19th century depiction of Pope Theodore I
|Papacy began||24 November 642|
|Papacy ended||14 May 649|
|Born||Jerusalem, Byzantine Empire|
|Died||14 May 649|
|Other popes named Theodore|
According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a Greek inhabitant of Jerusalem whose father Theodorus had been a bishop in the city. He was among the many Syrian clergy who fled to Rome following the Muslim conquest of the Levant.
His election was supported by the Exarch of Ravenna and he was installed on 24 November 642, succeeding John IV.  The main focus of his pontificate was the continued struggle against the heretical Monothelites. He refused to recognize Paul as the Patriarch of Constantinople, because his predecessor, Pyrrhus, had not been correctly replaced. He pressed Emperor Constans II to withdraw the Ecthesis of Heraclius. While his efforts made little impression on Constantinople, it increased the opposition to the heresy in the West; Pyrrhus even briefly recanted his heresy (645), but was excommunicated in 648. Paul was excommunicated in 649. In response, Paul destroyed the Roman altar in the palace of Placidia and exiled or imprisoned the papal nuncios. But he also sought to end the issue with the Emperor by promulgating the Type of Constans, ordering that the Ecthesis be taken down and seeking to end discussion on the doctrine.
Theodore planned the Lateran Council of 649 to condemn the Ecthesis, but died before he could convene it. His successor, Pope Martin I, did so instead. Theodore was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. 
- The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Theodore I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "Theodore I", The Holy See
- Anastasius (bibliothecarius) (1602). Bibliothecarii Historia, de vitis romanorvm pontificvm. in typographeio I. Albini. p. 67.
Theodorus, natione Grecus, ex patre Theodoro episcopo de civitate Hierusolima
- Paul F. Bradshaw (2013). New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship. Hymns Ancient and Modern Ltd. p. 5. ISBN 9780334049326.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Mann 1913.
- (in Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Θεόδωρος ὁ Ἱερομάρτυρας Ἐπίσκοπος Ρώμης. 18 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Mann, Horace Kinder (1912). . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New York: Robert Appleton.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 765. .
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