A march, as a musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a military band. In mood, marches range from the moving death march in Wagner's Götterdämmerung to the brisk military marches of John Philip Sousa and the martial hymns of the late 19th century. Examples of the varied use of the march can be found in Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, in the Marches Militaires of Franz Schubert, in the Marche funèbre in Chopin's Sonata in B flat minor, and in the Dead March in Handel's Saul.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 History
- 3 National styles
- 3.1 European march music
- 3.2 American march music
- 3.3 Asian march music
- 3.4 Latin American march music
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Marches can be written in any time signature, but the most common time signatures are 4
2 (alla breve , although this may refer to 2 time of Johannes Brahms, or cut time), or 6
8. However, some modern marches are being written in 1
2 or 2
4 time. The modern march tempo is typically around 120 beats per minute. Many funeral marches conform to the Roman standard of 60 beats per minute. The tempo matches the pace of soldiers walking in step. Both tempos achieve the standard rate of 120 steps per minute.
Each section of a march typically consists of 16 or 32 measures, which may repeat. Most importantly, a march consists of a strong and steady percussive beat reminiscent of military field drums.
A military music event where various marching bands and units perform is called tattoo.
Marches frequently change keys once, modulating to the subdominant key, and occasionally returning to the original tonic key. If it begins in a minor key, it modulates to the relative major. Marches frequently have counter-melodies introduced during the repeat of a main melody. Marches frequently have a penultimate dogfight strain in which two groups of instruments (high/low, woodwind/brass, etc.) alternate in a statement/response format. In most traditional American marches, there are three strains. The third strain is referred to as the "trio". The march tempo of 120 beats or steps per minute was adapted by Napoleon Bonaparte so that his army could move faster. Since he planned to occupy the territory he conquered, instead of his soldiers carrying all of their provisions with them, they would live off the land and march faster. The French march tempo is faster than the traditional tempo of British marches; the British call marches in the French tempo quick marches. Traditional American marches use the French or quick march tempo. There are two reason for this: First, U.S. military bands adopted the march tempos of France and other continental European nations that aided the U.S. during its early wars with Great Britain. Second, the composer of the greatest American marches, John Philip Sousa, was of Portuguese and German descent. Portugal used the French tempo exclusively—the standard Sousa learned during his musical education. A military band playing or marching at the traditional British march tempo would seem unusually slow in the United States.
March music originates from the military, and marches are usually played by a marching band. The most important instruments are various drums (especially snare drum), horns, fife or woodwind instruments and brass instruments. Marches and marching bands have even today a strong connection to military, both to drill and parades. Marches, which are played at paces with multiples of normal heartbeat, can have a hypnotic effect on the marching soldiers, rendering them into a trance, This effect was widely known already in the 16th century, and was employed to lead the soldiers in closed ranks against the enemy fire in the 16th and 17th century wars.
March music is often important for ceremonial occasions. Processional or coronation marches, such as the popular coronation march from Le prophète by Giacomo Meyerbeer and the many examples of coronation marches written for British monarchs by English composers, such as Edward Elgar, Edward German, and William Walton, are all in traditional British tempos.
Marches weren't notated until the late 16th century; until then, time was generally kept by percussion alone, often with improvised fife embellishment. With the extensive development of brass instruments, especially in the 19th century, marches became widely popular and were often elaborately orchestrated. Composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Gustav Mahler, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Charles Ives, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Alban Berg, Sergei Prokofiev, Paul Hindemith, Dmitri Shostakovich, and Leonard Bernstein wrote marches, sometimes incorporating them into operas, sonatas, suites, and symphonies. The popularity of John Philip Sousa's band marches has been unmatched.
The style of the traditional symphony march can be traced back to symphonic pieces from renaissance era, such as pieces written for nobility.
European march music
Many European countries and cultures developed characteristic styles of marches.
British marches typically move at a more stately pace (ca. 88–112 beats per minute), have intricate countermelodies (frequently appearing only in the repeat of a strain), have a wide range of dynamics (including unusually soft sections), use full-value stingers at the ends of phrases (as opposed to the shorter, marcato stinger of American marches). The final strain of a British march often has a broad lyrical quality to it. Archetypical British marches include "The British Grenadiers" and those of Kenneth Alford, such as the well-known "Colonel Bogey March" and "The Great Little Army".
Scottish bagpipe music makes extensive use of marches played at a pace of approximately 90 beats per minute. Many popular marches are traditional and of unknown origin. Notable examples include Scotland the Brave, Highland Laddie, Bonnie Dundee and Cock of the North. Retreat marches are set in 3/4 time, such as The Green Hills of Tyrol and When the Battle's O'er. The bagpipe also make use of slow marches such as the Skye Boat Song and the Cradle Song. These are set in 6/8 time and are usually played at around 60 beats per minute.
Germany and Austria
German marches move at a very strict tempo of 110 beats per minute, and have a strong oom-pah polka-like/folk-like quality resulting from the bass drum and low-brass playing on the downbeats and the alto voices, such as peck horn and snare drums, playing on the off-beats. This provides a very martial quality to these marches. The low brass is often featured prominently in at least one strain of a German march. To offset the rhythmic martiality of most of the strains, the final strain (the trio) often has a lyrical (if somewhat bombastic) quality. Notable German and Austrian march composers include Carl Teike ("Alte Kameraden"), Hermann Ludwig Blankenburg, Johann Gottfried Piefke ("Preußens Gloria"), Hans Schmid, Josef Wagner, and Karl Michael Ziehrer.
Swedish marches have many things in common with the German marches, much due to historical friendship and bonding with states like Prussia, Hessia and, from 1871 and on, Germany. The tempo is strict and lies between 110 and 112 beats per minute. The oom-pah rhythm is common, although it is rarely as distinctive as in a typical German march. The first bars are nearly always played loudly, followed by a cheerful melody, often with pronounced countermelodies in the euphoniums and trombones. At least one strain of a Swedish march is usually dedicated to the low brass, where the tubas also play the melody, with the rest of the instruments playing on the off-beats. The characteristics of the trio vary from march to march, but the final strain tends to be grand and loud. Examples of Swedish marches are "Under blågul fana" by Viktor Widqvist and "På post för Sverige" by Sam Rydberg.
French military marches are distinct from other European marches by their emphasis on percussion and brass, often incorporating bugle calls as part of the melody or as interludes between strains. Most French marches are in common metre and place a strong percussive emphasis on the first beat of each measure, hence the characteristic BOOM-whack-whack-whack rhythm. Many, though not all French marches (in particular marches dating from the period of the French Revolution) make use of triplet feel; each beat can be felt as a fast triplet. Famous French marches include "Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse", "La Victoire est à Nous", "Marche de la garde consulaire à Marengo", "La Galette", the "Chant du départ", "Le Chant des Africains", "Le Caïd", "la Marche Lorraine" and "Le Boudin".
Greek marches typically combine French and German musical traditions, due to the Modern Greek State's history of Germanic Royal Dynasties, combined with Francophile governments as well as French and Bavarian officers and military advisors, who brought their respective musical traditions with them. Among the most famous marches are "Famous Macedonia" (Μακεδονία Ξακουστή), a march to commemorate Greece's victory in the Balkan Wars, "Greece never dies" (Η Ελλάδα ποτε δεν πεθαίνει), "The Aegean Sailor" (Ο Ναύτης του Αιγαίου), "The Artillery" (Το Πυροβολικό), "From flames, Crete" (Από φλόγες, η Κρήτη), and "The Army Marches Forth" (Πέρναει ο Στρατός). Almost all Greek marches have choral versions. Many of these marches, in the choral versions, are also popular patriotic songs, which are taught to Greek children in school and are sung along on various occasions, such as national holidays and parades. "Famous Macedonia" also serves as the unofficial anthem of the Greek Region of Macedonia. The Greek Flag March is the sole march used during the parading of the Greek Flag at ceremonies. Composer Margaritis Kastellis contributed to the development of many Greek pieces for military bands only.
Dutch marches typically feature a heavy intro, often played by the trombones, euphoniums, drums, and tubas, followed by a lighthearted trio and a reasonably fast and somewhat bombastic conclusion. Dutch emphasis on low brass is also made clear in that Dutch military bands use sousaphones, which have a more forward projection of sound, rather than the regular concert tubas used by most other European military styles. Some well-known Dutch march composers are Jan Gerard Palm, Willy Schootemeyer, Adriaan Maas, Johan Wichers, and Hendrik Karels. By far, most Dutch military bands perform their music on foot; however, some Dutch regiments (most notably the Trompetterkorps Bereden Wapens) carry on a Dutch tradition in which its historical bicycle infantry had a mounted band, thus playing march music on bikes.
Italian marches have a very light musical feel, often having sections of fanfare or soprano obbligatos performed with a light coloratura articulation. This frilly characteristic is contrasted with broad lyrical melodies reminiscent of operatic arias. It is relatively common to have one strain (often a first introduction of the final strain) that is played primarily by the higher-voiced instruments or in the upper ranges of the instruments' compass. A typical Italian march is "Il Bersagliere" (The Italian Rifleman) by Boccalari. Uniquely, the Bersaglieri regiments always move at a fast jog, and their running bands play at this pace, with marches like "Passo di Corsa dei Bersaglieri" (Jog March of the Bersaglieri) and "Flick Flock" as great examples.
The most characteristic Spanish march form is the pasodoble. Spanish marches often have fanfares at the beginning or end of strains that are reminiscent of traditional and popular music. These marches often move back and forth between major and (relative) minor keys, and often show a great variation in tempo during the course of the march reminiscent of a prolonged Viennese rubato. Typical Spanish marches are "Amparito Roca" by Jaime Teixidor, "Los Voluntarios" by Gerónimo Giménez, and "El Turuta" by Roman de San Jose.
Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
While many of the marches of Tsarist Russia share similar characteristics with German marches of the period, and indeed some were directly borrowed from Germany (such as "Der Königgrätzer Marsch"), the indigenous, pre-revolutionary Russian march has a distinctly Russian sound, with powerful strains in minor keys repeated with low brass with occasional flashes of major chords between sections. The Soviet period produced a large number of modern marches incorporating both Russian themes and structure reminiscent of Dutch marches. Frequently in major keys, Soviet marches often span a wide range of dynamics while maintaining a strong melody well-balanced with the percussion, entering the bombastic range without overpowering percussion as is common with French marches. They are often in the A-B/Cb-A form or ternary form. Agapkin's Farewell of Slavianka is one common example of the classical Russian march, while a notable example of a Soviet-style Russian march is Isaak Dunayevsky's "March of the Enthusiasts" (Марш энтузиастов). Other military marches include the March of 108th Saratov Infantry Regiment and the March of the Defenders of Moscow.
In Ukraine, military marches were originally written to emulate the Russian model, with folk songs and natively Ukrainian marches only recently being used. The Zaporizhian March (also known as the Cossack march) is one of the main marches of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and even replaced Farewell of Slavianka in 1991 as the official march being played during the induction of recruits to the military. The same concept is applied in Belarus but on a much more toned down style due to the fact that the country still borrows Russian marches. The few homegrown military marches in Belarus include Motherland My Dear (Радзіма мая дарагая) and the Vajacki marš of the Belarusian Democratic Republic.
American march music
The true march music era existed from 1855 to the 1940s when it was overshadowed by jazz, which the march form influenced (especially in ragtime). American march music cannot be discussed without mentioning "The March King", John Philip Sousa, who revolutionized the march during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Some of his most famous marches are "Semper Fidelis", "The Washington Post", "The Liberty Bell", and "The Stars and Stripes Forever". Sousa's marches are typically marked by a subdued trio, as in "The Stars and Stripes Forever" in which the rest of the band becomes subordinated to arguably the most famous piccolo solo in all of music. Typically, an American march consists of a key change, quite often happening in coordination with the Trio. The key may change back before the song is over, especially if the Trio ends well before the last few measures of the march.
A specialized form of the typical American march music is the circus march, or screamer, typified by the marches of Henry Fillmore and Karl King. These marches are performed at a significantly faster tempo (140 to 200 beats per minute) and generally have an abundance of runs, fanfares, and other showy features. Frequently, the low brass has one or more strains (usually the second strain) in which they are showcased with both speed and bombast. Stylistically, many circus marches employ a lyrical final strain which (in the last time through the strain) starts out maestoso (majestically, slower and more stately) and then, in the second half of the strain, speeds up to end the march faster than the original tempo.
Marches continued to be commissioned throughout the 20th century to commemorate important American events. In the 1960s, Anthony A. Mitchell, director of the United States Navy Band, was commissioned to write "The National Cultural Center March" for the center that would later become known as the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.[failed verification]
Asian march music
Following the Russo-Georgian War, all Russian military marches in the repertoire of the Military Band of the National Guard of Georgia were weeded out in favor of native Georgian marches. Many Armenian patriotic military marches were developed during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. In Azerbaijan, many military marches such as Azadlıq Marşı (Freedom's March) and Görüş Marşı (Slow March) are used as inspection marches while others such as the March of the Azerbaijan Higher Military Academy or the Marş «Vətən» (Fatherland March) are used in military parades. Other marches are holdovers from the Soviet era, such as Yaxşı Yol (Farewell).
Bengali march music tradition began in the 19th century, during the Bengali Renaissance by the Bengali nationalists. Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement create a separate subgenre of Bengali music known as Nazrul Geeti included march music against fascism and oppression. His writings and music greatly inspired Bengalis of East Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- Pralayollas (প্রলয়োল্লাস (Pralay.ōllās); The Ecstasy of Destruction or Destructive Euphoria)
- Kandari Hushiar (কান্ডারী হুশিয়ার (Kānḍārī Huśiy.ār); Captain Alert) (Marchpast of the Bangladesh Navy)
- Mora Jhonjhar Moto Uddam (মোরা ঝঞ্ঝার মত উদ্দাম (Mōrā Jhañjhār Mata Uddām); A Mountain Song) (Marchpast of the Bangladesh Air Force)
Japan's march music (Koushinkyoku,行進曲) tradition began in the 19th century after the country's ports were forced open to foreign trade by the Perry Expedition. An influx of Western musical culture that the newly arrived traders and diplomats brought with them swept through Japanese musical culture, leaving a lasting legacy on the country's music. Japanese and foreign musicians of the time sought to impart Western musical forms to the Japanese, as well as combining Japanese-style melodies with Western-style harmonization. Furthermore, with Japan's government and society stabilized after the Meiji Restoration, the country sought to centralize and modernize its armed forces, with the armed forces of France and Prussia serving as models. All of these helped augur in what would later become modern Japanese music. The march genre, already sharing roots with the preexisting tradition of "gunka", or military songs, became very popular, especially in the years after Japan's victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.
One of the earliest and most enduring of Japanese marches is the Defile March (分列行進曲) composed in 1886 by Charles Leroux, an officer with the French Army serving as an advisor to the Imperial Japanese Army. Originally two separate marches based on Japanese melodies—Fusouka (扶桑歌) and Battotai (抜刀隊), inspired by the Satsuma Rebellion and reportedly a favorite song of the Emperor Meiji—they were later combined in the march currently recognized today. It soon became a very popular band standard, with the Imperial Japanese Army adopting it as their signature march. After World War II the JGSDF and the Japanese police would adopt the march, where it continues to be a core part of their repertoire.
In the years before 1945, many distinguished composers such as Yamada Kōsaku, Nakayama Shimpei, Hashimoto Kunihiko, Setoguchi Tōkichi, and Eguchi Yoshi (Eguchi Gengo) all contributed to the genre. Some were military and nationalist in tone. Others, like Nakayama's 1928 Tokyo March (東京行進曲), were meant for popular consumption and wholly unrelated to military music.
Among the most popular Japanese marches are the following:
- Defile March (分列行進曲) (Marchpast of the Imperial Japanese Army and of today's Japan Ground Self-Defense Force)
- Warship March (Gunkan,行進曲「軍艦」) (Marchpast of the Imperial Japanese Navy and of today's Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force)
- Kankanshiki March (観艦式行進曲)
- Kimigayo March (君が代行進曲)
- Pacific March (太平洋行進曲)
- Patriotic March (愛国行進曲)
- Oozora (行進曲「大空」) (Marchpast of the Self-Defence Forces)
- Tokyo Olympic March (オリンピック・マーチ), composed for the 1964 Summer Olympics
- Shukuten march (祝典行進曲) (For crown prince Akihito celebration of marriage in 1959)
- Sora no Seiei (空の精鋭) (Marchpast of Japan Air Self-Defence Force)
The Philippine march tradition is a mix of European and American traditions plus local musical styles. Several famous Philippine composers composed marches, and even Julián Felipe composed the march that would become Lupang Hinirang, the national anthem. Several marches are adaptations of local folk music, others have a patriotic feeling.
The Philippine march music tradition began in the 19th century, during the Philippine Revolution, as an offshoot of the Spanish march tradition. This is popular form of music as a battle hymn in the same way as in the US or France specially if Filipino soldiers are going to war or winning battles, is also the way of the Filipino to express their nationalistic affection to their native land. This style of music was also popular during the Philippine–American War and during the Second World War.
During the late 1960s at the time of Marcos era, this form of music begun to be widely used as a part of military drills, Parades and exercises of the Armed Forces, National Police and Coast Guard. Some famous marches are:
|Lupang Hinirang||Julián Felipe||The national anthem of the Philippines|
|Alerta Katipunan! (On alert Katipunan!)||Julio Nakpil||One of the well-known marching songs by the Katipunan and Philippine Revolutionary Army.|
|Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan (Salve Patria) (Noble hymn of the Tagalogs)||Julio Nakpil||Tagalog hymn|
|Sampaguita March (Flor de Manila)||Dolores Paterno||Military/festival march|
|Mabuhay!||Tito Cruz Jr.||Presidential hymn|
|Ang Bayan Ko (my Nation)||Jose Corazon de Jesus||Patriotic song|
|Bagong Pagsilang (March of the New Society)||Felipe Padilla de León||A patriotic hymn during the Ferdinand Marcos administration|
|AFP on the March||March past of the Armed Forces of the Philippines|
|Martsa ng Kawal Pilipino||Official hymn of the Armed Forces of the Philippines|
Thailand's late king, Bhumibol Adulyadej, is a march composer. His most famous march piece, the "Royal Guards March", is played by military bands during the Thai Royal Guards parade at the Royal Plaza at Bangkok every 2 December yearly. It reflects the use of German and British military band influences in Thai military music.
Chinese marches tend to originate from time of the Second Sino-Japanese War, with very few still being performed that were composed before 1930 (one notable exception to this is the Military anthem of China, which dates back to the late Qing Dynasty with lyrics commissioned by Zeng Guofan). They are typically written in a major key, and performed at around 120 beats per minute. Prussian style oom pah rhythm is heavily used, seen in the Presentation March and March Past of the People's Liberation Army. The most famous of Chinese marches is the March of the Volunteers, which is the national anthem of the People's Republic of China.
North Korean marches are heavily influenced by Soviet propaganda music. Most of the marches are dedicated to the party and to their revolution. Use of a grandiose brass sound is almost always present in the music.
South Korea is heavily influenced by European marches, and use of brass is less common than North Korean counterpart. Some of the marches have melodies of famous 'Arirang' sound as every local area have different music of 'Arirang'. One such example is Milyang Arirang March by Hee-jo Kim Another such example is Arirang Nation by MunKyu Hwang US 7th Infantry division which have been deployed in Korea have used its own version of arirang march and since has been used by both Korean military and US military in Korea.
Modern Turkey's national anthem is the march, "İstiklâl Marşı", which has an aggressive tune. Generally, old Turkish marches from the Ottoman Empire have aggressive lyrics, for instance in "Mehter Marşı". It is notable that Mozart and Beethoven also wrote popular Turkish marches.
|Audio of Niyazov's Honour march on Youtube|
Central Asian march traditions have spanned centuries and consists of many different military and national cultures. The main five Central Asian nations (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) commonly utilize Russian military marches during state functions, although they have made much quicker efforts unlike their Ukrainian and Belarusian counterparts to distinguish their military traditions from Russia. Most Central Asian nations have a Turkic culture and therefore uses marches with a mix of Russian and Turkish traditions. Tajikistan is an outlier in that it has a more Persian musical tradition. Afghanistan, like Tajikistan, has military marches that are similar to those in Iran, but with more recent American and British influence in combination with the Russian tradition.
Some the more popular Central Asian marches are the following:
- March of Ablai Khan (Kazakhstan)
- Kirghiz March (Kyrgyzstan)
- Morşi Didor (Tajikistan)
- Niyazov's Honour March (Turkmenistan)
- Slow March of the Turkmen Flag (Turkmenistan)
- Sunny March (Uzbekistan)
- Mustaqillik March (Uzbekistan)
Latin American march music
Although inspired by German, Spanish and French military music, marches of South and Central America are unique in melody and instrumentation.
Argentine marches are inspired by its military history and the influx of European immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries. Cayetano Alberto Silva's "San Lorenzo march" is an example that combines German and French military musical influences. Other examples include the "Avenue of the Camelias" March and the March of the Malvinas, used during the Falklands War and in military parades and ceremonies.
Brazilian military marches are popular called by the name "Dobrado", a reference to the most popular type of measure on this music genre, the 2/4. This type of music is influenced by the European and American march styles and has manyu composers in all country regions. Most popular composers are Antônio Manuel do Espírito Santo, with "Cisne Branco", "Avante Camaradas" e "Quatro Dias de Viagem" and Pedro Salgado, with "Dois corações" e "Coração de Mãe". Manoel Alves' "Batista de Melo" March, played widely in military and civil parades, while being the song of the Brazilian Army artillery, is de facto the army's quick march past tune.
Colombian military march music, like "The National Army of Colombia Hymn", "Commandos March" and "Hymn of the Colombian Navy" is an adaptation of the European and the American march styles.
Venezuela's "The Indio and the Conquistador" is the official marchpast of the Military Academy of Venezuela. It is more famous for being played in slow time in military parades and ceremonies. Also famous is the official double march of the National Armed Forces of Venezuela's special forces and airborne units, "Carabobo Reveille", and the "Slope Arms" March, played in ceremonies featuring the Flag of Venezuela and the first march in the beginning of parades. Marches like these (including the anthem of the 114th Armored Battalion "Apure Braves", "Fatherland Beloved") show British, American and Prussian influence.
Mexican marches, like the "March of the Heroic Military College", "Airborne Fusiliers March", "National Defense March" and the "Viva Mexico March", are all inspired by American, Spanish, and French military music but have a faster beat.
Cuban military marches are inspired by both American, Spanish and Soviet military music. German military marches such as the Yorckscher Marsch and Preußens Gloria are commonly used by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Band during official functions such as military parades. A notable Cuban military march is the Hymn of July 26 (Himno del 26 de Julio). Other musical compositions include the Marcha de la alfabetización and the Marcha De La Revolución.
Other Latin American marches are inspired by both European and Native American influences, such as the Peruvian marches "Los peruanos Pasan" and "Sesquicentenario" and the Ecuadorian military march "Paquisha".
Marches from Chile are a mix of European march music especially the German march tradition, and many are locally composed. Los viejos estandartes, the official march of the Chilean Army, is one such example. Several German, British and French marches (and even the US march Semper Fidelis) are also used by military and civil bands in parades and ceremonies most especially during national holidays.
- Authorized marches of the Canadian Forces
- Drum cadence
- Heritage of the March
- Military cadence
- Martial music
- Classical music
- See, e.g., F. W. Meacham.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Milyang Arirang March 밀양아리랑 행진곡 密陽アリランマーチ. YouTube. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- South Korean Military March - Arirang Nation : 아리랑겨레. YouTube. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- 7th Infantry Division (United States)
- 제3회 정기연주회 아리랑행진곡앵콜. YouTube. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Halman, Johannes and Robert Rojer (2008). Jan Gerard Palm (1831–1906) Music Scores: Waltzes, Mazurkas, Danzas, Tumbas, Polkas, Marches, Fantasies, Serenades, a Galop and Music Composed for Services in the Synagogue and the Lodge. Amsterdam: Broekmans and Van Poppel.*
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