|Region||Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang|
Oroqen (also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun, Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect. It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heilongjiang in Northeast China.
Since the 1980s, Oroqen-language materials were produced by teachers in Oroqen-speaking areas. They based the language's orthography either on IPA or Pinyin - before then, the language was unwritten. In spite of this, the majority of the Oroqen are capable of reading and writing Chinese and some can also speak the Daur language.
Oroqen is spoken in the following counties of China (Ethnologue).
- Heilongjiang province
- Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
The Gankui dialect is used as the standard dialect for the Oroqen language.
- Allophones of /x/ are heard as [ɣ], [h].
- A bilabial /ɸ/ can also be heard as a labio-dental [f].
- A rhotic trill /r/ tends to sound as a tap [ɾ], when occurring word-finally.
|High||i iː||y||u uː|
|Near-high||ɪ ɪː||ʊ ʊː|
|High-mid||eː||ə əː||o oː|
- /ə, əː/ are often heard as lower sounds [ɐ, ɐː].
- Short allophones of /o, u/ are heard as [ɵ, ʉ].
- "Oroqen". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Oroqen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed. 2005, Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Hu, Zengyi (1986). Elunchun-yu jianzhi [Concise grammar of Oroqen]. Beijing: National Minorities Publ. pp. 3–19.
- Oroqen Vocabulary List (from the World Loanword Database)
- Oroqen Swadesh vocabulary list of basic words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix)
- Oroqen alphabet from Omniglot
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