Party of European Socialists

Party of European Socialists
PresidentSergei Stanishev (BG)
Secretary-GeneralAchim Post (DE)
Founded1973 (Confederation)
9–10 November 1992 (Party)
HeadquartersRue Guimard 10, 1040 Brussels, Belgium
Think tankFoundation for European Progressive Studies
Youth wingYoung European Socialists
Women's wingPES Women
IdeologySocial democracy[1][2]
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-left[2][3]
International affiliationProgressive Alliance[4]
Socialist International[5]
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
ColoursRed
European Parliament
154 / 751
European Council
7 / 28
European Commission
9 / 27
European Lower Houses
2,327 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
645 / 2,714
Website
www.pes.eu

The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.[6]

The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union (EU) plus Norway. This includes major parties such as the Italian Democratic Party, the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. Parties from a number of other European countries are also admitted to the PES as associate or observer parties.[7] Most member, associate and observer parties are members of the wider Progressive Alliance or Socialist International.[4][5]

The PES is currently led by its president Sergei Stanishev, a former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Its political group in the European Parliament is the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D). The PES also operates in the Committee of the Regions (in the PES Group in the Committee of the Regions) and the European Council.

Name[edit]

The party's English name is "Party of European Socialists". In addition, the following names are used in other languages:

  • Albanian: Partia e Socialistëve Europianë
  • Bosnian: Partija evropskih socijalista/Партија европских социјалиста
  • Bulgarian: Партия на европейските социалисти
  • Croatian: Stranka europskih socijalista
  • Czech: Strana evropských socialistů
  • Danish: De Europæiske Socialdemokrater
  • Dutch: Partij van Europese Socialisten
  • Estonian: Euroopa Sotsialistlik Partei
  • Finnish: Euroopan sosialidemokraattinen puolue
  • French: Parti socialiste européen
  • German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Europas
  • Greek: Ευρωπαϊκό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα
  • Hungarian: Európai Szocialisták Pártja
  • Icelandic: Flokkur evrópskra sósíalista
  • Irish: Páirtí na Sóisialaithe Eorpach
  • Italian: Partito del Socialismo Europeo
  • Latvian: Eiropas Sociāldemokrātiskā partija
  • Lithuanian: Europos socialistų partija
  • Luxembourgish: Partei vun den Europäesche Sozialisten
  • Macedonian: Партија на европските социјалисти
  • Maltese: Partit tas-Soċjalisti Ewropej
  • Norwegian: Det europeiske sosialdemokratiske partiet
  • Polish: Partia Europejskich Socjalistów
  • Portuguese: Partido Socialista Europeu
  • Romanian: Partidul Socialiștilor Europeni
  • Serbian: Партија европских социјалиста
  • Slovak: Strana európskych socialistov
  • Slovene: Stranka evropskih socialistov
  • Spanish: Partido de los Socialistas Europeos
  • Swedish: Europeiska socialdemokratiska partiet

In March 2014 following the congress in Rome, the PES added the tagline "Socialists and Democrats" to its name following the admission of Italy's Democratic Party into the organisation.[8]

History[edit]

1960s[edit]

In 1961, the Socialists in the European Parliament attempted to produce a common 'European Socialist Programme' but this was neglected due to the applications of Britain, Denmark, Ireland and Norway to join the European Community. The Socialists' 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament, though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states.[9]

1970s[edit]

In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the European Community, bringing in new parties from these countries. The enlarged Socialist Congress met in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress also passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security, democracy and equality in the European economy.[10] In 1978, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved the first common European election Manifesto. It focused on several goals among which the most important were to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human rights and civil liberties.

1980s[edit]

At its Luxembourg Congress in 1980, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved its first Statute. The accession of Greece to the EU in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986, brought in more parties.

In 1984, a common Socialist election manifesto proposed a socialist remedy for the economic crisis of the time by establishing a link between industrial production, protection of fundamental social benefits, and the fight for an improved quality of life.[10]

1990s[edit]

In 1992, with the European Community becoming the European Union and with the Treaty of Maastricht establishing the framework for political parties at a European level, the Confederation of Socialist Parties voted to transform itself into the Party of European Socialists. The party's first programme concentrated on job creation, democracy, gender equality, environmental and consumer protection, peace and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism and fighting organised crime.[10]

Along with the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, the founding members of the PES were:[11]

2000s[edit]

In 2004 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post. He was re-elected for a further 2.5 years at the PES Congress in Porto on 8 December 2006 and again at the Prague Congress in 2009.

2010s[edit]

In 2010, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies was founded as the political foundation (think tank) of the PES.

Mr Rasmussen stood down at the PES Progressive Convention in Brussels on 24 November 2011. He was replaced as interim president by Sergei Stanishev, chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) and former prime minister of Bulgaria.

On 28-29 September 2012, the PES Congress in Brussels[12] Congress elected interim president Sergei Stanishev as full President, as well as four deputies: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis (1st Vice-President – PS), Elena Valenciano (PSOE), Jan Royall (Labour) and Katarína Neveďalová (Smer-SD). The same Congress elected Achim Post (SPD) as its new secretary general, and adopted a process which it described as "democratic and transparent" for electing its next candidate for Commission President in 2014.[13] The PES had already agreed in 2011 to use a PES presidential primary for the election.

Organisation[edit]

Member parties[edit]

The PES has thirty-three full member parties from each of the twenty-eight EU member states and Norway. There are a further thirteen associate and twelve observer parties from other European countries.[14]

State Name abbr. MEPs National MPs
 Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria
Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs
SPÖ
5 / 18
40 / 183
21 / 62
 Belgium Socialist Party
Parti socialiste
PS
3 / 8
[. 1]
23 / 63
9 / 24
[. 1]
Socialist Party – Differently
Socialistische Partij Anders
sp.a
1 / 13
[. 2]
13 / 87
5 / 35
[. 2]
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party
Българска социалистическа партия
Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya
BSP
4 / 17
80 / 240
 Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia
Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske
SDP
4 / 12
29 / 151
 Cyprus Movement for Social Democracy
Κίνημα Σοσιαλδημοκρατών
Kinima Sosialdimokraton
EDEK
2 / 6
3 / 56
 Czech Republic Czech Social Democratic Party
Česká strana sociálně demokratická
ČSSD
0 / 21
15 / 200
 Denmark Social Democrats
Socialdemokraterne
A
3 / 13
47 / 179
 Estonia Social Democratic Party
Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond
SDE
2 / 6
10 / 101
 Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland
Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue
Finlands socialdemokratiska parti
SDP
2 / 13
40 / 200
 France Socialist Party
Parti socialiste
PS
10 / 74
73 / 348
27 / 577
 Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD
27 / 96
153 / 709
20 / 69
 Greece Panhellenic Socialist Movement
Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα
Panellínio Sosialistikó Kínima
PASOK
2 / 21
18 / 300
 Hungary Hungarian Socialist Party
Magyar Szocialista Párt
MSZP
1 / 21
28 / 199
 Ireland Labour Party
Páirtí an Lucht Oibre
Lab
0 / 11
5 / 60
7 / 158
 Italy Democratic Party
Partito Democratico
PD
26 / 73
54 / 315
112 / 630
Italian Socialist Party
Partito Socialista Italiano
PSI
0 / 73
1 / 315
1 / 630
 Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony"[15]
Sociāldemokrātiskā partija "Saskaņa"
SDPS
2 / 8
22 / 100
 Lithuania Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija
LSDP
2 / 11
17 / 141
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei
Parti ouvrier socialiste luxembourgeois
Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei
LSAP
1 / 6
13 / 60
 Malta Labour Party
Parti Laburista
PL
3 / 6
37 / 69
 Netherlands Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
PvdA
3 / 26
8 / 75
9 / 150
 Norway Labour Party
Arbeiderpartiet
AP Not in EU
49 / 169
 Poland Democratic Left Alliance
Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej
SLD
3 / 51
1 / 100
24 / 460
Labour United
Unia Pracy
UP
1 / 51
0 / 100
0 / 460
 Portugal Socialist Party
Partido Socialista
PS
8 / 21
86 / 230
 Romania Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat
PSD
16 / 32
67 / 168
154 / 398
 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy
Smer – sociálna demokracia
Smer-SD
4 / 13
49 / 150
 Slovenia Social Democrats
Socialni demokrati
SD
2 / 8
10 / 90
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Partido Socialista Obrero Español
PSOE
14 / 54
139 / 266
123 / 350
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party
Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti
SAP
5 / 20
100 / 349
 United Kingdom Labour Party Lab (GB)
20 / 70
202 / 793
262 / 632
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre
SDLP (NI)
0 / 3
0 / 793
0 / 18
Associated parties
State Name abbr. European MPs National MPs
 Albania Socialist Party of Albania
Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë
PSS
74 / 140
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Socijaldemokratska partija Bosne i Hercegovine
SDP
1 / 15
5 / 42
 Bulgaria Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats
партия Български социалдемократи
Partiya Bulgarski Sotsialdemokrati
PBS
0 / 8
1 / 240
 Iceland Social Democratic Alliance
Samfylkingin
Samf.
7 / 63
 Moldova Democratic Party of Moldova
Partidul Democrat din Moldova
PDM
19 / 101
 Montenegro Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
Demokratska partija socijalista Crne Gore
DPS
31 / 81
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro
Socijaldemokratska partija Crne Gore
SDP
6 / 81
 North Macedonia Social Democratic Union of Macedonia
Социјалдемократски сојуз на Македонија
Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija
SDSM
49 / 120
 Serbia Democratic Party
Демократска странка
Demokratska stranka
DS
18 / 250
  Switzerland Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz
Parti socialiste suisse
Partito Socialista Svizzero
Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra
SP/PS
39 / 200
 Turkey Republican People's Party
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi
CHP
131 / 550
Peoples' Democratic Party
Halkların Demokratik Partisi
Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan
HDP
50 / 550
Observer parties
State Name abbr. European MPs National MPs
 Andorra Social Democratic Party
Partit Socialdemòcrata
PS
3 / 28
 Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն
Hay Yeghap’vokhakan Dashnakts’ut’iwn
ARF
0 / 131
 Egypt Egyptian Social Democratic Party
الحزب المصرى الديمقراطى الاجتماعى‎
al-Ḥizb al-Maṣrī al-Dimuqrāṭī al-Ijtmāʿī
ESDP
4 / 596
 Georgia Georgian Dream
ქართული ოცნება – დემოკრატიული საქართველო
Kartuli ocneba – Demok’rat’iuli Sakartvelo
94 / 150
 Israel Israeli Labor Party
מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית
Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisrelit
עבודה
6 / 120
Meretz
מֶרֶצ
Meretz
מרצ
4 / 120
 Latvia Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party
Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā strādnieku partija
LSDSP
0 / 9
0 / 100
 Morocco Socialist Union of Popular Forces
الاتحاد الاشتراكي للقوات الشعبية
Al-Ittihad Al-Ishtirakiy Lilqawat Al-Sha'abiyah
Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires
USFP
24 / 270
20 / 395
 Northern Cyprus Republican Turkish Party
Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi
CTP
20 / 50
 Palestine Fatah
فتح
Fatḥ
فتح
45 / 132
 San Marino Party of Socialists and Democrats
Partito dei Socialisti e dei Democratici
PSD
3 / 60
 Tunisia Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties
التكتل الديمقراطي من أجل العمل والحريات‎
at-Takattul ad-Dīmuqrāṭī min ajl il-‘Amal wal-Ḥurriyyāt
Forum démocratique pour le travail et les libertés
FDTL
0 / 217
  1. ^ a b French-speaking seats
  2. ^ a b Flemish seats

Constituent organisations[edit]

The youth organisation of the PES is the Young European Socialists. PES Women is the party's women's organisation, led by Zita Gurmai. The LGBTI campaign organisation is Rainbow Rose.[16]

International memberships[edit]

PES is an associated organisation of Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance.

President and Presidency[edit]

The President (currently former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Sergei Stanishev) represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which also consists of the Secretary General, President of the S&D group in Parliament and one representative per full/associate member party and organisation. They may also be joined by the President of the European Parliament (if a PES member), a PES European Commissioner and a representative from associate parties and organisations.[16]

The list below shows PES Presidents and the presidents of its predecessors.[17]

President State National party Term
1. Wilhelm Dröscher  Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany April 1974 January 1979
2. Robert Pontillon  France Socialist Party January 1979 March 1980
3. Joop den Uyl  Netherlands Labour Party March 1980 May 1987
4. Vítor Constâncio  Portugal Socialist Party May 1987 January 1989
5. Guy Spitaels  Belgium Socialist Party February 1989 May 1992
6. Willy Claes  Belgium Socialist Party November 1992 October 1994
7. Rudolf Scharping  Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany March 1995 May 2001
8. Robin Cook  United Kingdom Labour Party May 2001 24 April 2004
9. Poul Nyrup Rasmussen  Denmark Social Democrats 24 April 2004 24 November 2011
10. Sergei Stanishev  Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party 24 November 2011

Governance[edit]

The parties meet at the party Congress twice every five years to decide on political orientation, such as adopting manifestos ahead of elections. Every year that the Congress does not meet, the Council (a smaller version of the Congress) shapes PES policy. The Congress also elects the party's President, Vice Presidents and the Presidency.[16]

The Leader's Conference brings together Prime Ministers and Party Leaders from PES parties three to four times a year to agree strategies and resolutions.[16]

European election primaries[edit]

In December 2009, the PES decided to put forward a candidate for Commission President at all subsequent elections.[18] On 1 March 2014, the PES organised for the first time a European election Congress where a Common Manifesto [19] was adopted and the Common Candidate designate for the post of Commission President, Martin Schulz, was elected by over a thousand participants in Rome, Italy. PES member parties across Europe joined forces to campaign for the European elections, and a mass grassroots movement sprang up in support of Martin Schulz, aiming to ‘knock the vote’ in support of his candidacy.

PES in the European institutions[edit]

Overview of the European institutions[edit]

Organisation Institution Number of seats
 European Union European Parliament
144 / 751
Committee of the Regions
131 / 350
European Commission
8 / 28
European Council
(Heads of Government)
7 / 28
Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
13 / 28
 Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
69 / 318

European Parliament[edit]

European Commission[edit]

European Commissioners are meant to remain independent, however there has been an increasing degree of politicisation within the Commission.[20] In the current European Commission, eight of the Commissioners belong to the PES family.

Portfolio Commissioner State Political party Photo
1st Vice-President of the European Commission

1st Vice-President;
Better Regulation, Inter-Institutional Relations,
the Rule of Law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights

Frans Timmermans
Netherlands
Netherlands
PvdA Frans Timmermans 2013.jpg
High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini
Italy
Italy
PD Federica Mogherini Official.jpg
Vice-President;
Energy Union
Maroš Šefčovič
Slovakia
Slovakia
SMER-SD Maroš Šefčovič.jpg
Regional Policy Corina Crețu
Romania
Romania
PSD Corina Cretu.jpg
Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs Pierre Moscovici
France
France
PS Pierre Moscovici en mai 2010.png
Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Karmenu Vella
Malta
Malta
LP KarmenuVellaPolitician.jpg
International Cooperation and Development Neven Mimica
Croatia
Croatia
SDP N mimica.jpg
Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis
Lithuania
Lithuania
SDP Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis.jpg

European Council[edit]

Of the 28 heads of state and government that are members of the European Council, seven are from the PES, and therefore regularly attend PES summits to prepare for European Council meetings.

Member State Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Photo
 Denmark Mette Frederiksen Prime Minister Social Democrats 27 June 2019 Mette Frederiksen - 2010.jpg
 Finland Antti Rinne Prime Minister Social Democratic Party of Finland 6 June 2019 Antti Rinne.jpg
 Malta Joseph Muscat Prime Minister Labour Party 22 March 2018 Joseph Muscat, cropped.jpg
 Portugal António Costa Prime Minister Socialist Party 26 November 2015 António Costa 2014 (cropped).jpg
 Slovakia Peter Pellegrini Prime Minister Direction – Social Democracy 22 March 2018 Peter Pellegrini - 2015.jpg
 Spain Pedro Sánchez Prime Minister Spanish Socialist Workers' Party 2 June 2018 100x
 Sweden Stefan Löfven Prime Minister Social Democratic Party 3 October 2014 Stefan Löfven 2014-09-13.jpg

Although the prime minister of Romania, Mihai Tudose, is also a member of the PES (and his Social Democratic Party is a PES member party), Romania instead sends its president to the European Council.

European Council and Council of Ministers[edit]

The states of the European Union by the European party affiliations of their leaders, as of 14 December 2019
Does not account for coalitions. Key to colours is as follows: (BUL, CRO, CYP, GER, GRE, HUN, IRE, LAT, ROM) (DEN, FIN, MAL, POR, SPA, SVK, SWE) (BEL, CZE, EST, LUX, NED, SLO) (AUT, FRA, ITA, LIT) (POL, UK)

Party-alignment at the European Council is often loose, but has been the basis of some intergovernmental cooperation. At present seven countries are led by a PES-affiliated leader, who represents that state at the European Council: Spain (Pedro Sánchez), Portugal (Antonio Costa), Malta (Joseph Muscat), Slovakia (Peter Pellegrini), Denmark (Mette Frederiksen), Finland (Antti Rinne) and Sweden (Stefan Löfven).

The makeup of national delegations to the Council of Ministers is at some times subject to coalitions: for the above governments led by a PES party, that party may not be present in all Council configurations; in other governments led by non-PES parties a PES minister may be its representative for certain portfolios. PES is in coalition in a further seven countries: Estonia, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Romania, Slovenia and Italy.

Overview[edit]

State Governing parties Affiliated EU party Population
 Germany Christian Democratic Union
Social Democratic Party
Christian Social Union
EPP
PES
EPP
80,585,700
 France La République En Marche!
Democratic Movement
The Republicans
Socialist Party
Radical Party of the Left
None
EDP
EPP
PES
None
66,661,621
 Italy Five Star Movement
Democratic Party
Free and Equal
None
PES
None
60,484,000
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party PES 46,354,321
 Romania Social Democratic Party
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
PES
None
21,355,800
 Portugal Socialist Party PES 10,341,330
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party
Green Party
PES
EGP
9,658,301
 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy PES 5,450,420
 Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland
Centre Party
Green League
Left Alliance
Swedish People's Party of Finland
PES
ALDE
EGP
PEL
ALDE
5,404,300
 Slovenia List of Marjan Šarec
Social Democrats
Modern Centre Party
Party of Alenka Bratušek
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia
ALDE
PES
ALDE
ALDE
EDP
2,055,500
 Estonia Estonian Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Pro Patria and Res Publica Union
ALDE
PES
EPP
1,315,944
 Luxembourg Democratic Party
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
The Greens
ALDE
PES
EGP
524,900
 Malta Labour Party PES 416,100

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe[edit]

Committee of the Regions[edit]

PES has 122 members in the Committee of the Regions as of 2014.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b Richard Dunphy (2004). Contesting Capitalism?: Left Parties and European Integration. Manchester University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7190-6804-1.
  3. ^ John Pinder, Simon Usherwood (2013). The European Union: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-1915-03931.
  4. ^ a b "Member parties of the Progressive Alliance". 1 February 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Member parties of Socialist International". 1 February 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  6. ^ Robert Thomson (2011). Resolving Controversy in the European Union: Legislative Decision-Making Before and After Enlargement. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-139-50517-8. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  7. ^ "Member parties of the PES". 1 February 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Il PSE "omaggia "il PD cambiando ufficialmente nome: PSE - Socialists&Democrats" (in Italian). 2 March 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  9. ^ "Northern European Social Democracy and European Integration, 1960-1972. Moving towards a New Consensus?". Academia.edu. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "History". Socialist Group website. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  11. ^ Skrzypek, Ania (2013). "Europe, Our Common Future" Celebrating 20 years of the Party of European Socialists (PDF). Belgium: FEPS – Foundation for European Progressive Studies. ISBN 978-3-85464-037-0.
  12. ^ "Together for the Europe we need!". Zita Gurmai, President of PES Women. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  13. ^ "Ethics in politics : For strong moral conduct through a strong moral code" (PDF). PES Presidency declaration. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  14. ^ "About the PES?". PES website. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Saskaņa joins Party of European Socialists". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. LETA. 27 November 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  16. ^ a b c d "How does PES work?". PES website. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  17. ^ "Former PES Presidents". PES website. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  18. ^ "A New Direction for Progressive Societies. Resolution N. 2 A new way forward. Adopted by the 8th PES Congress" (PDF). PES. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2010.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "PES Manifesto Towards a New Europe. Adopted by Election Congress 2014 in Rome" (PDF). PES. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  20. ^ Mahony, Honor (7 May 2007). "Brussels struggles with communication policy". EU Observer. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
  21. ^ "PES Group Members". Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2015.

External links[edit]