open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of  vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ ɜ⟩. The IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ or the Cyrillic small letter Ze (з). The symbol is instead a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, ɛ. The value was specified only in 1993; until then, it had been transcribed ⟨ ɛ̈⟩.
ɜ⟩ letter may be used with a raising diacritic ⟨ ɜ̝⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel. It may also be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ ɜ̞⟩, to denote the near-open central unrounded vowel.
ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ ə̞⟩ to denote the open-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ ə̞͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ ə⟩ is undefined for rounding). Features [ edit ] Occurrence [ edit ]
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes Afrikaans Standard l ig [lə̞χ] 'light' Also described as mid [, ə] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨  ə⟩. See Afrikaans phonology Cotabato Manobo [bätɜʔ] 'child' Allophone of /a/ before glottal consonants; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩. Dutch grapp ig [ˈχɾɑpə̞χ] 'funny' Possible realization of /ə/. See Dutch phonology English Received Pronunciation b ird [bɜːd] 'bird' Sulcalized (the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]). "Upper Crust RP" speakers pronounce a more open vowel [, but for most other speakers it is actually mid ( ɐː] [). This vowel corresponds to ɜ̝ː] rhotacized [ in ɝ] rhotic dialects. General American b ust [bɜst] 'bust' The most common realization of the vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩ in American English. Nevertheless, it is not a standard pronunciation throughout the whole country. Ohio Most of Texas Northern Welsh Some speakers. Corresponds to / or ə/ / in other Welsh dialects. ʌ/ Scottish [bɜ̠st] Somewhat retracted; may be more back / instead. ʌ/ German Chemnitz dialect p asse [ˈb̥ɜsə] '[I] pass' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ a⟩. Many speakers h errlich [ˈhɜːlɪç] 'fantastic' Common alternative to the diphthong [ɛɐ̯]. See Standard German phonology Hausa Possible allophone of /a/, which can be as close as [ and as open as ə] [. ä] Jebero [ˈkɘnmɜʔ] 'indigenous person' Allophone of /a/ in closed syllables. Kaingang [ˈɾɜ] 'mark' Varies between central [ɜ] and back [. ʌ] Kalagan Kaagan [mɜˈt̪äs] 'tall' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩. Kallahan Li'o Ke'o [mə̞re] 'dark' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ə⟩. Paicî r ë [ɾɜ] 'they' (prefix) May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩. Romanian Standard m ăr [mə̞r] 'apple' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ə⟩. See Romanian phonology Transylvanian dialects aș a [aˈʂɜ] 'such' Corresponds to [ in standard Romanian. See ä] Romanian phonology Sama Sibutu [ˈsäpɜw] 'roof' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩. Sindhi [sə̞rə̞] 'funeral' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ə⟩. Temne p ȧs [pɜ́s] 'brew' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ ʌ⟩. Yiddish Standard ענלעך [ˈɛnlɜχ] 'similar' Unstressed vowel. See Yiddish phonology See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] Allison, E. Joseph (1979), "The phonology of Sibutu Sama: A language of the southern Philippines" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 3 (2): 63–104, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11 Baird, Louise (2002), "Kéo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 93–97, doi: 10.1017/S0025100302000178 Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406 Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, Das Aussprachewörterbuch ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4 Gordon, Matthew J.; Maddieson, Ian (1996), "The phonetics of Paici", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), , UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages IV 93, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 111–124 Gordon, Matthew (2004b), "The West and Midwest: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 340, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685 Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. 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(1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), , Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change ISBN 1-85359-032-0 Thomas, Erik R. (2001), An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English, Publication of the American Dialect Society, 85, Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society, ISSN 0002-8207 Tillery, Jan; Bailey, Guy (2004), "The urban South: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. 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Retrieved . 16 April 2017 External links [ edit ]