|Cardinal Secretary of State|
|Appointed||15 October 2013|
|Predecessor||Tarcisio Bertone, SDB|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Bishop of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo a Torre Angela|
Member of the Council of Cardinal Advisers
|Ordination||27 April 1980|
by Arnoldo Onisto
|Consecration||12 September 2009|
by Benedict XVI
|Created cardinal||22 February 2014|
|Born||17 January 1955|
|Previous post||Apostolic Nuncio to Venezuela (2009–2013)|
Titular Archbishop of Aquipendium (2009–2014)
|Alma mater||Pontifical Gregorian University|
Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
|Motto||Latin: Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi?|
(Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?)
|Coat of arms|
Ordination history of
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Pietro Parolin (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpjɛːtro paroˈlin], Venetian: [paɾoˈliŋ]; born 17 January 1955) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. A cardinal since February 2014, he has served as the Secretary of State since October 2013 and a member of the Council of Cardinal Advisers since July 2014. Before that he worked in the diplomatic service of the Holy See for thirty years, where his assignments included terms in Nigeria, Mexico and Venezuela as well as more than six years as Undersecretary of State for Relations with States.
Parolin was born in Schiavon, Province of Vicenza, the son of a hardware store manager and an elementary school teacher. He has one sister and a brother. When he was ten years old, his father died in a car accident. After he was ordained on 27 April 1980, he took up graduate studies in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University and in diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. He entered the Holy See's diplomatic service in 1986 at the age of 31.
He served for three years in the Nunciature of Nigeria where he became familiar with the problems in Christian-Muslim relations.
At the Nunciature of Mexico from 1989 to 1992, he contributed to the final phase of the extensive work begun by Archbishop Girolamo Prigione which led to the legal recognition of the Catholic Church in 1992 and the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Mexico after 130 years. These laborious negotiations led to Mexico officially shedding the country’s secular and anti-clerical imprint, which extended to its Constitution.
Undersecretary of State for Relations with States
Parolin was Undersecretary of State for Relations with States from 30 November 2002 to 17 August 2009.
Parolin has also been at the forefront of Vatican efforts to approve and implement the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Addressing the International Atomic Energy Agency on 18 September 2006, at its headquarters in Vienna, Parolin referred to this treaty as "the basis to pursue nuclear disarmament and an important element for further development of nuclear energy applications for peaceful purposes." He said: "Since this treaty is the only multilateral legal instrument currently available, intended to bring about a nuclear weapons-free world, it must not be allowed to be weakened. Humanity deserves no less than the full cooperation of all states in this important matter." Concerning international negotiations with respect to Iran's nuclear program, he said "that the present difficulties can and must be overcome through diplomatic channels, making use of all the means that diplomacy has at its disposal and considers necessary to eliminate all the elements which objectively impede mutual trust."
In September 2007 at the opening of the UN he argued that, "We often hear in the halls of the United Nations of 'the responsibility to protect'. The Holy See believes that applies also in the context of climate change. States have a shared 'responsibility to protect' the world’s climate through mitigation/adaptation, and above all a shared 'responsibility to protect' our planet and ensure that present and future generations be able to live in a healthy and safe environment".
Parolin represented the Vatican in a variety of sensitive assignments, including trips to North Korea and Vietnam as well as the 2007 Annapolis Conference on the Middle East convened by the Bush administration to revive Israeli-Palestinian peace talks.
As the Vatican's "deputy foreign minister" he dealt with all the sensitive dossiers on the Holy See's relations with Vietnam (he was partly responsible for paving the way to full diplomatic relations between the two) and the legal issues between the Vatican and Israel which remain unresolved. At the beginning of Pope Benedict's pontificate, direct contact was re-established with China.
During his time as undersecretary Parolin scored some significant breakthroughs, such as cementing ties between the Holy See and Vietnam, re-establishing direct contact with Beijing in 2005 and helping secure the liberation of 15 British navy personnel captured by Iranian forces in the Persian Gulf in April 2007.
On 17 August 2009 Pope Benedict XVI appointed Parolin Titular Archbishop of Aquipendium and Apostolic Nuncio to Venezuela. He was consecrated a bishop on 12 September 2009 by Benedict, with Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone and William Cardinal Levada as co-consecrators. The Venezuela assignment was expected to be difficult, since conflicts between the State and the Church in Venezuela were on the rise as President Hugo Chavez attempted to advance his socialist revolution.
Secretary of State
Parolin became, at 58, the youngest Secretary of State since 1929, when Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) was appointed to the position at the age of 53. He said: "The pope's initiatives have given the secretary of state an impetus and have also created a new diplomatic momentum." When asked if he would be spearheading a new diplomatic offensive for peace, he noted that it was a complicated question but said, "Yes, I hope that we can recoup" that drive. "We have this great advantage in respect to other churches, to other religions: We can count on an international institutional presence through diplomacy," he said.
On 16 December, Parolin was named to a five-year renewable term as a member of the Congregation for Bishops. On 19 February 2014 he was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.
Parolin was made Cardinal-Priest of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo a Torre Angela at a papal general consistory on 22 February 2014. He attended meetings of the Council of Cardinal Advisers on a regular basis and in July 2014 became the Council's ninth member.
In 2014 Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro invited Cardinal Parolin to mediate talks between his government and opposition in hopes of stemming violence that has killed dozens in the nation's worst unrest in a decade. He asked that Parolin, a former nuncio to Venezuela be named a "good faith witness" to a dialogue the [parties had agreed upon after two months of protests. Venezuela's opposition coalition had indicated that current nuncio, Archbishop Aldo Giordano, would be attending the first formal talks. Henrique Capriles, the opposition's two-time presidential candidate who narrowly lost an election to Maduro the year before, confirmed he would take part in the discussions.
In December 2014 Cardinal Parolin asked the U.S. to find an "adequate humanitarian solution" for prisoners held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, a reflection of Pope Francis' concern that prisoners be treated with dignity and not be subject to inhumane treatment. Parolin made the request during a Vatican meeting with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry. The Vatican said they discussed the U.S. commitment to closing the facility and that Parolin expressed the Holy See's desire that "favourable attention be paid to finding adequate humanitarian solutions for current inmates".
The Holy See was credited with playing a major role in the reestablishment of U.S.-Cuba relations. Parolin moderated the October 2014 meeting between Cuban and U.S. officials as their negotiations neared an agreement. In 2015, Cardinal Parolin was asked whether the normalisation of Cuba – U.S. relations pointed toward a new "golden age" of Vatican diplomacy. He said that "the president of the United States has already thanked the Pope for the support he has given to this important step" and said: "Holy See diplomacy is always there, to help to build bridges". Parolin also said the Holy See's diplomacy "is now more active…(not only) waiting, but also proposing (solutions for peace), since there are so many conflicts."
Parolin called for an intervention in Libya to stop a possible alliance between the country's Islamic government and the Islamic State. Parolin spoke about the chaos there after ISIS beheaded 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians, describing the incident as "terrifying" and the situation "grave". He stressed the need for "a quick response". Parolin added that "any armed intervention must be carried forward under the framework of international law" and "under the umbrella of the United Nations".
In May 2015, after the passage of the Marriage Equality Referendum in Ireland, which extended marriage rights to same-sex couples, Parolin said: "I was very saddened by this result. I don't think we can speak only about a defeat for Christian principles, but a defeat for humanity." In June 2015, he visited Abu Dhabi to inaugurate Saint Paul's Church in Musaffah, the city's the second Catholic parish .
Cardinal Parolin has stressed the importance of continuity. He believes Pope Francis simply tries to guide the church to be the church of Christ and that he is not starting a revolution. He defends the importance of unchangeable dogmas and asserts the relevance of sacred tradition. He said celibacy is a discipline that could be changed but that it cannot simply be dismissed as outdated. In a keynote speech at the Pontifical Gregorian University in February 2016, Cardinal Parolin defended celibacy as a "gift" that must be received and nurtured with "joyful perseverance" and criticized the suggestion that the shortage of vocations be addressed by modifying the requirement of priestly celibacy.
In May 2016 Parolin visited Estonia to mark the 25th anniversary of the reintroduction of diplomatic relations between Estonia and the Holy See. He spoke at the University of Tartu on the precise meaning of their international relations.
Parolin was appointed a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments in October 2016.
Following the resignation of Marie Collins from the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors, Parolin said she quit because she wanted to "shake the tree" in the Vatican. Collins said some members of the Church's administration, the Roman Curia, have hindered and blocked the commission's efforts, naming the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Parolin called the lack of cooperation from some Vatican offices "shameful".
Parolin told Italy's La Stampa the flow of migrants and refugees into Europe is testing "the spirit of solidarity and subsidiarity" of the European Union, and acknowledged the large number of people fleeing to the continent poses a security problem. "Terrorism certainly finds fertile ground in poverty, lack of jobs, and social marginalization", he said, adding that since World War II, Europe has tried to "free itself" from its cultural heritage and values, and this has created a vacuum in which young people cannot find the answers to their existential questions.
In a 2018 interview, Cardinal Joseph Zen said "Pope Francis does not know the real Communist Party in China, but Parolin should know. He was there [in the Secretariat of State] so many years, so he must know. He may be happy to encourage the pope to be optimistic about the negotiations ... but that's dangerous. Pope Francis needs someone to calm him down from his enthusiasm." He added that "It seems the Secretary of State wants to have a solution anyway. He is so optimistic. That's dangerous. I told the pope that he [Parolin] has a poisoned mind. He is very sweet, but I have no trust in this person. He believes in diplomacy, not in our faith." Parolin countered that "no personal point of view can be considered as an exclusive interpreter of what is good for Chinese Catholics" and said: "If someone is asked to make a sacrifice, small or great, it must be clear to everyone that this is not the price of a political exchange, but falls within the evangelical perspective of a greater good, the good of the Church of Christ."
Pope Francis raised him to the rank of Cardinal Bishop effective 28 June 2018.
In October 2018, Cardinal Parolin said that, Paul VI rejected a version of Humane Vitae that “was limited to a rigorous reaffirmation of doctrine to which Christians and all people were asked to adhere docilely and without reservation,” Pos publication debates, Cardinal Parolin said, made it impossible for many people to see its accent on mercy.
In 2019, Cardinal defending the Holy See-China agreement on the appointment of bishops, “We signed this agreement to help advance religious freedom, to find normalization for the Catholic community there, and then for all other religions to have space and a role to play in society which is recognized,” Parolin told journalists 3 April. Steve Bannon said he may lead a lawsuit to compel the Holy See to release the text of the deal under the terms of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
- Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Germany: Commander Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Romania: Order of the Star of Romania
- Mexico: Band of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (31 August 2013). "Pope Appoints Diplomat as Vatican Secretary of State". New York Times. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "The talents of the priest and diplomat Fr. Pietro Parolin". Vatican Insider. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- "Kard. Parolin otrzymał najwyższe odznaczenie Meksyku – Artykuł". Niedziela.pl. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Holy See Insists on Need for Nuclear Disarmament". Zenit. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Intervention by the Holy See at the High-Level Event on Climate Change Entitled 'The Future is in Our Hands: Addressing the Leadership Challenge of Climate Change'". Holy See Press Office. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2018. Cite journal requires
- "Francis reboots Vatican system with new Secretary of State". National Catholic Reporter. 31 August 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Allen Jr., John L. (26 November 2007). "Parolin to represent the Holy See at Annapolis". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Religious freedom, diplomatic relations in talks between Holy See and Hanoi". Asia News (PIME). 20 February 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Cardinal Parolin Played Key Role in U.S.-Cuba Negotiations". National Catholic Register. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Rinunce e nomine, 17.08.2009" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- Allen, Jr., John L. (18 August 2009). "Pope sends top diplomat to deal with Chavez". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Il Papa nomina Mons. Pietro Parolin nuove segretario di stato" (in Italian). Vatican Radio. 31 August 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Glatz, Carol (9 September 2013). "Vatican's new top diplomat ready to ramp up network for peace". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Rinunce e Nomine, 16.12.2013" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Pope Confirms Cardinal Sandri as Prefect of the Congregation for Oriental Churches". Zenit. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Consistoro Ordinario Pubblico per la Creazione dei Nuovi Cardinali: Assegnazione dei Titoli o delle Diaconie ai Nuovi Porporati, 22.02.2014" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Pope and "C9" express esteem for Von Freyberg and changes are on the horizon for the IOR". La Stampa. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Venezuela reaches out to Vatican No. 2 to mediate crisis". Reuters.
- "Vatican asks US to find 'humanitarian solution' for Guantánamo prisoners". The Guardian. 15 December 2014.
- John Hooper. "Renewed US-Cuba relations biggest success in Vatican diplomacy in decades". The Guardian.
- "Cardinal Parolin: on Holy See's role in US/Cuba agreement". Vatican Radio.
- Yardley, Jim; Piangiani, Gaia (17 December 2014). "Pope Francis Is Credited With a Crucial Role in U.S.-Cuba Agreement". New York Times. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Top Vatican Official: Washington, NYC likely stops on papal trip". Catholic News Agency.
- "Vatican Secretary of State urges 'quick response' to crisis in Libya". Catholic News Agency.
- "Cardinal Parolin: Action needed in Libya, but through the United Nations". Vatican Radio. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Vatican says Ireland gay marriage vote is 'defeat for humanity'". The Guardian. 27 May 2015.
- "Vatican cardinal calls Irish gay vote 'defeat for humanity'". Financial Times. 27 May 2015.
- "Second catholic church in Abu Dhabi inaugurated". Khaleej Times. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Allen Jr., John L. (11 September 2013). "New Secretary of State Parolin on celibacy, democrac". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Cardinal Parolin: scrapping celibacy is no solution to vocations crisis". The Tablet. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Card. Parolin defines diplomatic relations of the Holy See". Vatican Radio. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (6 March 2017). "Cardinal Muller responds to Collins and defends not answering survivors' letters". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Top Vatican official says Europe in a 'deep malaise'". CRUX. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "The Vatican's secretary of state visits Moscow for the first time in 19 years". The Economist. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- White, Christopher (16 October 2017). "Cardinal says pope's top diplomat has 'poisoned mind' on China". Crux. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Collins, Charles (29 January 2018). "Cardinal Zen attacks Vatican efforts to rehabilitate government-appointed Chinese bishops". Crux. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Cardinal Parolin defends Vatican's strategy in China". Catholic Herald. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Un Cardenal "papabile" visita México". AFN Tijuana (in Spanish). Agencia Fronteriza de Noticias. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Drew, Mark (9 November 2017). "How Cardinal Parolin won the Vatican civil war". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Magister, Sandro (4 October 2017). "E dopo Francesco? ecco tre candidati". L'Espresso (in Italian). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Rescriptum ex Audientia Ss.mi" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Facing criticism of China deal, Vatican’s top diplomat says ‘be patient’
- "Dettaglio decorato – Parolin Rev.mo Mons. Pietro" (in Italian). Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- "Diario Oficial de la Federación" (in Spanish). DOF. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Additional sources
- Pentin, Edward (3 September 2013). "Pope Picks Highly Credentialed Diplomat for Vatican Secretary of State". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pietro Parolin.|
- "Parolin Card. Pietro". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Interview, Nuncio to Venezuela, 2013
|Preceded by |
| Undersecretary for Relations with States |
|Preceded by |
| Apostolic Nuncio to Venezuela |
17 August 2009 – 15 October 2013
|Catholic Church titles|
|Preceded by |
| Archbishop of Aquipendium |
17 August 2009 – 22 February 2014
|Preceded by |
Tarcisio Bertone, SDB
| President of the Interdicasterial Commission on Particular Churches |
15 October 2013 – present
| President of the Interdicasterial Commission for the Church in Eastern Europe|
15 October 2013 – present
| Protector of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy|
15 October 2013 – present
|Preceded by |
titular church established
| Cardinal-Priest of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo a Torre Angela|
22 February 2014 – 28 June 2018
|Preceded by |
Himself as Cardinal-Priest
| Cardinal-Bishop of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo e Torre Angela|
28 June 2018 – present
|Preceded by |
| Cardinal Secretary of State |
15 October 2013 – present