|Astrakhan Oblast, Chuvashia, Dagestan|
The Oghuric, or Onoguric or Oguric languages (also known as Bulgar, Pre-Proto-Bulgaric, or Lir-Turkic and r-Turkic), are a branch of the Turkic language family. The only extant member of the group is the Chuvash language. The first to branch off from the Turkic family, the Oghur languages show significant divergence from other Turkic languages, which all share a later common ancestor. Languages from this family were spoken in some nomadic tribal confederations, such as those of the Onogurs or Ogurs, Bulgars, and Khazars. Some scholars consider Hunnic a similar language and refer to this extended grouping as Hunno-Proto-Bulgarian.
The Oghuric languages are a distinct group of the Turkic languages, standing in contrast to Common Turkic. Today they are represented only by Chuvash. Extinct Oghuric languages include Bulgar and Khazar.
There is no consensus among linguists on the relation between Oghuric and Common Turkic, and several questions remain unsolved:
- Are they parallel branches of Proto-Turkic (3000-500 BC) and, if so, which branch is more archaic?
- Does Oghuric represent Archaic Turkic before phonetic changes in 100-400 AD and was it a separate language?
The Oghuric languages are also known as "-r Turkic" because the final consonant in certain words is r, not z as in Common Turkic. Chuvash: вăкăр - Turkish: öküz - Tatar: үгез - English: ox. Hence the name Oghur corresponds Oghuz in Common Turkic. Other correspondences are Com. š : Oghur l (tâš : tâl, 'stone'); s > š; *č > ś; k/q > ğ; y > j, ś; d, δ > δ > z (10th cent.) > r (13th cent.)"; ğd > z > r (14th cent.); a > ı (after 9th cent.).
Denis Sinor believes that the difference means that those tribes could not have come from lands like Mongolia, which uses a -z language. However, there many loanwords in Mongolic from Oghuric, like Mong. ikere, Oghur. *ikir, Hung. iker, Comm. ikiz (twins). It is believed that they lived in the Mongolian borderlands before the 5th century.
The Oghuric tribes are often connected with the Hungarians whose ethnonym is usually derived from Onogurs (> (H)ungars). The Hungarians were mixed Finno-Ugric and Turkic, with strong Oghuric-Bulgar and Khazar influences. Hungarian has many borrowings from Turkic and Oghuric languages: Hung. tenger, Oghur. *tengir, Comm. tengiz (sea), Hung. gyűrű, Oghur. jürük, Comm. yüzük (ring), and terms of equestrian culture ló (horse), nyereg (saddle), fék (bridle), ostor (whip). A number of Hungarian loanwords were borrowed before the 9th century, shown by sz- (< Oğ. ś-) rather than Comm. gy- (< Oğ. ǰ-): example Hung. szél, Oghur. *śäl, Chuv. śil, Comm. yel (wind), Hung. szűcs (tailor), Hung. szőlő (grapes).
- Golden 1992, p. 110.
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- Pritsak, Omeljan (1981). "The Proto-Bulgarian Military Inventory Inscriptions". Turkic-Bulgarian-Hungarian relations. Budapest.
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- Golden 1992, p. 259.
- Pritsak, Omeljan (1982). The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan (PDF). IV. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISSN 0363-5570.
- Golden, Peter Benjamin (1992). An introduction to the History of the Turkic peoples: ethnogenesis and state formation in medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 9783447032742.
- Golden, Peter B. (2011). Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes. Editura Academiei Române; Editura Istros a Muzeului Brăilei. ISBN 9789732721520.