Maximilian Kolbe in 1939
|Died||14 August 1941 (aged 47)|
|Cause of death||Lethal injection|
|Education||Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure (doctorate in theology)|
|Founder of Militia Immaculatae, Religious, Apostle of Consecration to Mary, Priest and Martyr|
|Beatified||17 October 1971, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City by Pope Paul VI|
|Canonized||10 October 1982, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City by Pope John Paul II|
|Major shrine||Basilica of the Immaculate Mediatrix of Grace, Niepokalanów,|
Teresin, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
|Attributes||Christian Martyrdom, Prison uniform, needle being injected into an arm, the number 16670|
|Patronage||families, drug addicts, imprisoned people, amateur radio operators, journalists, political prisoners, prisoners, pro-life movement, Esperantists, Militia Immaculatae.|
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of the Catholic Church
Maximilian Kolbe OFM Conv. (Polish: Maksymilian Maria Kolbe [maksɨˌmʲilʲan ˌmarʲja ˈkɔlbɛ]; 8 January 1894 – 14 August 1941) was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station (SP3RN), and founding or running several other organizations and publications.
On 10 October 1982 Pope John Paul II canonized Kolbe and declared him a martyr of charity. The Catholic Church venerates him as the patron saint of amateur-radio operators, of drug addicts, of political prisoners, of families, of journalists, of prisoners, and of the pro-life movement. John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century". His feast day is 14 August, the day of his death.
Rajmund Kolbe was born on 8 January 1894 in Zduńska Wola, in the Kingdom of Poland, which was then part of the Russian Empire. He was the second son of weaver Julius Kolbe and midwife Maria Dąbrowska. His father was an ethnic German and his mother was Polish. He had four brothers. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to Pabianice.
That night I asked the Mother of God what was to become of me. Then she came to me holding two crowns, one white, the other red. She asked me if I was willing to accept either of these crowns. The white one meant that I should persevere in purity and the red that I should become a martyr. I said that I would accept them both.
In 1907, Kolbe and his elder brother Francis joined the Conventual Franciscans. They enrolled at the Conventual Franciscan minor seminary in Lwow later that year. In 1910, Kolbe was allowed to enter the novitiate, where he was given the religious name Maximilian. He professed his first vows in 1911, and final vows in 1914, adopting the additional name of Maria (Mary).
Kolbe was sent to Rome in 1912, where he attended the Pontifical Gregorian University. He earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1915 there. From 1915 he continued his studies at the Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1919 or 1922 (sources vary). He was active in the consecration and entrustment to Mary. During his time as a student, he witnessed vehement demonstrations against Popes St. Pius X and Benedict XV in Rome during an anniversary celebration by the Freemasons. According to Kolbe,
They placed the black standard of the "Giordano Brunisti" under the windows of the Vatican. On this standard the archangel, St. Michael, was depicted lying under the feet of the triumphant Lucifer. At the same time, countless pamphlets were distributed to the people in which the Holy Father (i.e., the Pope) was attacked shamefully.
Soon afterward, on 16 October 1917, Kolbe organized the Militia Immaculatae (Army of the Immaculate One), to work for conversion of sinners and enemies of the Catholic Church, specifically the Freemasons, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary. So serious was Kolbe about this goal that he added to the Miraculous Medal prayer:
O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee. And for all those who do not have recourse to thee; especially the Masons and all those recommended to thee.
In 1918, Kolbe was ordained a priest. In July 1919 he returned to Poland, which was newly independent. He was active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. He was strongly opposed to leftist – in particular, communist – movements.
From 1919 to 1922 he taught at the Kraków seminary. Around that time, as well as earlier in Rome, he suffered from tuberculosis, which forced him to take a lengthy leave of absence from his teaching duties. TB was generally considered fatal, with rest and good nutrition the best treatment, as antibiotics had not been developed to treat it.
In January 1922 Kolbe founded the monthly periodical Rycerz Niepokalanej (Knight of the Immaculata), a devotional publication based on French Le Messager du Coeur de Jesus (Messenger of the Heart of Jesus). From 1922 to 1926 he operated a religious publishing press in Grodno. As his activities grew in scope, in 1927 he founded a new Conventual Franciscan monastery at Niepokalanów near Warsaw; it became a major religious publishing centre. A junior seminary was opened there two years later.
Missionary work in Asia
Between 1930 and 1936, Kolbe undertook a series of missions to East Asia. He arrived first in Shanghai, China, but failed to gather a following there. Next, he moved to Japan, whereby 1931 he had founded a Franciscan monastery, Mugenzai no Sono, on the outskirts of Nagasaki.
Kolbe had started publishing a Japanese edition of the Knight of the Immaculata (Seibo no Kishi). The monastery he founded remains prominent in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe had the monastery built on a mountainside. According to Shinto beliefs, this was not the side best suited to be in harmony with nature. However, when the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, the Franciscan monastery survived, unlike the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, because it was on the side of the mountain which took the main force of the blast.
Return to Poland
Meanwhile, in his absence the monastery at Niepokalanów began to publish a daily newspaper, Mały Dziennik (the Small Daily), in alliance with a political group, the National Radical Camp (Obóz Narodowo Radykalny). This publication reached a circulation of 137,000, and nearly double that, 225,000 on weekends. Poor health forced Kolbe to return to Poland in 1936. Two years later, in 1938, he started a radio station at Niepokalanów, Radio Niepokalanów. He held an amateur radio licence, with the call sign SP3RN.
Death at Auschwitz
After the outbreak of World War II, Kolbe was one of the few friars who remained in the monastery, where he organized a temporary hospital. After the town was captured by the Germans, he was arrested by them on 19 September 1939 but released on 8 December. He refused to sign the Deutsche Volksliste, which would have given him rights similar to those of German citizens, in exchange for recognizing his ethnic German ancestry. Upon his release he continued work at his friary, where he and other friars provided shelter to refugees from Greater Poland, including 2,000 Jews whom he hid from German persecution in the Niepokalanów friary. Kolbe received permission to continue publishing religious works, though significantly reduced in scope. The monastery continued to act as a publishing house, issuing a number of anti-Nazi German publications.
On 17 February 1941, the monastery was shut down by the German authorities. That day Kolbe and four others were arrested by the German Gestapo and imprisoned in the Pawiak prison. On 28 May, he was transferred to Auschwitz as prisoner 16670.
Continuing to act as a priest, Kolbe was subjected to violent harassment, including beating and lashings. Once he was smuggled to a prison hospital by friendly inmates. At the end of July 1941, one prisoner escaped from the camp, prompting SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl Fritzsch, the deputy camp commander, to pick ten men to be starved to death in an underground bunker to deter further escape attempts. When one of the selected men, Franciszek Gajowniczek, cried out, "My wife! My children!", Kolbe volunteered to take his place.
According to an eyewitness, who was an assistant janitor at that time, in his prison cell, Kolbe led the prisoners in prayer. Each time the guards checked on him, he was standing or kneeling in the middle of the cell and looking calmly at those who entered. After they had been starved and deprived of water for two weeks, only Kolbe remained alive. The guards wanted the bunker emptied, so they gave Kolbe a lethal injection of carbolic acid. Kolbe is said to have raised his left arm and calmly waited for the deadly injection. He died on 14 August. His remains were cremated on 15 August, the feast day of the Assumption of Mary.
On 12 May 1955, Kolbe was recognized by the Vatican as a Servant of God. Kolbe was declared venerable by Pope Paul VI on 30 January 1969, beatified as a Confessor of the Faith by the same Pope in 1971, and canonized as a saint by Pope John Paul II on 10 October 1982. Upon canonization, the Pope declared St. Maximilian Kolbe as a confessor, and a martyr of charity. The miracles that were used to confirm his beatification were the July 1948 cure of intestinal tuberculosis in Angela Testoni, and in August 1950, the cure of calcification of the arteries/sclerosis of Francis Ranier; both attributed to Kolbe's intercession by their prayers to him.
After his canonization, a feast day for St. Maximilian Kolbe was added to the General Roman Calendar. He is one of ten 20th-century martyrs who are depicted in statues above the Great West Door of Anglican Westminster Abbey, London.
Kolbe's recognition as a Christian martyr generated some controversy within the Catholic Church. While his self-sacrifice at Auschwitz was considered saintly and heroic, he was not killed out of odium fidei (hatred of the faith), but as the result of his act of Christian charity toward another man. Pope Paul VI recognized this distinction at Kolbe's beatification, naming him a Confessor and giving him the unofficial title "martyr of charity". Pope John Paul II, however, overruled the commission he had established (which agreed with the earlier assessment of heroic charity). John Paul II wanted to make the point that the Nazis systematic hatred of whole categories of humanity was inherently also a hatred of religious (Christian) faith; he said that Kolbe's death equated to earlier examples of religious martyrdom.
Kolbe has been accused of antisemitism. In 1926, in the first issue of the monthly Knight of the Immaculate, Father Kolbe said he considered Freemasons as an organized clique of fanatical Jews, who want to destroy the church. Writing in a calendar that the publishing house of his organization, the Militia of the Immaculate, published in an edition of a million in 1939, Father Kolbe said: "Atheistic Communism seems to rage ever more wildly. Its origin can easily be located in that criminal mafia that calls itself Freemasonry, and the hand that is guiding all that toward a clear goal is international Zionism. Which should not be taken to mean that even among Jews one cannot find good people." Newspapers he published printed articles about topics such as a Zionist plot for world domination. Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek criticized Kolbe's activities as "writing and organizing mass propaganda for the Catholic Church, with a clear anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic edge." However, a number of writers pointed out that the "Jewish question played a very minor role in Kolbe's thought and work". On those grounds allegations of Kolbe's antisemitism have been denounced by Holocaust scholars Daniel L. Schlafly, Jr. and Warren Green, among others. Kolbe's alleged antisemitism was a source of controversy in the 1980s in the aftermath of his canonization. Kolbe is not recognized by Israel as among the Righteous Among the Nations.
During World War II Kolbe's monastery at Niepokalanów sheltered Jewish refugees. According to testimony of a local: "When Jews came to me asking for a piece of bread, I asked Father Maximilian if I could give it to them in good conscience, and he answered me, 'Yes, it is necessary to do this, because all men are our brothers.'"
First-class relics of Kolbe exist, in the form of hairs from his head and beard, preserved without his knowledge by two friars at Niepokalanów who served as barbers in his friary between 1930 and 1941. Since his beatification in 1971, more than 1,000 such relics have been distributed around the world for public veneration. Second-class relics, such as his personal effects, clothing and liturgical vestments, are preserved in his monastery cell and in a chapel at Niepokalanów, where they may be venerated by visitors.
Kolbe influenced his own Order of Conventual Franciscan friars, as the Militia Immaculatae movement had continued. In recent years new religious and secular institutes have been founded, inspired from this spiritual way. Among these are the Missionaries of the Immaculate Mary – fr. Kolbe, the Franciscan Friars of Mary Immaculate, and a parallel congregation of Religious Sisters, and others. The Franciscan Friars of Mary Immaculate are taught basic Polish so they can sing the traditional hymns sung by Kolbe, in the saint's native tongue.
According to the friars:
Our patron, St. Maximilian Kolbe, inspires us with his unique Mariology and apostolic mission, which is to bring all souls to the Sacred Heart of Christ through the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Christ's most pure, efficient, and holy instrument of evangelization – especially those most estranged from the Church.
Kolbe's views into Marian theology echo today through their influence on Vatican II. His image may be found in churches across Europe and throughout the world. Several churches in Poland are under his patronage, such as the Sanctuary of Saint Maxymilian in Zduńska Wola or the Church of Saint Maxymilian Kolbe in Szczecin. A museum, Museum of St. Maximilian Kolbe "There was a Man", was opened in Niepokalanów in 1998.
In 1963, Rolf Hochhuth published The Deputy, a play significantly influenced by Kolbe's life and dedicated to him. In 2000, the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (U.S.) designated Marytown, home to a community of Conventual Franciscan friars, as the National Shrine of St. Maximilian Kolbe. Marytown is located in Libertyville, Illinois. It features the Kolbe Holocaust Exhibit. In 1991, Krzysztof Zanussi released a Polish film about the life of Kolbe, Life for Life: Maximilian Kolbe. The Polish Senate declared the year 2011 to be the year of Maximilian Kolbe.
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- Saints Index; Catholic Forum.com, Saint Maximilian Kolbe
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- Armstrong, Regis J.; Peterson, Ingrid J. (2010). The Franciscan Tradition. Liturgical Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8146-3922-1.
- Czesław Lechicki, Kolbe Rajmund, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tom XIII, 1968, p. 296
- Strzelecka, Kinga (1984). Maksymilian M. Kolbe: für andere leben und sterben (in German). S[ank]t-Benno-Verlag. p. 6.
- Armstrong, Regis J.; Peterson, Ingrid J. (2010). The Franciscan Tradition. Liturgical Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8146-3922-1.
- Saint Maximilian Kolbe, Catholic-Pages.com
- Czupryk, Father Cornelius (1935). "18th Anniversary Issue". Mugenzai no Seibo no Kishi. Mugenzai no Sono Monastery.
- "Daily Prayers". Marypages.com. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Blessed Maximilian Kolbe-Priest Hero of a Death Camp by Mary Craig". Ewtn.com. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Hepburn, Steven. "Maximilian Kolbe's story shows us why sainthood is still meaningful". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Łęcicki, Grzegorz (2010). "Media katolickie w III Rzeczypospolitej (1989–2009)" [Catholic media in the Third Rzeczpospolita (1989–2009)]. Kultura Media Teologia (in Polish). Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego. 2 (2): 12–122. ISSN 2081-8971. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- "Historia". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "SP3RN @". qrz.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Czesław Lechicki, Kolbe Rajmund, Polski Słownik Biograficzny, Tom XIII, 1968, p. 297
- "Kolbe, Saint of Auschwitz". Auschwitz.dk. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Sixty-ninth Anniversary of the Death of St. Maximilian Kolbe". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Plunka, Gene A. (24 April 2012). Staging Holocaust Resistance. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-137-00061-3.
- "Maximilian Kolbe". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Peterson, Anna L. (1997). Martyrdom and the Politics of Religion: Progressive Catholicism in El Salvador's Civil War. SUNY Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-3182-5.
- New York Times, 19 November 1982 'Saint charged with bigotry' 
- Dershowitz, Alan M. (1 May 1992). Chutzpah. Simon and Schuster. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-671-76089-2.
- "Scholars Reject Charge St. Maximilian Was Anti-semitic". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Michael, Robert (1 April 2008). A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-230-61117-7.
- Zizek, Slavoj (22 May 2012). Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism. Verso Books. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-1-84467-902-7.
- "Becky Ready". ewtn.com.
- Yallop, David (23 August 2012). The Power & the Glory. Constable & Robinson Limited. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-4721-0516-5.
- "The First-Class Relics of St Maximilian Kolbe". Pastoral Centre. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Catholic Way Publishing (27 December 2013). My Daily Prayers. Catholic Way Publishing. p. 249. ISBN 978-1-78379-029-6.
- "O.F.M.I. Friars". Franciscan Friars of Mary Immaculate. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Sanktuarium Św. Maksymiliana – Zduńska Wola – DIECEZJA WŁOCŁAWSKA -KURIA DIECEZJALNA WŁOCŁAWSKA". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "Parafia p.w.w. M.M. Kolbego w Szczecinie – Aktualności". Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "Niepokalanów". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "National Shrine of St. Maximilian Kolbe". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- UCHWAŁA SENATU RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ z dnia 21 października 2010 r.o ogłoszeniu roku 2011 Rokiem Świętego Maksymiliana Marii Kolbego 
- "University of Dayton Marian prayers". Campus.udayton.edu. 24 March 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Patron Saints Index: Saint Maximilian Kolbe
- Kolbe's Gift, a play by David Gooderson about Kolbe and his self-sacrifice in Auschwitz based on factual evidence and conversations with the late Józef Garliński
- A Man Feared by the 21st Century: Saint Maximilian Kolbe from the Starvation Bunker in Auschwitz – a drama by Kazimierz Braun
- Saint Maximilian Kolbe, a popular biography at Catholicism.org
- Niepokalanów in English
- Catholic Online, St. Maximilian Kolbe, Catholic Online.Inform-Inspire-Ignite.
- St. Maximilian Kolbe Website
- An "Insight" episode which mentions Maximilian Kolbe, who was portrayed by Werner Klemperer