Occitano-Romance languages

Occitano-Romance
Narbonensis dialect
Geographic
distribution
France, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, parts of Italy
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
GlottologNone
Ibero orientales.PNG
Occitano-Romance languages and dialects

The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (Catalan: llengües occitanoromàniques, Occitan: lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan and the Catalan languages spoken in parts of France and Spain.[1]

Extent[edit]

The group covers the languages of the southern part of France (Occitania including Northern Catalonia), eastern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, La Franja, Carche), together with Andorra, Monaco, parts of Italy (Occitan Valleys, Alghero, Guardia Piemontese), and historically in the County of Tripoli and the possessions of the Crown of Aragon. The existence of this group of languages is discussed on both linguistic and political bases.

Classification[edit]

According to some linguists both Occitan and Catalan should be considered Gallo-Romance languages. Other linguists concur as regarding Occitan but consider Catalan to be part of the Ibero-Romance languages.

The issue at debate is as political as it is linguistic because the division into Gallo-Romance and Ibero-Romance languages stems from the current nation states of France and Spain and so is based more on territorial criteria than historic and linguistic criteria. One of the main proponents of the unity of the languages of the Iberian Peninsula was Spanish philologist Ramón Menéndez Pidal, and for a long time, others such as Swiss linguist Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (Das Katalanische, Heidelberg, 1925) have supported the kinship of Occitan and Catalan.

From the 8th century to the 13th century, there was no clear linguistic distinction between Occitania and Catalonia. For instance, the Provençal troubadour, Albertet de Sestaró, says: "Monks, tell me which according to your knowledge are better: the French or the Catalans? and here I shall put Gascony, Provence, Limousin, Auvergne and Viennois while there shall be the land of the two kings."[2] In Marseille, a typical Provençal song is called 'Catalan song'.[3]

Internal variation[edit]

Supradialectal classification of Occitano-Romance according to P. Bec
Supradialectal classification of Occitano-Romance according to D. Sumien

Most linguists separate Catalan and Occitan, but both languages have been treated as one in studies by Occitan linguists attempting to classify the dialects of Occitan in supradialectal groups, such is the case of Pierre Bec[4] and, more recently, of Domergue Sumien.[5]

Both join together in an Aquitano-Pyrenean or Pre-Iberian group including Catalan, Gascon and a part of Languedocian, leaving the rest of Occitan in one (Sumien: Arverno-Mediterranean) or two groups (Bec: Arverno-Mediterranean, Central Occitan

Linguistic Variation[edit]

Lexical Comparison[edit]

Variations in the spellings and pronunciations of numbers in several Occitano-Romance Dialects[6][7]:

Numeral Northern Occitan Western Occitan Eastern Occitan Catalan Aragonese [8] PROTO-
OcRm
Auvergnat Limousin Gascon Languedocien Provençal Eastern Catalan Northwestern Catalan
1 vyn / vynɐ
vun / vunå
ỹ / ynɔ
un / una
y / yo
un / ua
ỹ / yno
un / una
yŋ / yno
un / una
un / unə
un / una
un / una

un / una

un~uno / una
un~uno / una
*un / *una
2 du / dua
dou / duas
du / dua
dos / doas
dys / dyos
dus / duas
dus / duos
dos / doas
dus / duas
dous / douas
dos / duəs
dos / dues
dos

dos / dues

dos / duas
dos / duas
*dos~dus /
*duas
3 tʀei
trei
trei
tres
tres
tres
tres
tres
tʀes
tres
trɛs
tres
trɛs
tres
tɾes
tres
*tres
4 katʀə
catre
katre
quatre
kwatə
quatre
katre
quatre
katʀə
quatre
kwatrə
quatre
kwatre

quatre

kwatro~kwatre
quatro / quatre
*kwatre
5 ʃin
sin
ʃin
cinc
siŋk
cinq
siŋk
cinq
siŋ
cinq
siŋ / siŋk
cinc
siŋ / siŋk
cinc
θiŋko~θiŋk
cinco / cinc
*siŋk
6 ʃei
siei
ʃiei
sieis
ʃeis
sheis
siɛis
sièis
siei
sieis
sis
sis
sis

sis

seis~sieis
seis / sieis
*sieis
7 se
ʃe
sèt
sɛt
sèt
sɛt
sèt

sèt
sɛt
set
sɛt
set
siet~sɛt
siet / set
*sɛt
8
veu
jɥe
uèch
weit
ueit
ɥeʧ
uèch
vɥe
vue
buit / vuit
vuit
vuit / wit

vuit / huit

weito~weit
ueito / ueit
*weit
9 niø~nou
nieu~nou
nɔu
nòu
nau
nau
nɔu
nòu
nu
nòu
nɔu
nou
nɔu
nou
nweu~nɔu
nueu / nou
*nɔu
10 die~de
dié~
diɛ~de
detz
dɛʦ
dètz
dɛʦ
dèts
dɛs
dès
dɛu
deu
dɛu
deu
dieθ~deu
diez / deu
*dɛʦ

The numbers 1 and 2 have both feminine and masculine forms agreeing with the object they modify.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mas se confrontam los parlars naturals de Catalonha e d'Occitania, i a pas cap de dobte, em en preséncia de parlars d'una meteissa familha linguistica, la qu'ai qualificada d'occitano-romana, plaçada a egala distància entre lo francés e l'espanhòl." Loís Alibèrt, Òc, n°7 (01/1950), p. 26
  2. ^ Monges, causetz, segons vostre siensa qual valon mais, catalan ho francés?/ E met de sai Guascuenha e Proensa/ E lemozí, alvernh’ e vianés/ E de lai met la terra dels dos reis.
  3. ^ Manuel Milá y Fontanals (1861). De los trovadores en España: Estudio de lengua y poesía provenzal. J. Verdaguer. p. 14.
  4. ^ Pierre BEC (1973), Manuel pratique d’occitan moderne, coll. Connaissance des langues, Paris: Picard
  5. ^ Domergue SUMIEN (2006), La standardisation pluricentrique de l'occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie, coll. Publications de l'Association Internationale d'Études Occitanes, Turnhout: Brepols
  6. ^ Indo-European numerals (Eugene Chan) at the Wayback Machine (archived 2012-02-12)
  7. ^ Cardinals en l'argonés
  8. ^ Los números en aragonés: Cardinales at the Wayback Machine (archived 2019-04-21)