About this soundlisten), lit. Mexican United States), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), Mexico is the 13th-largest country in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth-most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.


Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico City, which was administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain. Castiliian Spanish was the language of the rulers, although indigenous languages continue to be spoken to this day. Roman Catholicism was the only permitted religion; the Catholic Church played a powerful role in ruling the country as millions of indigenous inhabitants were converted to the faith. Dense indigenous populations that could be mobilized to work and the discovery of rich deposits of silver in the north turned the colony into a major source of wealth for the Spanish Empire. The crown established a standing military only in the late eighteenth century, due to external threats, not internal disorder. The institutional military was a path to upward mobility for North American-born Spaniards. The royal army was fought volunteer insurgent forces to a stalemate after a decade of armed conflict. Only when a royal military officer-turned insurgent, Agustín Iturbide, joined with insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero was independence achieved. The territory became a nation state following the crown's recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.

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Approximate location of the Republic of Fredonia

The Fredonian Rebellion (December 21, 1826 – January 23, 1827) was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. The settlers, led by Empresario Haden Edwards, declared independence from Mexican Texas and created the Republic of Fredonia near Nacogdoches. The short-lived republic encompassed the land the Mexican government had granted to Edwards in 1825 and included areas that had been previously settled. Edwards's actions soon alienated the established residents, and the increasing hostilities between them and settlers recruited by Edwards led Victor Blanco of the Mexican government to revoke Edwards's contract.

In late December 1826, a group of Edwards's supporters took control of the region by arresting and removing from office several municipality officials affiliated with the established residents. Supporters declared their independence from Mexico. Although the nearby Cherokee tribe initially signed a treaty to support the new republic because a prior agreement with the Mexican government negotiated by Chief Richard Fields was ignored, overtures from Mexican authorities and respected Empresario Stephen F. Austin convinced tribal leaders to repudiate the rebellion. On January 31, 1827, a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 275 Texian Militia marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. Haden Edwards and his brother Benjamin Edwards fled to the United States. Chief Richard Fields was killed by his own tribe. A local merchant was arrested and sentenced to death but later paroled. Read more...

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Collage of the Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict broke out in northern Mexico and Díaz was forced out. In the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Díaz resigned and went into exile, new elections were to occur in the fall, and an interim presidency under Francisco León de la Barra was installed. A new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero, Pascual Orozco, and Pancho Villa; it expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor. In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free and fair election and took office in November. Read more...

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"Así Fue" is a song written and produced by Mexican singer-songwriter Juan Gabriel and performed by Spanish singer Isabel Pantoja. It was released in 1988 as the second single from her studio album Desde Andalucía. The song tells of the singer dealing with her ex-lover after she has a new fiancé. It reached number two on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart in the United States and was the fifth best-performing Latin single of 1989 in the country. Nine years later, Juan Gabriel performed a live cover version of the song at the Palacio de Bellas Artes which was recorded and released as a live album titled Celebrando 25 Años de Juan Gabriel: En Concierto en el Palacio de Bellas Artes (1998).

Juan Gabriel's cover was released as a single from the record and reached number three on the Hot Latin Songs. It was the best-performing Latin single of 1998 in the US and won the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) Latin Award for "Super Song of the Year" in 1999. The track was well-received by music critics who called it one of Juan Gabriel's best compositions. "Así Fue" was recorded by other artists including Toño Rosario, Playa Limbo, and Jenni Rivera. Rosario and Playa Limbo's version led to Juan Gabriel winning an ASCAP Latin Award for their renditions while Playa Limbo received a nomination for Pop Song of the Year at the 22nd Annual Lo Nuestro Awards in 2010. Read more...

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Francisco I. Madero, retrato.png

Francisco Ignacio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko iɣˈnasjo maˈðeɾo ɣonˈsales]; 30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. A wealthy landowner, he was nonetheless an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging long-time Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Born into an extremely wealthy family in Coahuila, northern Mexico, Madero was an unusual politician, who until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, had never held office. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic. His vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, twentieth-century Mexico, but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he bankrolled the opposition Anti-Reelectionist Party and urged Mexicans to oust Díaz in the 1910 election. Madero's candidacy against Díaz garnered widespread support in Mexico. He was possessed of independent financial means, ideological determination, and the bravery to oppose Díaz when it was dangerous to do so. Díaz had Madero arrested before the elections, which were then seen as fraudulent. Madero escaped from prison and issued the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States. For the first time, he called for an armed uprising against the illegitimately-elected Díaz, and outlined a program of reform. The armed phase of the Mexican Revolution dates to his plan. Read more...

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Bottle of Mexican Coca-Cola in the United States

In the United States of America, Mexican Coca-Cola, Mexican Coke (Spanish: Coca Cola de Vidrio) or, informally, "Mexi-Coke", refers to Coca-Cola produced in and imported from Mexico.

Although intended for consumption in Mexico, Mexican Coca-Cola has become popular in the United States because of a flavor that Coca-Cola fans call more "natural tasting". While many believe the primary difference in flavor between Mexican Coca-Cola and the American Coca-Cola formula is that Mexican Coke is sweetened using cane sugar (which was standard for American Coca-Cola until the early 1980s) as opposed to high-fructose corn syrup, a scientific analysis of Mexican Coke found no sucrose (standard sugar), but instead found fructose and glucose levels similar to other soft drinks sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup. Most of the Mexican Coke exported to the United States is made with cane sugar, while some Mexican bottlers may use high-fructose corn syrup for drinks intended for sale in Mexico. Therefore, while most of the Coca-Cola labeled "Mexican" in the United States is made with cane sugar, this is not true of all Coca-Cola sold in Mexico. Read more...

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