S. Polycarpus, engraving by Michael Burghers, ca 1685
|Martyr, Church Father and Bishop of Smyrna|
|Died||AD 156 (aged 86 or 87)|
Smyrna, Asia, Roman Empire
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church,|
Oriental Orthodox Church,
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
|Feast||February 23 (formerly January 26)|
|Attributes||Wearing the pallium, holding a book representing his Epistle to the Philippians|
|Major works||Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians|
Polycarp (//; Greek: Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Latin: Polycarpus; AD 69 – 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to consume his body. Polycarp is regarded as a saint and Church Father in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches. His name means "much fruit" in Greek.
Both Irenaeus, who as a young man heard Polycarp speak, and Tertullian record that Polycarp had been a disciple of John the Apostle. Jerome writes that Polycarp was a disciple of John and that John had ordained him bishop of Smyrna.
The late tradition surrounding Polycarp that expanded upon the Martyrdom is embodied in a collection of fragmentary Coptic-language papyri known as the Harris Fragments, dated to the 3rd to 6th centuries. These fragments compare and contrast Polycarp with John the Apostle, who, though many people had tried to kill him, was not martyred but died of old age on the island of Patmos. Frederick Weidmann, editor of the Harris fragments, interprets them as Smyrnan hagiography addressing Smyrna–Ephesus church rivalries, which "develops the association of Polycarp and John to a degree unwitnessed, so far as we know, either before or since". The fragments both echo the Martyrology and diverge from it.[clarification needed]
Surviving writings and early accounts
The sole surviving work attributed to him is the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, a mosaic of references to the Greek Scriptures, which, along with an account of The Martyrdom of Polycarp, forms part of the collection of writings Roman Catholics and some Protestants term "The Apostolic Fathers." After the Acts of the Apostles, which describes the death of Stephen, the Martyrdom is considered one of the earliest genuine accounts of a Christian martyrdom.
The chief sources of information concerning the life of Polycarp are The Martyrdom of Polycarp, Adversus Haereses, the epistles of Ignatius, and Polycarp's own letter to the Philippians. In 1999, the Harris Fragments, a collection of 3rd- to 6th-century Coptic texts that mention Polycarp, were published.
According to Irenaeus, Polycarp was a companion of Papias, another "hearer of John" as Irenaeus interprets Papias' testimony, and a correspondent of Ignatius of Antioch. Ignatius addressed a letter to him and mentions him in his letters to the Ephesians and to the Magnesians.
Irenaeus regarded the memory of Polycarp as a link to the apostolic past. In his letter to Florinus, a fellow student of Polycarp who had become a Roman presbyter and later lapsed into heresy, Irenaeus relates how and when he became a Christian:
I could tell you the place where the blessed Polycarp sat to preach the Word of God. It is yet present to my mind with what gravity he everywhere came in and went out; what was the sanctity of his deportment, the majesty of his countenance; and what were his holy exhortations to the people. I seem to hear him now relate how he conversed with John and many others who had seen Jesus Christ, the words he had heard from their mouths.
In particular, he heard the account of Polycarp's discussion with John the Presbyter and with others who had seen Jesus. Irenaeus reports that Polycarp was converted to Christianity by apostles, was consecrated a bishop, and communicated with many who had seen Jesus. He repeatedly emphasizes the great age of Polycarp.
Visit to Anicetus
According to Irenaeus, during the time his fellow Syrian Anicetus was Bishop of Rome, Polycarp visited Rome to discuss differences in the practices of the churches of Asia and Rome. Irenaeus states that on certain things the two bishops speedily came to an understanding, while as to the observance of Easter, each adhered to his own custom, without breaking off full communion with the other. Polycarp followed the Eastern practice of celebrating the feast on the 14th of Nisan, the day of the Jewish Passover, regardless of the day of the week on which it fell, while Anicetus followed the Western practice of celebrating the feast on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox. Anicetus allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in his own church, which was regarded by the Romans as a great honor.
Date of martyrdom
In the Martyrdom, Polycarp is recorded as saying on the day of his death: "Eighty and six years I have served Him, and He has done me no wrong." This could indicate either that he was then eighty-six years old or that he had lived eighty-six years after his conversion. Polycarp goes on to say: "How then can I blaspheme my King and Savior? You threaten me with a fire that burns for a season, and after a little while is quenched; but you are ignorant of the fire of everlasting punishment that is prepared for the wicked." Polycarp was burned at the stake and pierced with a spear for refusing to burn incense to the Roman Emperor. On his farewell, he said: "I bless you, Father, for judging me worthy of this hour, so that in the company of the martyrs I may share the cup of Christ."
The date of Polycarp's death is in dispute. Eusebius dates it to the reign of Marcus Aurelius, c. 166–167. However, a post-Eusebian addition to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the authenticity of which has not been established, dates his death to Saturday, February 23, in the proconsulship of Lucius Statius Quadratus, c. 155 or 156. These earlier dates better fit the tradition of his association with Ignatius and John the Evangelist. Although a date of 177 has been proposed,[by whom?] the earlier date of 156 is generally accepted.
Because the Smyrnaean letter known as the Martyrdom of Polycarp states that Polycarp was taken "on the day of the Sabbath" and killed on "the Great Sabbath," some[who?] believe that this is evidence that the Smyrnaeans under Polycarp observed the seventh-day Sabbath:
|“||[t]he Sabbath or 'Saturday' (for so the word sabbatum is constantly used in the writings of the fathers, when speaking of it as it relates to Christians) was held by them in great veneration, and especially in the Eastern parts honoured with all the public solemnities of religion. This is plain, not only from some passages in Ignatius and Clemens' Constitutions, but from writers of more unquestionable credit and authority. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, tells us that they assembled on Saturdays . . . to worship Jesus Christ, the Lord of the Sabbath."||”|
|— William Cave |
Some[who?] believe that the expression "the Great Sabbath" refers to the Christian Passover or another annual Jewish holy day. If so, then Polycarp's martyrdom would have had to occur at least a month after the traditional February 23 dating, since according to the Hebrew calendar, the earliest Nisan 14, the date of the Passover, can fall on in any given year is late March. Other "Great Sabbaths" fall in the spring, late summer, and the fall; none occur in winter.
It is claimed[by whom?] that the "Great Sabbath" is alluded to in John 7:37, where it is referred to as "the last day, that great day of the feast" and is a separate annual holy day immediately following the Feast of Tabernacles. Others argue that the gospel writer is referring to the seventh day of the Feast and later refers to the Eighth Day or annual Sabbath in John 9:14. It is more likely that the "Great Sabbath," as referred to in the Martyrdom of Polycarp is alluded to in John 19:31 which points out "that [weekly] Sabbath day" following the "[day of the] preparation" was a "high day" or "great."
Polycarp occupies an important place in the history of the early Christian Church. He is among the earliest Christians whose writings survived. Jerome wrote that Polycarp was a "disciple of the apostle John and by him ordained bishop of Smyrna". He was an elder of an important congregation that was a large contributor to the founding of the Christian Church. He is from an era whose orthodoxy is widely accepted by Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches, Church of God groups, Sabbatarian groups, mainstream Protestants and Catholics alike. According to David Trobisch, Polycarp may have been the one who compiled, edited, and published the New Testament.
Irenaeus, who as a young man had heard Polycarp preach, described him as "a man who was of much greater weight, and a more steadfast witness of truth, than Valentinus, and Marcion, and the rest of the heretics". Polycarp had learned from apostle John to flee from those who change the divine truth. Polycarp lived in an age after the deaths of the apostles, when a variety of interpretations of the sayings of Jesus were being preached. His role was to authenticate orthodox teachings through his reputed connection with the apostle John: "a high value was attached to the witness Polycarp could give as to the genuine tradition of old apostolic doctrine" "his testimony condemning as offensive novelties the figments of the heretical teachers". Irenaeus states (iii. 3) that on Polycarp's visit to Rome, his testimony converted many disciples of Marcion and Valentinus.
- Christianity in the 1st century
- Christianity in the 2nd century
- Early centers of Christianity
- Early Christianity
- History of early Christianity
- Ignatius of Antioch
- List of Catholic saints
- List of Christian martyrs
- Saint Polycarp at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Henry Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies, s.v. "Polycarpus, bishop of Smyrna".
- Tertullian, De praescriptione hereticorum 32.2
- Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses III.3, Polycarp does not quote from the Gospel of John in his surviving epistle, which may be an indication that whichever John he knew was not the author of that gospel, or that the gospel was not finished during Polycarp's discipleship with John. Weidmann suggests (Weidmann 1999:132) that the "Harris fragments" may reflect early traditions: "the raw material for a narrative about John and Polycarp may have been in place before Irenaeus; the codification of the significance of a direct line of succession from the apostle John through Polycarp may arguably be linked directly to Irenaeus".
- Dating according to Frederick W. Weidmann, ed. and tr. Polycarp and John: The Harris Fragments and Their Challenge to the Literary Tradition (University of Notre Dame Press, 1999).
- Weidmann 1999:133.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bacchus, Francis Joseph (1911). . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton.
- Hartog, Paul (2002). Polycarp and the New Testament. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-16-147419-4.
- Irenaeus, V.xxxiii.
- Bacchus, Francis Joseph (1911). Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). "St. Polycarp". My First Book of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate - Quality Catholic Publications. pp. 58–59. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.
- Andrews, Herbert Tom (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–22. . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.).
- Staniforth, Maxwell, trans. Early Christian Writings London: Penguin Books (1987): 115.
- "Polycarp - Martyrdom". Polycarp.net.
- Ferguson, Everett (16 June 2005), "4: The Church and the Empire", Church History: From Christ to pre-Reformation, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, p. 80, ISBN 978-0-310-20580-7
- Cave, Primitive Christianity: or the Religion of the Ancient Christians in the First Ages of the Gospel. 1840, revised edition by H. Cary. Oxford, London, pp. 84–85).
- Schaff, Philip (ed.), Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2, 3
- Tobisch, David, "Who Published the New Testament?", Free Inquiry, 28:1 (2007/2008) pp.30–33
- Eusebius, Church History, Book V, Chapter 24
- Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses III.3.4
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycarp of Smyrna.|
- Early Christian Writings Polycarp, text and introductions
- Polycarp: The Apostolic Legacy
- Paul N. Tobin, "The Apostolic Succession: Polycarp and Clement" A skeptical assessment of inconsistencies in the tradition
- The Martyrdom of Polycarp: The Contemporary Account of His Death in the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- The Golden Legend: Polycarp of Smyrna
- Works by or about Polycarp at Internet Archive
- Works by Polycarp at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)