Germany (German: Deutschland, German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,578 square kilometres (138,062 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying entirely in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a very decentralised country. Its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport.
In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American, British, and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone. Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.
Today, Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor. It is a great power with a strong economy. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993. Read more...
Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk ("total work of art"), by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).
His compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, and the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, places, ideas or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the development of classical music. His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music. More...
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Anniversaries for January 25
Did you know...
Did you know ...
- ... that Albert Lortzing (engraving shown), who adapted a 1733 French play for his German Spieloper Die Opernprobe, died the day after its successful premiere at the Oper Frankfurt on 20 January 1851?
- ... that Reinhold Fritz of the Stuttgart Court Opera, who participated in world premieres such as Ariadne auf Naxos by Richard Strauss, was dismissed in 1933 because his wife was Jewish?
- ... that many survivors of the Holocaust in the Sudetenland lost their Czechoslovak citizenship after the war because they were deemed to be "Germans"?
- ... that Jutta Hering-Winckler, a lawyer from Minden whose grandfather saw the premiere of Wagner's Ring cycle, "made the impossible possible" by organizing Der Ring in Minden?
- ... that in order to bypass political changes demanded by Germany at the 1940 Salzburg Conference, Slovakia adopted the Führer principle?
- ... that German journalist Jürgen Hinzpeter, who covered the Gwangju Uprising, was honored by the May 18 Memorial Foundation with a memorial stone containing his hair and nail clippings?
- ... that the biannual festival Wiesbadener Bachwochen has featured Faure's Requiem sung by a project choir in 2015, and Bach's Mass in B minor sung by the Schiersteiner Kantorei in 2019?
- ... that engraver Julius Bien sided with liberals in the 1848 revolutions like many other Jews, and fled Germany to the U.S., where he became a lithographer and the president of B'nai B'rith?