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Krishna (//; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkɽɪʂɳɐ] (listen)) is a Hindu deity, worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. He is arguably one of the most enigmatic figures in World prehistory and mythology. Historically, Krishna as Vasudeva Govinda Krishna Shauri of the Vrishnis was the monarch of Dwaraka, a submerged island-state off coast modern Gujarat, India. In the Hindu Pantheon Krishna is recognized as the complete and eighth avatar of the God Vishnu or as the Supreme God swayam bhagwan (supreme personality of godhead) in his own right. Krishna is one of the most widely revered and popular of all Hindu deities. As one of the most popular of all Hindu deities, Krishna has absorbed many regionally significant deities such as Jagannatha in Odisha or Vithoba in Maharashtra. Srimad Bhagavatam names Krishna's eternal abode as Goloka. He is often described as a child, an infant eating butter, a toddler being tied to a mortar (Damodara) by his Mother, a young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana (a.k.a. Srimad Bhagavatam), an adolescent cowherd tending to cows, a young man along with Radha (Rādhārānī), a householder romancing any of his multiple wives, a king dispensing royal duties, a diplomat initiating both war and peace for greater good, as a middle-aged friend and charioteer to Arjuna or as an elder giving direction and guidance to Arjuna in the form of Spiritual discourse as in the Bhagavad Gita. In Bagwat Gita (4:13) Krishna says, "Chatur varnyam maya srishtam" meaning that Krishna himself created the caste system (varnashrama dharma).The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions. They portray him in various perspectives: a lovable infant, a god-child, a prankster, a cowherd, a model lover, a divine hero, a Diplomat, a King, a Kingmaker, a selfless friend, a philosopher and the Supreme Being swayam bhagwan. The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. The Vishnu Sahasranama, the list of Vishnu's thousand names also includes many of the above-mentioned names including Sri Krishna.
According to aryabhatt.com, the 108 names of Krishna include:
Names in general use
|Achala (अचल)||Baby||Achyuta (अच्युत)||Infallible||Avyakta (अव्यक्त)||The unmanifested |
|Banke Bihari (बाँके बिहारि)||Alternate form of Van Ke Vihari (वन के विहारि) which means one who loves to sport in the forests particularly Vrindavan||Bihari (बिहारी)||One who plays||Bhaktavatsara||One who uplifts his devotees|
|Brajesha (ब्रजेश)||Lord of Braja||Chakradhara (चक्रधर)||the bearer of a discus (chakra)||Damodara (दामोदर)||the Lord when He was tied with a cord (dama) round His waist (udara)|
|Dinabandhu (दीनबंधु)||Friend of the afflicted||Dinanatha (दीननाथ)||Refuge of destitutes||Dwarakadisha (द्वारकाधीश)||Lord of Dwaraka|
|Dwarakanatha (द्वारकानाथ)||Lord of Dwaraka||Ghanshyam (घनश्याम)||Dark rain cloud complexioned one||Giridhari (गिरिधारि)||he who lifted a hill (Govardhana hill)|
|Gopala (गोपाल)||cowherd; protector of cows (more accurately protector of life)||Gopinatha (गोपीनाथ)||Lord of the gopis, or cowherd women.||Govinda (गोविंद)||protector of cows; also connected with Govardhana hill; see also other meanings.|
|Govindaraja||King of the cow protectors||Guruvayurappan||Lord of the Guruvayoor, the city of Guru Brihaspati and Vayu.||Hari (हरि)||one who takes away the sins, or who wards off samsara, the cycle of birth and death|
|Ishvara (ईश्वर)||god||Hrushikesha (हृषिकेश)||"lord of the senses".||Jagannatha (जगन्नाथ)||lord of all places (see also Juggernaut)|
|Janardana (जनार्दन)||One Who Bestows Boons On One and All||Kaladeva (कालदेव)||the black deity||Kalmashaheena||the sinless one|
|Kanhaji or Kanhaiya (कान्हाजी, कन्हैया)||Kanhaji(कान्हाजी) means that we are able to lean on Him, to share our burdens with Him and to be closer||Keshava (केशव)||long haired, beautiful haired; see also other meanings||Keev||the prankster|
|Kunj Bihari (कुंज बिहारी)||enjoyer of lakes||Madana Mohana (मदन मोहन)||Bewilderer of Cupid (Madana)||Mahendra||larger than Indra|
|Madhava (माधव)||The one from the yadava race||Madhusudanah||killer of demon Madhu||Manikantha (मणिकंठ)||Krishna used wear Kaustubha Mani. Hence he also is called Manikantha|
|Murari||killer of the asura named Mura||Mukhilan||The one with the complexion similar to the rain clouds||Mukunda (मुकुंद)||He who gives liberation|
|Nandagopala (नंदगोपाल)||Beloved cowherd||Nandalal (नन्दलाल)||Beloved of Nanda||Orrish (औरिश)||A prince who leads people without title through his aura of good deeds|
|Panduranga||The White Lord of Pandharpur||Parambrahman||the highest Brahman||Parameshvara||the highest Ishvara, the highest god|
|Parambrahman||the highest Brahman||Parameshvara||the highest Ishvara, the highest god||Parthasarathi (पर्थसारथि)||charioteer of Partha, another name of Arjuna, a reference to his role with regard to Arjuna in the great battle|
|Patitapavana (पतितपवन)||Purifier of the fallen||Radhaavallabha (राधावल्लभ)||lover of Radha||Rajagopala||King of Cowherds|
|Ranchhodrai||One refused to fight the war and fled to Dwarka for the sake of peace.||Shyamasundara||Black and Beautiful||Santhana||The sweet child|
|SanathanaSarathy||The eternal spiritual charioteer||Shauri||Descendant of Shurasena||Vāsudeva, Krishna Vasudeva (वासुदेव, कृष्ण वासुदेव)||son of Vasudeva|
|Yadunandana||Son of the Yadu dynasty||Yogeshwara (योगेश्वर)||the Lord of the Yogis||Yashoda Nandana (यशोदा नंदन)||child of Yashoda|
- Knott 2000, p. 56
- Knott 2000, p. 36, p. 15
- Richard Thompson, Ph.D. (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". Archived from the original on 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2008-04-12. Cite journal requires
- Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. American Oriental Society. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381.
- "108 Names of Krishna". Astrology @ Aryabhatt.com. Bhavishya Darshan Janam Patrika. Archived from the original on 10 March 2005.
- Monier-Williams || "lord of the senses".
- Knott, Kim (2000). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-285387-2.
- Krishnamrita stotra: 108 Names of Krishna as found in Brahmanda Purana 3.36; English translation by G. V. Tagare
- 108 Names of Krishna
- Astottara-satanamas (108 names): Krishna devanagari mp3 audio
- Sahasranamas (1000 names): Krishna, Gopala, Balakrishna, Radha-Krishna
- List of more names of Lord Sri Krishna