Nicodemus ben Gurion (Hebrew: נקדימון בן גוריון Nakdimon ben Gurion) was a wealthy Jewish man who lived in Jerusalem in the 1st century CE. He is believed by some to be identical to the Nicodemus mentioned in the Gospel of John. Elsewhere he is discussed in Josephus' history, The Jewish War, and later, rabbinic works: Lamentations Rabbah, Ecclesiastes Rabbah, the Babylonian Talmud, and Avot of Rabbi Natan.
Ben Gurion means "son of Gurion" in Hebrew and his real name was apparently Buni or Bunai. He acquired the nickname Nicodemus, meaning "conqueror of the people" (from νίκη and δῆμος), or alternate semitic etymology Naqdimon, because of a miraculous answer to a prayer he made.
Nicodemus appears to have been a wealthy and respected figure, known for his holiness and generosity. He was an opponent of the Zealots and of the rebellion against Rome which led to the destruction of Jerusalem.
When Vespasian became emperor, Nicodemus sought peace with the emperor's son Titus, who was conducting the war. He agitated against the prosecution of the war by the Zealots. In retaliation, they destroyed the stores of provisions that he and his friends had accumulated for the use of pilgrims.
- Titchmarsh, E. H. (1906–1918). "Nicodemus". Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament.
- Josephus. The Jewish War. 2.17.10., Perseus Project BJ2.17.10, . (cf. note, Steve Mason)
- i. 5;
- vii. 11
- Ta'anit 19b pdf; Ktubot 65a-b, 66b, 67a; Gittin 56a (cf. Josephus, Jewish War, v. 1, § 4); Avodah Zarah 25a. All links to Isidore Epstein's translation.
- "NAKDIMON BEN GURYON". Encyclopedia Judaica. 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2015 – via Jewish Virtual Library.
- vi. 3
- note 52:1 of Tractate of Babylonian Ta'anit at 21a (scroll to page 52) Jewish Virtual Library
- "Nicodemus (Naḳdimon) ben Gorion". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906.