List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives

Below is a list of special elections to the United States House of Representatives. Such elections are called by state governors to fill vacancies that occur when a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the biennial general election. Winners of these elections serve the remainder of the term and are usually candidates in the next general election for their districts.

In the United States, these contests are called "special elections." They are sometimes held on the regular Election Day like regular congressional elections but often they are on different days as determined by local statutes. Despite their name, however, special elections to the U.S. House happen often. Furthermore, one published study shows that special elections are explained by the same factors as regular congressional elections.[1] Special elections to the U.S. House of Representatives have occurred at least once in all states except Iowa and Idaho. A few special elections for territorial delegates to Congress have also been held.

A 2016 study of special elections to the United States House of Representatives found "that while candidate characteristics affect special election outcomes, presidential approval is predictive of special election outcomes as well. Furthermore, we find that the effect of presidential approval on special election outcomes has increased in magnitude from 1995 to 2014, with the 2002 midterm representing an important juncture in the nationalization of special elections."[2]

1st through 10th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
New Hampshire at-large 1st June 22, 1789[c] Benjamin West[d] (Pro-Admin) Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin) Declined to serve.
Virginia 9 1st July 1790[c] Theodorick Bland (Anti-Admin) William B. Giles (Anti-Admin) Died.
Connecticut at-large 1st December 16, 1790[c] Pierpont Edwards[e] (Pro-Admin) Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) Resigned.
New York 1 2nd April 26–28, 1791[c] James Townsend[e] (Pro-Admin) Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin) Died.
Connecticut at-large 2nd September 19, 1791[c] Roger Sherman (Pro-Admin) Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin) Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut.
Maryland 3 2nd October 26–29, 1791[c] William Pinkney (Pro-Admin) John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Resigned.
Georgia 1 2nd July 9, 1792[c] Anthony Wayne (Anti-Admin) John Milledge (Anti-Admin) Removed during a debate over his residency qualifications.
Maryland 2 2nd January 7–10, 1793[c] Joshua Seney (Anti-Admin) William Hindman (Pro-Admin) Resigned to take up his new duties as a judge of the state court for the district of Baltimore.
Connecticut at-large 3rd April 8, 1793[c][f] Jonathan Sturges[e] (Pro-Admin) Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin) Resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
Connecticut at-large 3rd September 16, 1793[c] Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Admin) Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin) Representative-elect resigned.
Connecticut at-large 3rd November 11, 1793[c] Stephen M. Mitchell (Pro-Admin)
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin)
Joshua Coit (Pro-Admin)
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin)
Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut and Ingersoll declined to take his seat.
Maryland 2 3rd May 5, 1794[c] John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Gabriel Duvall (Anti-Admin) Resigned.
South Carolina 5 3rd October 13–14, 1794 Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin) Robert Goodloe Harper (P) Died October 6, 1794.
Maryland 3 3rd December 8, 1794 Uriah Forrest (P) Benjamin Edwards (P) Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 3rd January 11, 1795 Abraham Clark (Pro-Admin) Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Admin) Died September 15, 1794.
South Carolina 2 4th January 19–20, 1795[c] John Barnwell[e] (F) Wade Hampton (DR) Declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 4th April 13, 1795[c] Jonathan Trumbull[e] (F) Nathaniel Smith (F) Elected U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th August 13–14, 1795[c] Alexander Mebane (DR) Absalom Tatom (DR) Representative-elect died July 5, 1795.
Maryland 2 4th April 18, 1796[c] Gabriel Duvall (DR) Richard Sprigg (DR) Resigned March 28, 1796, after election to the Maryland Supreme Court.
Massachusetts 10 4th September 12, 1796[c] Benjamin Goodhue (F) Samuel Sewall (F) Resigned to retire from public life.
Connecticut at-large 4th September 19, 1796[c] James Hillhouse (F) James Davenport (F) Elected U.S. Senator May 12, 1796; resigned in the fall of 1796
Maryland 3 4th October 3, 1796[c] Jeremiah Crabb (F) William Craik (F) Resigned in 1796 after June 1.
Pennsylvania 5 4th October 11, 1796[c] Daniel Hiester (DR) George Ege (F) Resigned and moved to Hagerstown, Maryland.
Rhode Island at-large 4th November 15, 1796[c] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F) Resigned in October 1796.
Massachusetts 1 4th November 21, 1796[c] Theodore Sedgwick (F) Thomson J. Skinner (DR) Resigned in early June 1796 after election as U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th November 23, 1796[c] Absalom Tatom (DR) William Strudwick (F) Resigned June 1, 1796 (the last day of the 1st Session of the 4th Congress).
Connecticut at-large 4th December 5, 1796[c] Uriah Tracy (F) Samuel W. Dana (F) Resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator.
Rhode Island at-large 5th November 15, 1796[c] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F) Resigned in October 1796.
Connecticut at-large 5th April 10, 1797[c] Uriah Tracy[e] (F)
Zephaniah Swift (F)
John Allen (F)
James Davenport (F)
Representative-elect resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator
Swift declined reelection, retiring from Congress March 3, 1797.
Vermont 2 5th May 23, 1797[c] Daniel Buck (F) Lewis R. Morris (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
Massachusetts 11 5th August 4, 1797[c] Theophilus Bradbury (F) Bailey Bartlett (F) Resigned July 24, 1797 to become Judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 5th August 28, 1797 Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F) Smith was named United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire.
Rhode Island at-large 5th August 29, 1797[c] Elisha R. Potter (F) Thomas Tillinghast (F) Resigned in July 1797.
South Carolina 1 5th September 4–5, 1797[c] William L. Smith (F) Thomas Pinckney (F) Resigned July 10, 1797 to become Minister to Portugal & Spain.
Connecticut at-large 5th September 18, 1797[c] James Davenport (F) William Edmond (F) Died August 3, 1797.[3]
Pennsylvania 5 5th October 10, 1797[c] George Ege (F) Joseph Hiester (DR) Resigned in October 1797.
New Hampshire at-large 5th October 30, 1797[c] Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F) Resigned June 26, 1797
North Carolina 10 5th August 2, 1798[c] Nathan Bryan (DR) Richard D. Spaight (DR) Died June 4, 1798.
Pennsylvania 1 5th October 9, 1798[c] John Swanwick (DR) Robert Waln (F) Died August 1, 1798.
Pennsylvania 4 5th October 9, 1798[c] Samuel Sitgreaves (F) Robert Brown (DR) Resigned in 1798.
Connecticut at-large 5th October 22, 1798[c] Joshua Coit (F) Jonathan Brace (F) Died September 5, 1798.
Virginia 9 5th November 1, 1798[c] William B. Giles (DR) Joseph Eggleston (DR) Resigned October 2, 1798, on the grounds of ill health, and in disgust at the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Maryland 7 6th November 29, 1798[c] Joshua Seney[e] (DR) Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) Died October 20, 1798.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 16, 1799[c] John Allen (F) Elizur Goodrich (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
New Hampshire at-large 6th November 18, 1799[c] Peleg Sprague (F) James Sheafe (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
New York 1 6th December 27–29, 1799[c] Jonathan N. Havens (DR) John Smith (DR) Representative-elect died October 25, 1799.
Virginia 13 6th June 7, 1800 John Marshall (F) Littleton W. Tazewell (DR) Resigned to become United States Secretary of State.
New Hampshire at-large 6th August 25, 1800 William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F) Resigned to accept appointment as New Hampshire Attorney General.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 15, 1800[c] Jonathan Brace (F) John C. Smith (F) Resigned in May 1800.
Massachusetts 10 6th October 20, 1800[c] Samuel Sewall (F) Nathan Read (F) Resigned January 10, 1800 to serve as a judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 6th October 27, 1800[c] William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F) Resigned to become New Hampshire Attorney General.
Massachusetts 3 6th December 15, 1800[c] Samuel Lyman (F) Ebenezer Mattoon (F) Resigned November 6, 1800.
Massachusetts 4 6th December 15, 1800[c][f] Dwight Foster (F) Levi Lincoln (DR) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 8 6th January 15, 1801[c][f] Thomas Hartley (F) John Stewart (DR) Died December 21, 1800.
Georgia at-large 7th March 23, 1801[c] James Jones[e] (DR) John Milledge (DR) Died January 11, 1801.
Connecticut at-large 7th April 9, 1801[c] Elizur Goodrich[e] (F) Calvin Goddard (F) Resigned after appointment as collector of customs for the Port of New Haven.
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801[c] George Thatcher[d] (F) Richard Cutts (DR) Declined to seek re-election after accepting a judicial appointment.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6–7, 1801[c] David Stone[e] (DR) Charles Johnson (DR) Resigned to return to the North Carolina Superior Court.
Massachusetts 4 7th June 22, 1801[c] Levi Lincoln (DR) Seth Hastings (F) Representative-elect appointed U.S. Attorney General
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801 George Thatcher (F) Richard Cutts (DR) Thatcher declined to serve in the 7th Congress.
Connecticut at-large 7th September 21, 1801[c] William Edmond[d] (F) Benjamin Tallmadge (F) Declined to seek renomination.
Massachusetts 12 7th September 25, 1801 Silas Lee (F) Vacant Resigned after appointment as U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6, 1801 David Stone (F) Charles Johnson (DR) Resigned before the start of the 7th Congress upon election to the Senate.
New York 5 7th October 6–8, 1801[c] Thomas Tillotson[d] (DR) Theodorus Bailey (DR) Resigned after appointment as Secretary of State of New York.
New York 6 7th October 6–8, 1801[c] John Bird[d] (F) John P. Van Ness (DR) Resigned July 25, 1801.
Pennsylvania 4 7th October 13, 1801[c] Peter Muhlenberg (DR) Isaac Van Horne (DR) Representative-elect resigned March 4, 1801, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 12 7th October 13, 1801[c] Albert Gallatin (DR) William Hoge (DR) Representative-elect resigned in May 1801 to become U.S. Treasury Secretary.
Tennessee at-large 7th October 29–30, 1801[c] William C. C. Claiborne[d] (DR) William Dickson (DR) Resigned to become Governor of Mississippi Territory.
Maryland 2 7th March 2, 1802[c] Richard Sprigg (DR) Walter Bowie (DR) Resigned April 11, 1802.
Georgia at-large 7th April 5, 1802[c] Benjamin Taliaferro (DR) David Meriwether (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 4 7th April 12–13, 1802[c] Thomas Sumter (DR) Richard Winn (DR) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 12 7th July 29, 1802[c] None Samuel Thatcher (F) Failure to elect after four ballots when no candidate won 50% of votes required.
New Hampshire at-large 7th August 30, 1802[c] Joseph Peirce (F) Samuel Hunt (F) Resigned.
North Carolina 8 7th October 15, 1802[c] Charles Johnson (DR) Thomas Wynns (DR) Died July 23, 1802.
New York 7 8th April 26–28, 1803[c] John Cantine[e] (F) Josiah Hasbrouck (DR) Representative-elect declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 8th September 5, 1803[c] Elias Perkins[d] (F) Simeon Baldwin (F) Re-elected, but declined to serve.
New York 6 8th September 14–16, 1803[c] Isaac Bloom[d] (DR) Daniel C. Verplanck (DR) Died.
Georgia at-large 8th October 3, 1803[c] John Milledge[e] (DR) Joseph Bryan (DR) Milledge was elected Governor of Georgia
New York 1 8th April 24–26, 1804[c] John Smith (DR) Samuel Riker (DR) Resigned.
New York 2 9th September 11–13, 1804[c] Daniel D. Tompkins[e] (DR) Gurdon S. Mumford (DR) Representative-elect resigned.
Massachusetts 12 8th September 17, 1804[c] Thomson J. Skinner (DR) Simon Larned (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 8th November 2, 1804[c][f] William Hoge (DR) John Hoge (DR) Resigned October 15, 1804.
Virginia 13 8th October 1804[c] John Johns Trigg (DR) Christopher H. Clark (DR) Died.
Maryland 4 8th October 1, 1804[c] Daniel Hiester (DR) Roger Nelson (DR) Died.
Virginia 5 8th November 13, 1804[c] Andrew Moore (DR) Alexander Wilson (DR) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
New York 3 8th January 2–4, 1805[c] Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) George Clinton (DR) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
South Carolina 8 9th September 26–27, 1805[c] John B. Earle[d] (DR) Elias Earle (DR) Retired before the start of the 9th Congress.
North Carolina 5 9th August 8, 1805[c] James Gillespie[e] (DR) Thomas Kenan (DR) Died.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 16, 1805[c][f] Calvin Goddard[d] (F)
Roger Griswold[d] (F)
Timothy Pitkin (F)
Lewis B. Sturges (F)
Resigned before the start of the 9th Congress.
Delaware at-large 9th October 1, 1805[c] James A. Bayard (F) James M. Broom (F) Representative-elect resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 4 9th October 8, 1805[c] John A. Hanna (DR) Robert Whitehill (DR) Representative-elect died July 23, 1805.
Pennsylvania 11 9th October 8, 1805[c] John B. Lucas (DR) Samuel Smith (DR) Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 10 9th January 23–24, 1806[c] Nathaniel Alexander[d] (DR) Evan S. Alexander (DR) Resigned to serve as Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 9th September 1, 1806[c][f] Joseph Bryan (DR) Dennis Smelt (DR) Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 15, 1806[c] John C. Smith (F) Theodore Dwight (F) Resigned.
Maryland 7 9th September 27/October 4, 1806[c] Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) Edward Lloyd (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 13 9th November 1806[c] Christopher H. Clark (DR) William A. Burwell (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 1 9th November 27, 1806[c] Michael Leib (DR) John Porter (DR) Resigned and returned to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
Georgia at-large 9th December 1, 1806[c] Thomas Spalding (DR) William W. Bibb (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 6 10th June 1–2, 1807[c] Levi Casey[e] (DR) Joseph C. Calhoun (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 12 10th July 13, 1807[c] Barnabas Bidwell[d] (DR) Ezekiel Bacon (DR) Resigned to become Massachusetts Attorney General.
Delaware at-large 10th October 6, 1807[c] James M. Broom (F) Nicholas Van Dyke (F) Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 7 10th February 1, 1808[c] John Culpepper (F) John Culpepper (F) Seat declared vacant from January to February 1808.
New Jersey at-large 10th March 8–9, 1808[c] Ezra Darby (DR) Adam Boyd (DR) Died.
New York 12 10th April 26–28, 1808[c] David Thomas (DR) Nathan Wilson (DR) Resigned to become New York State Treasurer.
Massachusetts 2 10th May 4, 1808[c] Jacob Crowninshield (DR) Joseph Story (DR) Died.
Rhode Island at-large 10th August 30, 1808[c] Nehemiah Knight (DR) Richard Jackson Jr. (F) Died.
Vermont 1 10th September 6, 1808[c][f] James Witherell (DR) Samuel Shaw (DR) Resigned to become a judge in the Michigan Territory.
Virginia 17 10th September 8, 12, 26, 1808[c] John Claiborne (DR) Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 10th October 11, 1808[c] Joseph Clay (DR) Benjamin Say (DR) Resigned after March 28, 1808.

11th through 20th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 1 11th October 10, 1809[c][f] Benjamin Say (DR) Adam Seybert (DR) Resigned in June 1809.
Virginia 21 11th December 1809[c] Wilson C. Nicholas (DR) David S. Garland (DR) Resigned.
New York 2 11th April 24–26, 1810[c] William Denning[d] (DR) Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) Resigned.
Kentucky 5 11th August 6, 1810[c] Benjamin Howa (DR) William T. Barry (DR) Resigned, later became Governor of Louisiana Territory.
Connecticut at-large 11th September 17, 1810[c] Samuel W. Dana (F) Ebenezer Huntington (F) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Maryland 4 11th October 1, 1810[c] Roger Nelson (DR) Samuel Ringgold (DR) Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 11th October 30–31, 1810[c] James Cox (DR) John A. Scudder (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 10 11th October 8, 1810[c][f] Jabez Upham (F) Joseph Allen (F) Resigned.
Massachusetts 11 11th October 8, 1810[c][f] William Stedman (F) Abijah Bigelow (F) Resigned.
Virginia 1 11th November 1810[c] John G. Jackson (DR) William McKinley (DR) Resigned after being wounded in a duel.
Maryland 7 11th November 15, 1810[c] John Brown (DR) Robert Wright (DR) Resigned before the close of the 11th Congress to accept a position as clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County.
South Carolina 1 11th December 31, 1810[c][f] Robert Marion (DR) Langdon Cheves (DR) Resigned.
Maryland 7 12th November 15, 1810[c][g] John Brown[e] (DR) Robert Wright (DR) (Same reason in the entry of Maryland's 7th district for the 11th Congress.)
Maryland 6 12th October 2, 1811[c] John Montgomery[d] (DR) Stevenson Archer (DR) Resigned to become Attorney General of Maryland.
Massachusetts 4 12th November 4, 1811[c][f] Joseph B. Varnum[d] (DR) William M. Richardson (DR) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 17 12th April 6, 1812[c][f] Barzillai Gannett[d] (DR) Francis Carr (DR) Resigned.
Georgia at-large 12th October 5, 1812[c][f] Howell Cobb (DR) William Barnett (DR) Resigned before October 1812 to accept a captain's commission in the U.S. Army.
New York 6 12th December 15–17, 1812[c] Robert L. Livingston (F) Thomas P. Grosvenor (F) Resigned to accept commission as a lieutenant colonel.
North Carolina 3 12th January 11, 1813[c] Thomas Blount (DR) William Kennedy (DR) Died February 7, 1812.
Pennsylvania 13 13th February 16, 1813[c] John Smilie[e] (DR) Isaac Griffin (DR) Died December 30, 1812.
Ohio 6 13th April 20, 1813[c] John S. Edwards[e] (F) Reasin Beall (DR) Representative-elect died.
New York 15 13th April 27–29, 1813[c] William Dowse[e] (F) John M. Bowers[h] (F) Representative-elect died.
Kentucky 8 13th April 29, 1813[c] John Simpson[e] (DR) Stephen Ormsby (DR) Died January 22, 1813.
Pennsylvania 15 13th May 4, 1813[c][f] Abner Lacock[e] (DR) Thomas Wilson (DR) Resigned March 3, 1813, due to election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 3 13th May 10, 1813[c] Duncan McArthur[d] (DR) William Creighton (DR) Representative-elect resigned to stay in the state militia.
Pennsylvania 5 13th May 11, 1813[c][f] Robert Whitehill (DR) John Rea (DR) Representative-elect died April 8, 1813.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1813[c][f] John Gloninger (F) Edward Crouch (DR) Resigned August 2, 1813.
Pennsylvania 7 13th October 12, 1813[c][f] John M. Hyneman (DR) Daniel Udree (DR) Resigned August 2, 1813.
Georgia at-large 13th December 13, 1813[c][f] William W. Bibb (DR) Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
New York 2 13th December 28–30, 1813[c] Egbert Benson (F) William Irving (DR) Resigned
Kentucky 2 13th February 28, 1814[c] Henry Clay (DR) Joseph H. Hawkins (DR) Resigned and traveled to Europe for the War of 1812 negotiations.
Massachusetts 4 13th May 23, 1814[c] William M. Richardson (DR) Samuel Dana (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 11 13th June 1814[c] John Dawson (DR) Philip P. Barbour (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 12 13th August 4, 1814[c] Daniel Dewey (F) John W. Hulbert (F) Resigned to become associate judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 13th August 29, 1814[c] Samuel Smith (F) Vacant[i] Failure to elect (see note).
Tennessee 5 13th September 15–16, 1814[c] Felix Grundy (DR) Newton Cannon (DR) Resigned.
New Jersey 3 13th October 10–11, 1814[c] Jacob Hufty [j] (F) Thomas Bines (DR) Died May 20, 1814.
Ohio 6 13th October 11, 1814[c][f] Reasin Beall (DR) David Clendenin (DR) Resigned June 7, 1814.
Pennsylvania 2 13th October 11, 1814[c][f] Jonathan Roberts (DR) Samuel Henderson (F) Resigned February 24, 1814, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1814[c][f] James Whitehill (DR) Amos Slaymaker (F) Resigned September 1, 1814, to engage in mercantile pursuits.
New York 6 14th April 1815 Jonathan Fisk (DR) James W. Wilkin (DR) Resigned to become U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.
New York 12 14th April 1815 Benjamin Pond (DR) Asa Adgate (DR) Died October 14, 1814.
Virginia 15 14th October 1815 Matthew Clay (DR) John Kerr (DR) Died May 27, 1815.
Pennsylvania 1 14th October 10, 1815 Jonathan Williams (DR) John Sergeant (F) Died May 16, 1815.
Pennsylvania 3 14th October 10, 1815 Amos Ellmaker (DR) James M. Wallace (DR) Resigned July 3, 1815, before qualifying, to become President Judge of the 12th Judicial District.
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 10, 1815 David Bard (DR) Thomas Burnside (DR) Died March 12, 1815.
Tennessee 2 14th December 7–8, 1815 John Sevier (DR) William G. Blount (DR) Died September 24, 1815.
North Carolina 6 14th January 22, 1816 Nathaniel Macon (DR) Weldon N. Edwards (DR) Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 14th January 27, 1816 Nicholas R. Moore (DR) Samuel Smith (DR) Resigned in 1815 before the start of the 15th Congress.
New York 20 14th September 1816 Enos T. Throop (DR) Daniel Avery (DR) Resigned after losing re-election campaign.
Maryland 5 14th September 3, 1816 William Pinkney (DR) Peter Little (DR) Pinkney was named Minister to Russia
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 8, 1816 Thomas Burnside (DR) William P. Maclay (DR) Resigned in April 1816 to become a judge.
Virginia 18 14th October 10–28, 1816 Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Thomas M. Nelson (DR) Died July 4, 1816.
Kentucky 1 14th December 2, 1816 James Clark (DR) Thomas Fletcher (DR) Resigned to become circuit court judge.
Maryland 3 14th December 2, 1816 Alexander C. Hanson (F) George Peter (F) Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Massachusetts 11 14th December 2, 1816 Elijah Brigham (F) Benjamin Adams (F) Died.
North Carolina 8 14th December 2, 1816 Richard Stanford (DR) Samuel Dickens (DR) Died April 16, 1816.
Ohio 1 14th October 8, 1816 John McLean (DR) William Henry Harrison (DR) Resigned in April 1816 to become Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Georgia at-large 14th December 1816 Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Zadock Cook (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 15th October 14, 1817 David Scott (DR) John Murray (DR) Resigned to become a judge.
Connecticut at-large 15th December 1, 1817 Sylvanus Blackus (F)
Charles Dennison (F)
Ebenezer Huntington (F)
Nathaniel Terry (F)
Died February 15, 1817.
New York 4 15th December 1, 1817 Henry B. Lee (DR) James Tallmadge Jr. (DR) Representative-elect died February 18, 1817
North Carolina 7 15th January 1, 1818 Alexander McMillan (F) James Stewart (F) Representative-elect McMillan died some time before Congress assembled.
South Carolina 6 15th February 9, 1818 John C. Calhoun (DR) Eldred Simkins (DR) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 6 15th March 3, 1818 John Ross (DR) Thomas J. Rogers (DR) Resigned February 24, 1818, to become President Judge of the 7th Judicial District of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania 6 15th October 13, 1818 Samuel D. Ingham (DR) Samuel Moore (DR) Resigned July 6, 1818.
Massachusetts 20 15th November 4, 1818 Albion Parris (DR) Enoch Lincoln (DR) Resigned to become a judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 11 15th November 7, 1818 Daniel M. Forney (DR) William Davidson (F) Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Uriel Holmes (F) Sylvester Gilbert (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 4 15th November 16, 1818 Jacob Spangler (DR) Jacob Hostetter (DR) Resigned April 20, 1818, to become Surveyor General of Pennsylvania.
Louisiana at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Thomas Butler (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 19 15th November 16, 1818 Peterson Goodwyn (DR) John Pegram (DR) Died February 21, 1818.
Georgia at-large 15th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR) Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
Georgia at-large 16th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR) Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
New Jersey at-large 16th February 1–2, 1820 John Condit (DR) Charles Kinsey (DR) Resigned November 4, 1819 to become Assistant Collector of the Port of New York.
Massachusetts 13 16th August 21, 1820 Edward Dowse (DR) William Eustis (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 5 16th October 10, 1820 David Fullerton (DR) Thomas G. McCullough (F) Resigned May 15, 1820.
Maine 1 16th November 7, 1820 John Holmes (DR) Joseph Dane (F) Holmes was elected as one of the first two Senators from Maine.
Virginia 1 16th November 13, 1820 James Pindall (F) Edward B. Jackson (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 10 16th November 13, 1820 George F. Strother (DR) Thomas L. Moore (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 20 16th November 13, 1820 James Johnson (DR) John C. Gray (DR) Resigned to become collector of customs in Norfolk.
Pennsylvania 7 16th December 26, 1820 Joseph Hiester (DR) Daniel Udree (DR) Resigned in December 1820 after elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
North Carolina 4 16th February 7, 1821 Jesse Slocumb (DR) William S. Blackledge (DR) Died December 20, 1820.
New Jersey at-large 17th October 8–9, 1821 John Linn (DR) Lewis Condict (DR) Died January 5, 1821.
Ohio 4 17th October 9, 1821 John C. Wright (DR) David Chambers (DR) Resigned March 3, 1821.
Pennsylvania 5 17th October 9, 1821 James Duncan (DR) John Findlay (DR) Resigned in April 1821.
Pennsylvania 10 17th October 9, 1821 William Cox Ellis (F) Thomas Murray Jr. (DR) Resigned July 20, 1821.
New York 6 17th November 6–8, 1821 Selah Tuthill (DR) Charles Borland Jr. (DR) Died September 7, 1821.
South Carolina 9 17th December 3, 1821 John S. Richards (DR) James Blair (DR) Representative-elect Richards declined to serve.
Kentucky 8 17th January 2, 1822 Wingfield Bullock (DR) James D. Breckinridge (DR) Died October 13, 1821.
New York 9 17th February 25–27, 1822 Solomon Van Rensselaer (DR) Stephen Van Rensselaer (F) Resigned.
Delaware at-large 17th October 1, 1822 Caesar A. Rodney (DR) Daniel Rodney (F) Resigned January 24, 1822, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 1 17th October 1, 1822 William Milnor (F) Thomas Forrest (F) Resigned May 8, 1822.
Pennsylvania 6 17th October 1, 1822 Samuel Moore (DR) Samuel D. Ingham (DR) Resigned May 20, 1822.
Pennsylvania 14 17th October 1, 1822 Henry Baldwin (DR) Walter Forward (DR) Died May 8, 1822.
Indiana at-large 17th December 2, 1822 William Hendricks (DR) Jonathan Jennings (DR) Resigned to run for Governor of Indiana.
Maine 2 17th December 2, 1822 Ezekiel Whitman (F) Mark Harris (DR) Resigned June 1, 1822.
Pennsylvania 7 17th December 10, 1822 Ludwig Worman (F) Daniel Udree (F) Died October 17, 1822.
South Carolina 9 17th December 11, 1822 James Blair (DR) John Carter (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 2 17th January 6, 1823 William Lowndes (DR) James Hamilton Jr. (DR) Resigned May 8, 1822, due to ill health.
Maryland 5 17th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (DR) Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 18th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (Jackson Republican) Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
New York 28 18th December 1, 1823 William B. Rochester (Adams Republican) William Woods (Adams Republican) Resigned to become Judge of New York's Eighth Circuit Court.
Virginia 13 18th April 8, 1824[k] William Lee Ball (Crawford Republican) John Taliaferro (Crawford Republican) Died February 29, 1824.
Pennsylvania 8 18th October 12, 1824 Thomas J. Rogers (Jackson Republican) George Wolf (Jackson Republican) Resigned April 20, 1824.
Pennsylvania 13 18th October 12, 1824 John Tod (Jackson Republican) Alexander Thomson (Jackson Republican) Resigned due to becoming the Presiding Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin County.
Massachusetts 10 18th December 13, 1824 None[l] John Bailey (DR) (See note.)
Vermont at-large 18th December 13, 1824[f] Charles Rich (DR) Henry Olin (DR) Died October 15, 1824.
Indiana 1 18th December 23, 1824[f] William Prince (DR) Jacob Call (Jackson Republican) Died September 8, 1824.
North Carolina 2 18th January 6, 1825 Hutchins Gordon Burton (Crawford Republican) George Outlaw (Crawford Republican) Resigned after being elected Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 18th February 7, 1825 Thomas W. Cobb (Crawford Republican) Richard Henry Wilde (Crawford Republican) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 16 19th October 11, 1825 James Allison Jr. (J) Robert Orr Jr. (J) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 18 19th March 14, 1826 Patrick Farrelly (J) Thomas H. Sill (Anti-J) Died January 12, 1826.
Maine 5 19th September 11, 1826 Enoch Lincoln (DR) James W. Ripley (J) Resigned.
Ohio 10 19th October 10, 1826 David Jennings (Anti-J) Thomas Shannon (Anti-J) Resigned May 25, 1826.
Pennsylvania 2 19th October 10, 1826 Joseph Hemphill (J) Thomas Kittera (Anti-J) Resigned May 1, 1826.
Pennsylvania 7 19th October 10, 1826 Henry Wilson (J) Jacob Krebs (J) Died August 14, 1826.
Pennsylvania 13 19th October 10, 1826 Alexander Thomson (J) Chauncey Forward (J) Resigned May 1, 1826.
Maine 1 20th September 10, 1827 William Burleigh (Anti-J) Rufus McIntire (J) Died July 2, 1827.
Georgia 1 20th October 1, 1827 Edward Fenwick Tattnall[m] (J) George Rockingham Gilmer (J) (See note.)
Delaware at-large 20th October 2, 1827 Louis McLane (F) Kensey Johns Jr. (F) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 8 20th October 9, 1827 William Wilson (Anti-J) William Stanbery (J) Died June 6, 1827.
Pennsylvania 2 20th October 9, 1827 None[n] John Sergeant (Anti-J) The vote in the previous general election was tied.
Georgia 2 20th November 17, 1827 John Forsyth (J) Richard Henry Wilde (J) Resigned to serve as Governor of Georgia.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 George Holcombe (J) James F. Randolph (Anti-J) Died January 4, 1828.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 Hedge Thompson (Anti-J) Thomas Sinnickson (Anti-J) Died July 23, 1828.
Ohio 6 20th December 2, 1828 William Creighton (Anti-J) Francis Swaine Muhlenberg (Anti-J) Resigned.

21st through 30th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Maine 4 21st July 20, 1829 Peleg Sprague (Anti-J) George Evans (Anti-J) Resigned after election to U.S. Senate
Pennsylvania 8 21st October 13, 1829 Samuel D. Ingham (J)
George Wolf (J)
Peter Ihrie Jr. (J)
Samuel A. Smith (J)
Ingham became U.S. Treasury Secretary March 6, 1829
Wolf was elected Governor of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania 16 21st December 15, 1829 William Wilkins (J) Harmar Denny (Anti-M) Resigned.
Ohio 11 21st October 11, 1830 John M. Goodenow (J) Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Resigned April 9, 1830; chosen to be a Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Maine 5 21st December 6, 1830 James W. Ripley (J) Cornelius Holland (J) Resigned to resume practice of law.
Vermont 2 22nd November 1, 1831 Rollin Carolas Mallary (Anti-J) William Slade (Anti-M) Died April 15, 1831.
Pennsylvania 11 22nd November 22, 1831 William Ramsey (J) Robert McCoy (J) Died September 29, 1831.
Vermont 1 22nd January 1, 1833 Jonathan Hunt (Anti-J) Hiland Hall (Anti-J) Died May 15, 1832.
Pennsylvania 1 23rd October 8, 1833 Joel B. Sutherland (J) Joel B. Sutherland (J)[o] Resigned March 5, 1833, to become Associate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia.
Ohio 19 23rd October 14, 1834 Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Daniel Kilgore (J) Resigned July 10, 1834, to become Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.
Ohio 1 23rd November 8, 1834 Robert T. Lytle (J) Robert T. Lytle (J) Resigned March 10, 1834.
Vermont 5 23rd November 10, 1834 Benjamin F. Deming (Anti-M) Henry Fisk Janes (Anti-M) Died July 11, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat A
23rd December 1, 1834 William W. Ellsworth (Anti-J) Joseph Trumbull (Anti-J) Resigned July 8, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat B
23rd December 1, 1834 Jabez W. Huntington (Anti-J) Phineas Miner (Anti-J) Resigned August 16, 1834 to become judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors.
Connecticut at-large
Seat C
23rd December 1, 1834 Samuel A. Foot (Anti-J) Ebenezer Jackson Jr. (Anti-J) Resigned May 9, 1834 to become Governor of Connecticut.
Pennsylvania 24 24th October 11, 1836 John Banks (Anti-M) John J. Pearson (Anti-J) Resigned April 2, 1836.
Pennsylvania 13 24th November 4, 1836 Jesse Miller (J) James Black (J) Resigned October 30, 1836.
New Jersey at-large 24th November 15–16, 1836 Philemon Dickerson (J) William Chetwood (W) Resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Pennsylvania 3 25th June 29, 1837 Francis J. Harper (D) Charles Naylor (W) Died March 18, 1837.
Ohio 17 25th November 30, 1837 Andrew W. Loomis (W) Charles D. Coffin (W) Resigned October 20, 1837.
Pennsylvania 9 25th March 8, 1838 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) George M. Keim (D) Resigned February 9, 1838 to become U.S. Minister to Austria.
Maine 3 25th April 28, 1838 Jonathan Cilley (D) Edward Robinson (W) Killed February 24, 1838.
Maine 5 25th May 29, 1838 Timothy J. Carter (D) Virgil D. Parris (D) Died March 14, 1838.
Ohio 16 25th October 9, 1838 Elisha Whittlesey (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Resigned July 9, 1838.
Ohio 19 25th November 5, 1838 Daniel Kilgore (D) Henry Swearingen (D) Resigned July 4, 1838.
Pennsylvania 14 26th November 20, 1839 William W. Potter (D) George McCulloch (D) Died October 28, 1839.
Ohio 4 26th October 13, 1840 Thomas Corwin (W) Jeremiah Morrow (W) Resigned May 30, 1840, to run for Governor of Ohio.
Pennsylvania 22 26th October 13, 1840 Richard Biddle (Anti-M) Henry M. Brackenridge (W) Resigned May 13, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 26th November 20, 1840 William S. Ramsey (D) Charles McClure (D) Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 27th May 4, 1841 William S. Ramsey (D) Amos Gustine (D) Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 20 27th May 25, 1841 Enos Hook (D) Henry W. Beeson (D) Resigned April 18, 1841.
Maine 4 27th May 31, 1841 George Evans (W) David Bronson (W) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 18 27th June 8, 1841 Charles Ogle (W) Henry Black (W) Died May 10, 1841.
Pennsylvania 2 27th October 12, 1841 John Sergeant (W) Joseph Reed Ingersoll (W) Resigned September 15, 1841.
Pennsylvania 18 27th December 21, 1841 Henry Black (W) James M. Russell (W) Died November 28, 1841.
Pennsylvania 17 27th March 1, 1842 Davis Dimock Jr. (D) Almon Heath Read (D) Died January 13, 1842.
Ohio 16 27th April 26, 1842 Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Resigned March 22, 1842, in response to being censured for his work against slavery.
Pennsylvania 21 27th May 20, 1842 Joseph Lawrence (W) Thomas M. T. McKennan (W) Died April 17, 1842.
Massachusetts 1 27th June 3, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Nathan Appleton (W) Resigned when he was widowed.
November 14, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Nathan Appleton (W) Resigned September 28, 1842.
Pennsylvania 21 28th March 15, 1844 William Wilkins (D) Cornelius Darragh (W) Resigned February 14, 1844 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 13 28th April 9, 1844 Henry Frick (W) James Pollock (W) Died March 1, 1844.
Ohio 10 28th October 8, 1844 Heman A. Moore (D) Alfred P. Stone (D) Died April 3, 1844.
Ohio 21 28th October 8, 1844 Henry R. Brinkerhoff (D) Edward S. Hamlin (D) Died April 30, 1844.
Pennsylvania 12 28th October 8, 1844 Almon Heath Read (D) George Fuller (D) Died June 3, 1844.
New Jersey 2 29th October 7–8, 1845 Samuel G. Wright (W) George Sykes (D) Died July 30, 1845.
Georgia 3 29th January 5, 1846 None[p] George W. Towns (D) (See note.)
Ohio 7 30th November 8, 1847 Thomas L. Hamer (D) Jonathan D. Morris (D) Died December 2, 1846.
Pennsylvania 6 30th February 23, 1848 John W. Hornbeck (W) Samuel A. Bridges (D) Died June 16, 1848.

31st through 40th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Ohio 6 31st October 9, 1849 Rodolphus Dickinson (D) Amos E. Wood (D) Died March 20, 1849.
Vermont 3 31st November 7, 1849 George Perkins Marsh (W) James Meacham (W) Resigned to become U.S. Minister Resident to the Ottoman Empire.
Georgia 1 31st February 4, 1850 Thomas Butler King (W) Joseph Webber Jackson (D) Resigned.
Massachusetts 1 31st August 22, 1850 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Samuel A. Eliot (W) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New Hampshire 3 31st October 8, 1850 James Wilson II (W) George W. Morrison (D) Resigned September 9, 1850.
Pennsylvania 15 31st October 8, 1850 Henry Nes (W) Joel B. Danner (D) Died September 10, 1850.
Ohio 6 31st December 23, 1850 Amos E. Wood (D) John Bell (D) Died November 19, 1850.
Pennsylvania 11 31st December 31, 1850 Chester P. Butler (W) John Brisbin (W) Died October 5, 1850.
Maine 4 32nd June 25, 1852 Charles Andrews (D) Isaac Reed (W) Died April 30, 1852.
Pennsylvania 8 33rd February 4, 1854 Henry A. Muhlenberg (D) J. Glancy Jones (D) Died January 9, 1854.
Massachusetts 1 33rd April 17, 1854 Zeno Scudder (W) Thomas D. Eliot (W) Retired because of leg injury.
Vermont 1 34th September 2, 1856 James Meacham (O) George Tisdale Hodges (R) Died August 23, 1856.
Pennsylvania 12 35th October 13, 1857 John G. Montgomery (D) Paul Leidy (D) Died April 24, 1857.
Pennsylvania 8 35th November 30, 1858 J. Glancy Jones (D) William H. Keim (R) Resigned October 30, 1858.
Ohio 14 36th October 11, 1859 Cyrus Spink (R) Harrison G. O. Blake (R) Died May 31, 1859.
Pennsylvania 8 36th October 9, 1860 John Schwartz (ALD) Jacob K. McKenty (D) Died June 20, 1860.
Maine 5 36th November 6, 1860 Israel Washburn Jr. (R) Stephen Coburn (R) Resigned January 1, 1861, the day before serving as Governor of Maine.
Ohio 7 37th May 28, 1861 Thomas Corwin (R) Richard A. Harrison (U) Resigned March 12, 1861 to become U.S. Minister to Mexico.
Ohio 13 37th May 28, 1861 John Sherman (R) Samuel T. Worcester (R) Resigned March 21, 1861; elected U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 2 37th June 21, 1861 Edward Joy Morris (R) Charles J. Biddle (UD) Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey.
Pennsylvania 12 37th June 21, 1861 George W. Scranton (R) Hendrick Bradley Wright (UD) Died March 24, 1861.
Pennsylvania 7 37th May 24, 1862 Thomas B. Cooper (D) John D. Stiles (D) Died April 4, 1862.
Maine 2 37th December 1, 1862 Charles W. Walton (R) Thomas Fessenden (R) Resigned to become Associate Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court.
Delaware at-large 38th November 19, 1863 William Temple (D) Nathaniel B. Smithers (U) Died May 28, 1863.
Ohio 2 40th October 8, 1867 Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Samuel Fenton Cary (IR) Resigned July 20, 1867, after being nominated for Governor of Ohio.
Pennsylvania 12 40th October 8, 1867 Charles Denison (D) George W. Woodward (D) Died June 27, 1867.
Ohio 8 40th January 27, 1868 Cornelius S. Hamilton (R) John Beatty (R) Killed December 22, 1867
Pennsylvania 9 40th October 13, 1868 Thaddeus Stevens (R) Oliver J. Dickey (R) Died August 11, 1868.
Pennsylvania 20 40th October 13, 1868 Darwin A. Finney (R) Solomon Newton Pettis (R) Died August 25, 1868.

41st through 50th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Massachusetts 7 41st November 2, 1869 George S. Boutwell (R) George M. Brooks (R) Resigned to become U.S. Treasury Secretary.
Ohio 10 41st April 5, 1870 Truman H. Hoag (D) Erasmus D. Peck (R) Died February 5, 1870.
North Carolina 4 41st August 4, 1870 John T. Deweese (R) Robert B. Gilliam (D).[q] Resigned following censure for selling military academy appointments.
North Carolina 4 41st November 26, 1870 None John Manning Jr. (D) Representative-elect died (see note above).
South Carolina 1 41st December 12, 1870 Benjamin F. Whittemore (R) Joseph Rainey (R) Resigned before censure for selling military academy appointments.
Georgia 4 41st December 22, 1870 Samuel F. Gove (R) Jefferson F. Long (R) Elected, but not permitted to qualify.
Ohio 1 42nd October 8, 1872 Aaron F. Perry (R) Ozro J. Dodds (D) Resigned.
Georgia 4 42nd October 29, 1872 Thomas J. Speer (R) Erasmus W. Beck (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 13 42nd December 24, 1872 Ulysses Mercur (R) Frank C. Bunnell (R) Resigned December 2, 1872, to accept a judicial position.
Oregon 1 43rd October 13, 1873 Joseph G. Wilson (R) James Nesmith (D) Died July 2, 1873.
Georgia 8 43rd December 1, 1873 None[r] Alexander H. Stephens (D) (See note.)
Oregon at-large 43rd December 1, 1873 Joseph G. Wilson (R) James W. Nesmith (D) Died July 2, 1873.
Ohio 12 43rd October 13, 1874 Hugh J. Jewett (D) William E. Finck (D) Resigned June 23, 1874, to become president of the Erie Railroad Co..
Pennsylvania 23 43rd November 3, 1874 Ebenezer McJunkin (R) John M. Thompson (R) Resigned January 1, 1875.
Georgia 9 44th May 5, 1875 None[s] Benjamin Harvey Hill (D) (See note.)
Maine 4 44th September 13, 1875 Samuel F. Hersey (R) Harris M. Plaisted (R) Died February 3, 1875.
Oregon at-large 44th October 25, 1875 None[t] Lafayette Lane (D) Died May 1, 1875.
Pennsylvania 12 44th November 7, 1876 Winthrop W. Ketchum (R) William H. Stanton (D) Resigned July 19, 1876.
Maine 3 44th December 4, 1876 James G. Blaine (R) Edwin Flye (R) Resigned July 10, 1876 to become U.S. Senator.
Georgia 9 45th April 13, 1877 None Hiram Parks Bell (D) Benjamin Harvey Hill (D) resigned after being elected U.S. Senator during the preceding Congress.
Nebraska at-large 45th November 5, 1878 Frank Welch (R) Thomas Jefferson Majors (R) Died September 4, 1878.
Georgia 1 46th February 10, 1879 Julian Hartridge (D) William Bennett Fleming (D) Died January 8, 1879.
Ohio 19 46th November 30, 1880 James A. Garfield (R) Ezra B. Taylor (R) Resigned November 8, 1880, after being elected U.S. President.
New Hampshire 3 46th December 28, 1880 Evarts Worcester Farr (R) Ossian Ray (R) Died November 30, 1880. (Winner elected to finish term)
New Hampshire 3 47th December 28, 1880 Evarts Worcester Farr (R) Ossian Ray (R) Died November 30, 1880. (Winner elected to next term)
Maine 2 47th September 12, 1881 William P. Frye (R) Nelson Dingley Jr. (R) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Rhode Island 1 47th November 22, 1881 Nelson W. Aldrich (R) Henry J. Spooner (R) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Georgia 8 47th November 8, 1882 Alexander H. Stephens (D) Seaborn Reese (D) Resigned immediately before serving as Governor of Georgia.
Utah Territory at-large 47th November 8, 1882 George Q. Cannon (R) John Thomas Caine (D) Seat declared vacant by the enactment of the anti-Mormon Edmunds Act.
Ohio 16 47th January 2, 1883 Jonathan T. Updegraff (R) Joseph D. Taylor (R) Died November 30, 1882.
Ohio 17 48th January 2, 1883 Jonathan T. Updegraff (R) Joseph D. Taylor (R) Died November 30, 1882.
West Virginia 3 48th May 15, 1883 John E. Kenna (D) Charles P. Snyder (D) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 19 48th December 23, 1884 William A. Duncan (D) John A. Swope (D) Died November 14, 1884.
Rhode Island 2 48th February 5, 1885 Jonathan Chace (R) Nathan F. Dixon III (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 19 49th November 3, 1885 William A. Duncan (D) John A. Swope (D) Died November 14, 1884.
Rhode Island 2 49th February 21, 1887 None[u] Charles H. Page (D) (See note.)
Nebraska 2 50th November 5, 1889 James Laird (R) Gilbert L. Laws (R) Died August 17, 1889.

51st through 60th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 4 51st February 18, 1890 William D. Kelley (R) John E. Reyburn (R) Died January 9, 1890.
Pennsylvania 3 51st May 20, 1890 Samuel J. Randall (D) Richard Vaux (D) Died April 13, 1890.
Pennsylvania 27 51st November 4, 1890 Lewis F. Watson (R) Charles W. Stone (R) Died August 25, 1890.
South Dakota at-large 52nd November 3, 1891 John Rankin Gamble (R) John L. Jolley (R) Died August 14, 1891.
California 3 52nd November 8, 1892 Joseph McKenna (R) Samuel G. Hilborn (R) Resigned to become U.S. 9th Circuit Judge
Ohio 16 52nd November 8, 1892 John G. Warwick (D) Lewis P. Ohliger (D) Died August 14, 1892.
Pennsylvania 24 52nd November 8, 1892 Alexander K. Craig (D) William A. Sipe (D) Died July 29, 1892.
Rhode Island 2 53rd April 5, 1893 None[v] Charles H. Page (D) (See note.)
Pennsylvania 8 53rd June 23, 1893 William Mutchler (D) Howard Mutchler (D) Died June 23, 1893.
Ohio 10 53rd July 13, 1893 William H. Enochs (R) Hezekiah S. Bundy (R) Died July 13, 1893.
Pennsylvania 8 53rd July 25, 1893 William Mutchler (D) Howard Mutchler (D) Died June 23, 1893.
Michigan 1 53rd August 17, 1893 J. Logan Chipman (D) Levi T. Griffin (D) Died August 17, 1893.
Wisconsin 4 53rd August 27, 1893 None Peter J. Somers (D) John L. Mitchell (D) resigned at the end of the previous Congress after election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 10 53rd November 5, 1893 William H. Enochs (R) Hezekiah S. Bundy (R) Died July 13, 1893.
Pennsylvania 2 53rd December 19, 1893 Charles O'Neill (R) Robert Adams Jr. (R) Died November 25, 1893.
New York 15 53rd December 26, 1893 Ashbel P. Fitch (D) Isidor Straus (D) Resigned having been elected Comptroller of New York.
New York 14 53rd December 31, 1893 John R. Fellows (D) Lemuel E. Quigg (R) Resigned having been elected New York County D. A.
Virginia 7 53rd December 31, 1893 Charles T. O'Ferrall (D) Smith S. Turner (D) Resigned having been elected Governor of Virginia.
Pennsylvania at-large 53rd January 20 or February 20, 1894 William Lilly (R) Galusha A. Grow (R) Died December 1, 1893.
Ohio 3 53rd May 1, 1894 George W. Houk (D) Paul J. Sorg (D) Died February 9, 1894.
South Carolina 1 53rd February 12, 1894 William H. Brawley (D) James F. Izlar (D) Resigned to become Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina.
Louisiana 4 53rd March 12, 1894 Newton C. Blanchard (D) Henry W. Ogden (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Missouri 11 53rd April 3, 1894 Charles F. Joy (R) John J. O'Neill (D) Lost contested election.
California 3 53rd April 4, 1894 Samuel G. Hilborn (R) Warren B. English (D) Lost contested election.
Maryland 1 53rd May 10, 1894 Robert F. Bratton (D) W. Laird Henry (D) Died.
Maryland 5 53rd May 15, 1894 Barnes Compton (D) Charles E. Coffin (R) Resigned.
Kentucky 10 53rd July 7, 1894 Marcus C. Lisle (D) William M. Beckner (D) Died July 7, 1894.
Kansas 2 53rd August 2, 1894 Edward H. Funston (R) Horace L. Moore (D) Lost contested election.
Wisconsin 7 53rd August 27, 1894 George B. Shaw (R) Michael Griffin (R) Died August 27, 1894.
Arkansas 2 53rd November 1, 1894 Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) John S. Little (D) Resigned to become Minister to Russia.
Ohio 2 53rd November 6, 1894 John A. Caldwell (R) Jacob H. Bromwell (R) Resigned May 4, 1894, having been elected Mayor of Cincinnati.
Alabama 3 53rd November 30, 1894 William C. Oates (D) George P. Harrison (D) Resigned to become Governor of Alabama.
Kentucky 9 53rd January 5, 1895 Thomas H. Paynter (D) Vacant Resigned having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
Illinois 10 53rd December 2, 1895 Philip S. Post (R) George W. Prince (R) Died January 6, 1895.
Michigan 3 53rd January 13, 1895 Julius C. Burrows (R) Vacant Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 15 53rd February 19, 1895 Myron B. Wright (R) Edwin J. Jorden (R) Died November 13, 1894.
Pennsylvania 15 54th February 19, 1895 Myron B. Wright (R) James H. Codding (R) Died November 13, 1894.
Georgia 10 54th October 2, 1895 James C. C. Black (D) James C. C. Black (D) Succeeded himself to fill a vacancy he caused.[5]
Massachusetts 6 54th November 5, 1895 William Cogswell (R) William Henry Moody (R) Died May 22, 1895.
New York 10 54th November 5, 1895 None Amos J. Cummings (D) Representative-elect Andrew J. Campbell (R) died December 6, 1894.
Illinois 10 54th December 2, 1895 None George W. Prince (R) Philip S. Post (R) died January 6, 1895.
Illinois 18 54th December 2, 1895 Frederick Remann (R) William F. L. Hadley (R) Died July 14, 1895.
Michigan 3 54th December 2, 1895 Julius C. Burrows (R) Alfred Milnes (R) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Illinois 3 54th December 27, 1895 Lawrence E. McGann (D) Hugh R. Belknap (R) Lost contested election.
Texas 11 54th April 7, 1896 William H. Crain (D) Rudolph Kleberg (D) Died February 10, 1896.
Missouri 5 54th February 27, 1896 John C. Tarsney (D) Robert T. Van Horn (R) Lost contested election.
Alabama 4 54th March 12, 1896 Gaston A. Robbins (D) William F. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Virginia 5 54th May 2, 1896 William R. McKenney (D) Robert T. Thorp (R) Lost contested election.
Alabama 5 54th April 21, 1896 James E. Cobb (D) Albert T. Goodwyn (P) Lost contested election.
South Carolina 7 54th June 1, 1896 None J. William Stokes (D) Seat declared vacant after election was contested because of Democratic fraud.
New York 8 54th June 2, 1896 James J. Walsh (D) John M. Mitchell (R) Lost contested election.
South Carolina 1 54th June 4, 1896 William Elliott (D) George W. Murray (R) Lost contested election.
Illinois 16 54th June 5, 1896 Finis E. Downing (D) John I. Rinaker (R) Lost contested election.
North Carolina 6 54th June 5, 1896 James A. Lockhart (D) Charles H. Martin (P) Lost contested election.
Alabama 9 54th June 9, 1896 Oscar W. Underwood (D) Truman H. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Louisiana 5 54th June 10, 1896 None Charles J. Boatner (D) Seat declared vacant after election on March 11 was contested.
Georgia 3 54th December 19, 1896 Charles Frederick Crisp (D) Charles R. Crisp (D) Died October 23, 1896.
New York 19 54th January 7, 1897 Frank S. Black (R) Vacant Resigned having been elected Governor of New York.
Kentucky 10 54th February 18, 1897 Joseph M. Kendall (D) Nathan T. Hopkins (R) Lost contested election.
Pennsylvania 25 55th April 20, 1897 James J. Davidson (R) Joseph B. Showalter (R) Died January 2, 1897.
Maine 3 55th June 21, 1897 Seth L. Milliken (R) Edwin C. Burleigh (R) Died April 18, 1897.
Indiana 4 55th December 6, 1897 William S. Holman (D) Francis M. Griffith (D) Died April 22, 1896.
South Carolina 6 55th December 6, 1897 John L. McLaurin (D) James Norton (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Missouri 1 55th June 1, 1897 None James T. Lloyd (D) Representative-elect Richard P. Giles (D) died November 17, 1896.
Illinois 6 55th November 23, 1897 Edward D. Cooke (R) Henry S. Boutell (R) Died June 24, 1897.
Massachusetts 1 55th November 2, 1897 Ashley B. Wright (R) George P. Lawrence (R) Died August 14, 1897.
New York 3 55th December 5, 1897 Francis H. Wilson (R) Edmund H. Driggs (D) Resigned to become Postmaster of Brooklyn, New York.
Alabama 4 55th February 9, 1898 Thomas S. Plowman (D) William F. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Pennsylvania 23 55th November 29, 1898 William A. Stone (R) William H. Graham (R) Resigned having been elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
Virginia 4 55th March 23, 1898 Sydney P. Epes (D) Robert T. Thorp (R) Lost contested election.
Massachusetts 13 55th May 31, 1898 John Simpkins (R) William S. Greene (R) Died March 27, 1898.
Virginia 2 55th April 26, 1898 William A. Young (D) Richard A. Wise (R) Lost contested election.
Mississippi 2 55th July 5, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) Thomas Spight (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Ohio 19 55th November 8, 1898 Stephen A. Northway (R) Charles W. F. Dick (R) Died September 8, 1898.
Mississippi 6 55th December 12, 1898 William F. Love (D) Frank A. McLain (D) Died October 16, 1898.
New York 34 55th November 10, 1898 Warren B. Hooker (R) Vacant Resigned to become Justice of the New York Supreme Court.
Tennessee 4 55th January 6, 1899 Benton McMillin (D) Vacant Resigned having been elected Governor of Tennessee.
New York 2 55th February 26, 1899 Denis M. Hurley (R) Redistricted to New York 7 Died.
Maine 2 56th June 19, 1899 Nelson Dingley Jr. (R) Charles E. Littlefield (R) Died.
Maine 1 56th November 6, 1899 Thomas Brackett Reed (R) Amos L. Allen (R) Resigned due to intra-party feud that saw him at odds with the foreign policy of President McKinley.
Nebraska 6 56th November 7, 1899 William Laury Greene (Pop) William Neville (Pop) Died.
Ohio 16 56th November 7, 1899 Lorenzo Danford (R) Joseph J. Gill (R) Died June 19, 1899.
Pennsylvania 9 56th November 7, 1899 Daniel Ermentrout (D) Henry D. Green (D) Died September 7, 1899.
Utah at-large 56th April 25, 1900 None[w] William H. King (D) Disputed election (see note).
California 2 56th November 6, 1900 Marion De Vries (D) Samuel D. Woods (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
Delaware at-large 56th November 6, 1900 John H. Hoffecker (R) Walter O. Hoffecker (R) Died June 16, 1900.
New Jersey 7 56th November 6, 1900 William D. Daly (D) Allan L. McDermott (D) Died July 31, 1900.
Pennsylvania 5 56th November 6, 1900 Alfred C. Harmer (R) Edward de Veaux Morrell (R) Died March 6, 1900.
Maine 4 57th April 8, 1901 Charles A. Boutelle (R) Llewellyn Powers (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 10 57th November 5, 1901 Marriott Brosius (R) Henry B. Cassel (R) Died March 16, 1901.
New Jersey 4 57th June 18, 1902 Joshua S. Salmon (D) De Witt C. Flanagan (D) Died May 6, 1902.
Pennsylvania 17 57th November 4, 1902 Rufus King Polk (D) Alexander Billmeyer (D) Died March 5, 1902.
Oregon 1 58th June 1, 1903 Thomas H. Tongue (R) Binger Hermann (R) Died.
Ohio 16 58th November 3, 1903 Joseph J. Gill (R) Capell L. Weems (R) Resigned October 31, 1903.
Pennsylvania 4 58th November 3, 1903 Robert H. Foerderer (R) Reuben Moon (R) Died July 26, 1903.
Pennsylvania 3 58th February 16, 1904 Henry Burk (R) George A. Castor (R) Died December 5, 1903.
Ohio 14 58th May 19, 1904 William W. Skiles (R) Amos R. Webber (R) Died January 9, 1904.
Ohio 19 58th May 19, 1904 Charles W. F. Dick (R) W. Aubrey Thomas (R) Resigned March 23, 1904, after being elected U.S. Senator.
California 3 58th November 8, 1904 Victor H. Metcalf (R) Joseph R. Knowland (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor.
New Jersey 4 58th November 8, 1904 William M. Lanning (R) Ira W. Wood (R) Resigned June 6, 1904 to become Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey.
West Virginia 2 59th June 6, 1905 Alston G. Dayton (R) Thomas Beall Davis (D) Resigned to become Judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia.
Nebraska 1 59th July 18, 1905 Elmer Burkett (R) Ernest M. Pollard (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
California 1 59th November 6, 1906 James Gillett (R) William F. Englebright (R) Resigned to become Governor of California.
Georgia 1 59th November 6, 1906 Rufus E. Lester (D) James W. Overstreet (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 2 59th November 6, 1906 Robert Adams Jr. (R) John E. Reyburn (R) Died June 1, 1906.
Pennsylvania 3 59th November 6, 1906 George A. Castor (R) J. Hampton Moore (R) Died February 19, 1906.
Pennsylvania 12 59th November 6, 1906 George R. Patterson (R) Charles N. Brumm (R) Died March 21, 1906.
Pennsylvania 2 60th November 5, 1907 John E. Reyburn (R) Joel Cook (R) Resigned March 31, 1907, after being elected Mayor of Philadelphia.
Maine 2 60th November 3, 1908 Charles E. Littlefield (R) John P. Swasey (R) Resigned to open a corporate law firm.
Maine 4 60th November 3, 1908 Llewellyn Powers (R) Frank E. Guernsey (R) Died.
South Dakota at-large 60th November 3, 1908 William H. Parker (R) Eben Martin (R) Died.

61st through 70th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Ohio 21 61st April 20, 1909 Theodore E. Burton (R) James H. Cassidy (R) Resigned March 3, 1909.
Georgia 2 61st February 6, 1910 James M. Griggs (D) Seaborn Roddenbery (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 2 62nd May 23, 1911 Joel Cook (R) William S. Reyburn (R) Died December 15, 1910.
Nebraska 3 62nd November 7, 1911 James P. Latta (D) Dan V. Stephens (D) Died.
New Jersey 1 62nd November 7, 1911 Henry C. Loudenslager (R) William J. Browning (R) Died August 12, 1911.
Pennsylvania 14 62nd November 7, 1911 George W. Kipp (D) William D. B. Ainey (R) Died July 24, 1911.
Pennsylvania 1 62nd July 30, 1912 Henry H. Bingham (R) William Scott Vare (R) Died March 22, 1912.
Vermont 1 62nd July 30, 1912 David J. Foster (R) Frank L. Greene (R) Died.
New Jersey 6 62nd November 5, 1912 William Hughes (D) Archibald C. Hart (D) Resigned September 12, 1912 to become judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Passaic County.
New Jersey 6 63rd July 22, 1913 Lewis J. Martin (D) Archibald C. Hart (D) Died May 5, 1913.
Maine 3 63rd September 9, 1913 Forrest Goodwin (R) John A. Peters (R) Died.
West Virginia 1 63rd October 14, 1913 John W. Davis (D) Matthew M. Neely (D) Resigned to become U.S. Solicitor General.
Georgia 2 63rd November 4, 1913 Seaborn Roddenbery (D) Frank Park (D) Died.
New Jersey 7 63rd April 7, 1914 Robert G. Bremner (D) Dow H. Drukker (R) Died February 5, 1914.
Georgia 10 63rd November 3, 1914 Thomas W. Hardwick (D) Carl Vinson (D) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Georgia.
New Jersey 9 63rd December 1, 1914 Walter I. McCoy (R) Richard W. Parker (R) Resigned October 3, 1914.
Pennsylvania 24 64th November 2, 1915 William M. Brown (R) Henry W. Temple (R) Died January 31, 1915.
West Virginia 2 64th May 9, 1916 William Gay Brown Jr. (D) George Meade Bowers (R) Died.
California 10 64th November 7, 1916 William Stephens (R) Henry S. Benedict (R) Resigned to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
West Virginia 4 64th November 7, 1916 Hunter Holmes Moss Jr. (R) Harry C. Woodyard (R) Died.
Georgia 8 64th January 11, 1917 Samuel Joelah Tribble (D) Tinsley W. Rucker Jr. (D) Died.
65th Charles H. Brand (D)
South Carolina 5 64th February 21, 1917 David E. Finley (D) Paul G. McCorkle (D) Died.
65th William F. Stevenson (D)
New Hampshire 1 65th May 29, 1917 Cyrus A. Sulloway (R) Sherman Everett Burroughs (R) Died.
North Dakota 1 65th July 10, 1917 Henry Thomas Helgesen (R) John Miller Baer (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 28 65th November 6, 1917 Orrin D. Bleakley (R) Earl H. Beshlin (D) Resigned April 3, 1917.
Georgia 4 65th January 16, 1918 William C. Adamson (D) William C. Wright (D) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
New Jersey 5 65th November 5, 1918 John H. Capstick (R) William F. Birch (R) Died March 17, 1918.
Ohio 14 65th November 5, 1918 Ellsworth Raymond Bathrick (D) Martin L. Davey (D) Died December 23, 1917.
Pennsylvania 22 65th March 4, 1919 Edward E. Robbins (R) John H. Wilson (D) Died January 25, 1919.
Alaska Territory at-large 66th June 5, 1919 Disputed[x] George Barnes Grigsby (D) Died during electoral recount.
Oklahoma 5 66th November 8, 1919 Joseph Bryan Thompson (D) John W. Harreld (R) Died September 18, 1919.
New Jersey 1 66th November 2, 1920 William J. Browning (R) Francis F. Patterson Jr. (R) Died March 24, 1920.
Oklahoma 8 66th November 2, 1920 Dick Thompson Morgan (R) Charles Swindall (R) Died July 4, 1920.
Pennsylvania 3 66th November 2, 1920 J. Hampton Moore (R) Harry C. Ransley (R) Resigned January 4, 1920, to become Mayor of Philadelphia.
California 9 67th February 15, 1921 Charles F. Van de Water (R) Walter F. Lineberger (R) Died.
Pennsylvania at-large 67th September 20, 1921 Mahlon M. Garland (R) Thomas S. Crago (R) Died November 19, 1920.
Maine 3 67th March 20, 1922 John A. Peters (R) John E. Nelson (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of Maine.
Hawaii Territory at-large 67th March 25, 1922 Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole (R) Henry Alexander Baldwin (R) Died.
California 6 67th November 7, 1922 John A. Elston (R) James H. MacLafferty (R) Died.
Illinois at-large 67th November 7, 1922 William E. Mason (R) Winnifred Huck (R) Died June 16, 1921.
Nebraska 1 67th November 7, 1922 C. Frank Reavis (R) Roy H. Thorpe (R) Resigned to become U.S. Assistant Attorney General.
Nebraska 6 67th November 7, 1922 Moses Kinkaid (R) Augustin Reed Humphrey (R) Died.
California 5 68th January 23, 1923 John I. Nolan (R) Mae Nolan (R) Died.
California 10 68th May 1, 1923 Henry Z. Osborne (R) John D. Fredericks (R) Died.
Vermont 2 68th November 6, 1923 Porter H. Dale (R) Ernest Willard Gibson (R) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Vermont.
Illinois 2nd 68th April 3, 1923 Vacant Morton D. Hull (R) Rep. James R. Mann died during previous congress
California 10th 68th May 1, 1923 Vacant John D. Fredericks (R) Rep. Henry Z. Osborne died during previous congress
New York 16th 68th November 6, 1923 Vacant John J. O'Connor (D) Rep. William Bourke Cockran died during previous congress
Alabama 2nd 68th August 14, 1923 John R. Tyson (D) Lister Hill (D)
Michigan 3rd 68th June 19, 1923 John M. C. Smith (R) Arthur B. Williams (R)
Iowa 8th 68th June 4, 1923 Horace M. Towner (R) Hiram K. Evans (R) Resigned April 1, 1923, after being appointed Governor of Puerto Rico
New York 11th 68th November 6, 1923 Daniel J. Riordan (D) Anning S. Prall (D) Died April 28, 1923
Illinois 4th 68th November 6, 1923 John W. Rainey (D) Thomas A. Doyle (D) Died May 4, 1923
Arkansas 6th 68th October 6, 1923 Lewis E. Sawyer (D) James B. Reed (D) Died May 5, 1923
Washington 5th 68th September 25, 1923 J. Stanley Webster (R) Samuel B. Hill (D) Resigned May 8, 1923, after being appointed to United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington
North Carolina 2nd 68th November 6, 1923 Claude Kitchin (D) John H. Kerr (D) Died May 31, 1923
New York 32nd 68th November 6, 1923 Luther W. Mott (R) Thaddeus C. Sweet (R) Died July 10, 1923
Vermont 2nd 68th November 6, 1923 Porter H. Dale (R) Ernest Willard Gibson (R) Resigned August 11, 1923, after becoming a candidate for the US Senate
Kentucky 7th 68th November 30, 1923 J. Campbell Cantrill (D) Joseph W. Morris (D) Died September 2, 1923
New York 24th 68th November 6, 1923 James V. Ganly (D) Benjamin L. Fairchild (R) Died September 7, 1923
Mississippi 3rd 68th November 27, 1923 Benjamin G. Humphreys II (D) William Y. Humphreys (D) Died October 16, 1923
North Dakota 2 68th November 4, 1924 George M. Young (R) Thomas Hall (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
Massachusetts 5 69th June 30, 1925 John Jacob Rogers (R) Edith Nourse Rogers (R) Died.
New Jersey 3 69th November 3, 1925 T. Frank Appleby (R) Stewart H. Appleby (R) Died December 15, 1924.
Kentucky 10 69th February 13, 1926 John W. Langley (R) Andrew J. Kirk (R) Resigned after being convicted of illegally selling alcohol.
California 2 69th August 31, 1926 John Raker (D) Harry Englebright (R) Died.
California 5 69th August 31, 1926 Lawrence Flaherty (R) Richard Welch (R) Died.
Oregon 3 70th October 18, 1927 Maurice Crumpacker (R) Franklin Korell (R) Died.
Ohio 2 70th November 8, 1927 Ambrose E. B. Stephens (R) Charles Tatgenhorst Jr. (R) Died February 12, 1927.
Pennsylvania 1 70th November 8, 1927 James M. Hazlett (R) James M. Beck (R) Resigned October 20, 1927.
Oregon 2 70th November 6, 1928 Nicholas Sinnott (R) Robert Butler (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States Court of Claims.
Pennsylvania 8 70th November 6, 1928 Thomas S. Butler (R) James Wolfenden (R) Died May 26, 1928.

71st through 80th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Alabama 2 71st January 9, 1929 William Allan Oldfield (D) Pearl Oldfield (D) Died November 19, 1928.
Pennsylvania 12 71st June 4, 1929 John J. Casey (D) C. Murray Turpin (R) Died May 5, 1929.
Georgia 5 71st October 2, 1929 Leslie Steele (D) Robert Ramspeck (D) Died.
Arkansas 4 71st November 4, 1930 Otis Wingo (D) Effiegene Wingo (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 32 71st November 4, 1930 Stephen G. Porter (R) Edmund F. Erk (R) Died June 27, 1930.
Rhode Island 3 71st November 4, 1930 Jeremiah O'Connell (D) Francis Condon (D) Resigned to become judge for the Rhode Island Superior Court.
Utah 2 71st November 4, 1930 Elmer Leatherwood (R) Frederick Loofbourow (R) Died.
West Virginia 4 71st November 4, 1930 James Hughes (R) Robert Hogg (R) Died.
New York 7 72nd February 17, 1931 John Quayle (D) Matthew V. O'Malley[y] (D). Died November 27, 1930.
Georgia 1 72nd September 9, 1931 Charles Edwards (D) Homer Parker (D) Died.
New York 7 72nd November 3, 1931 Matthew V. O'Malley (D) John J. Delaney (D) Died May 26, 1931.
Ohio 1 72nd November 3, 1931 Nicholas Longworth (R) John B. Hollister (R) Died April 9, 1931.
Ohio 20 72nd November 3, 1931 Charles A. Mooney (D) Martin L. Sweeney (D) Died May 29, 1931.
Pennsylvania 2 72nd November 3, 1931 George Scott Graham (R) Edward L. Stokes (R) Died July 4, 1931.
New Jersey 5 72nd December 1, 1931 Ernest R. Ackerman (R) Percy Hamilton Stewart (D) Died October 18, 1931.
New Hampshire 1 72nd January 5, 1932 Fletcher Hale (R) William Rogers (D) Died.
Georgia 6 72nd March 2, 1932 Samuel Rutherford (D) Carlton Mobley (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 20 72nd April 26, 1932 J. Russell Leech (R) Howard W. Stull (R) Resigned January 29, 1932, after appointment to the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals.
Tennessee 7 72nd August 14, 1932 Edward E. Eslick (D) Willa Eslick (D) Died June 14, 1932.
Georgia 3 72nd November 8, 1932 Charles Crisp (D) Bryant Castellow (D) Resigned upon appointment to the United States Tariff Commission.
Pennsylvania 6 72nd November 8, 1932 George A. Welsh (R) Robert L. Davis (R) Resigned May 31, 1932, after appointment as Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania 18 72nd November 8, 1932 Edward M. Beers (R) Joseph F. Biddle (R) Died April 21, 1932.
Georgia 10 73rd July 5, 1933 Charles Brand (D) Paul Brown (D) Died.
Arizona at-large 73rd October 3, 1933 Lewis Douglas (D) Isabella Greenway (D) Resigned to become director of the Bureau of the Budget.
Pennsylvania 9 73rd November 7, 1933 Henry W. Watson (R) Oliver W. Frey (D) Died August 27, 1933.
West Virginia 3 73rd November 28, 1933 Lynn Hornor (D) Andrew Edmiston (D) Died.
New York 34 73rd December 28, 1933 John D. Clarke (R) Marian W. Clarke (R) Died November 5, 1933.
Vermont at-large 73rd January 16, 1934 Ernest Gibson (R) Charles Plumley (R) Resigned to become United States Senator from Vermont.
Louisiana 6 73rd May 1, 1934 Bolivar Kemp (D) Jared Sanders (D) Died.
Rhode Island 1 74th August 6, 1935 Francis Condon (D) Charles Risk (R) Resigned to become Judge of the Rhode Island Supreme Court.
Ohio at-large 74th November 3, 1936 Charles V. Truax (D) Daniel S. Earhart (D) Died August 9, 1935.
Ohio 11 74th November 3, 1936 Mell G. Underwood (D) Peter F. Hammond (D) Resigned April 10, 1936 to become a Judge for the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.
California 5 75th May 4, 1937 Henry Stubbs (D) Alfred Elliott (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 18 75th May 11, 1937 Benjamin K. Focht (R) Richard M. Simpson (R) Died March 27, 1937.
Oklahoma 5 75th December 10, 1937 Robert P. Hill (D) Gomer Griffith Smith (D) Died October 29, 1937.
South Carolina 6 75th September 13, 1938 Allard H. Gasque (D) Elizabeth Gasque (D) Died June 17, 1938.
Ohio 4 75th November 8, 1938 Frank Kloeb (D) Walter Albaugh (R) Resigned August 19, 1937 to become a judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio.
Georgia 4 76th August 1, 1939 Emmett Owen (D) Albert Camp (D) Died.
South Carolina 1 76th November 7, 1939 Thomas S. McMillan (D) Clara G. McMillan (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 4 76th November 7, 1939 J. Burrwood Daly (D) John E. Sheridan (D) Died March 12, 1939.
Ohio 17 76th February 27, 1940 William A. Ashbrook (D) J. Harry McGregor (R) Died January 1, 1940.
Ohio 22 76th February 27, 1940 Chester C. Bolton (R) Frances P. Bolton (R) Died October 29, 1939.
Nebraska 1 76th April 19, 1940 George Heinke (R) John Sweet (R) Died.
Maine 2 76th June 3, 1940 Clyde Smith (R) Margaret Chase Smith (R) Died.
Georgia 8 76th October 1, 1940 Benjamin Gibbs (D) Florence Reville Gibbs (D) Died.
Oklahoma 7 77th April 1, 1941 Sam C. Massingale (D) Victor Wickersham (D) Died January 17, 1941.
Maryland 6 77th May 27, 1941 William D. Byron (D) Katharine Byron (D) Died in a plane crash February 27, 1941.
Pennsylvania 15 77th November 4, 1941 Albert G. Rutherford (R) Wilson D. Gillette (R) Died August 10, 1941.
Mississippi 2 77th November 4, 1941 Wall Doxey (D) Jamie Whitten (D) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Mississippi.
Pennsylvania 12 77th May 19, 1942 J. Harold Flannery (D) Thomas B. Miller (R) Resigned January 3, 1942, to become a Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Luzerne County.
Pennsylvania 33 77th May 19, 1942 Joseph A. McArdle (D) Elmer J. Holland (D) Resigned January 5, 1942, to become a member of the Pittsburgh City Council.
California 17 77th August 25, 1942 Lee Guyer (D) Cecil King (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 11 77th November 3, 1942 Patrick J. Boland (D) Veronica Boland (D) Died May 18, 1942.
California 2 78th August 31, 1943 Harry Englebright (R) Clair Engle (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 23 78th November 2, 1943 James E. Van Zandt (R) D. Emmert Brumbaugh (R) Resigned September 24, 1943, to resume active duty with the U.S. Navy Reserve.
Pennsylvania 2 78th January 18, 1944 James McGranery (D) Joseph Pratt (R) Resigned November 17, 1943 to become Assistant Attorney General.
Pennsylvania 17 78th January 18, 1944 J. William Ditter (R) Samuel K. McConnell Jr. (R) Died in a plane crash November 21, 1943.
Oklahoma 2 78th March 28, 1944 John Conover Nichols (D) William G. Stigler (D) Resigned July 3, 1943, to become Vice President of Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc..
New York 11 78th June 6, 1944 James O'Leary (D) Ellsworth Buck (R) Died March 16, 1944.
South Carolina 2 78th November 7, 1944 Hampton P. Fulmer (D) Willa L. Fulmer (D) Died.
Montana 2 79th June 5, 1945 James O'Connor (D) Wesley D'Ewart (R) Died January 15, 1945.
New Jersey 4 79th November 6, 1945 D. Lane Powers (R) Frank A. Mathews Jr. (R) Resigned August 30, 1945, to become a member of the N.J. Public Utilities Commission.
Oregon 1 79th January 18, 1946 James Mott (R) Walter Norblad (R) Died November 12, 1945.
Georgia 5 79th February 12, 1946 Robert Ramspeck (D) Helen Douglas Mankin (D) Resigned after being hired as vice president of Eastern Airlines.
Pennsylvania 33 79th May 21, 1946 Samuel A. Weiss (D) Frank Buchanan (D) Resigned January 7, 1946, after election as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County.
North Carolina 8 79th May 25, 1946 William O. Burgin (D) Eliza Pratt (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 10 79th November 5, 1946 John W. Murphy (D) James P. Scoblick (R) Resigned July 17, 1946, to become a Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania.
Washington 3 80th June 7, 1947 Fred B. Norman (R) Russell V. Mack (R) Died April 18, 1947.
Pennsylvania 8 80th September 9, 1947 Charles L. Gerlach (R) Franklin H. Lichtenwalter (R) Died May 5, 1947.
Ohio 4 80th November 4, 1947 Robert Jones (R) William McCulloch (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Communications Commission.
New York 24 80th February 17, 1948 Benjamin J. Rabin (D) Leo Isacson (AL) Resigned December 31, 1947 to become a justice of the New York Supreme Court.
Virginia 4 80th February 17, 1948 Patrick Drewry (D) Watkins Abbitt (D) Died December 21, 1947.
Kentucky 2 80th April 17, 1948 Earle Clements (D) John Whitaker (D) Resigned January 6, 1948 to become Governor of Kentucky.
Kentucky 9 80th April 24, 1948 John Robsion (R) William Lewis (R) Died February 17, 1948.
Missouri 10 80th November 2, 1948 Orville Zimmerman (D) Paul C. Jones (D) Died April 7, 1948.
Virginia 6 80th November 2, 1948 J. Lindsay Almond (D) Clarence G. Burton (D) Resigned April 17, 1948 to become Attorney General of Virginia.
Texas 15 80th December 4, 1948 Milton H. West (D) Lloyd Bentsen (D) Died October 28, 1948.

81st through 90th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 26 81st September 13, 1949 Robert L. Coffey (D) John P. Saylor (R) Died April 20, 1949.
California 5 81st November 8, 1949 Richard Welch (R) Jack Shelley (D) Died.
New York 10 81st November 8, 1949 Andrew Somers (D) Edna F. Kelly (D) Died.
New Jersey 7 81st February 6, 1950 J. Parnell Thomas (R) William B. Widnall (R) Resigned January 2, 1950, after conviction for salary fraud.
Texas 18 81st May 6, 1950 Eugene Worley (D) Ben Guill (R) Resigned April 3, 1950.
Kentucky 6 81st April 4, 1951 Thomas R. Underwood (D) John C. Watts (D) Resigned March 17, 1951.
West Virginia 5 82nd July 17, 1951 John Kee (D) Elizabeth Kee (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 33 82nd July 24, 1951 Frank Buchanan (D) Vera Buchanan (D) Died April 27, 1951.
Maine 3 82nd October 22, 1951 Frank Fellows (R) Clifford McIntire (R) Died.
New Jersey 9 82nd November 6, 1951 Harry L. Towe (R) Frank C. Osmers Jr. (R) Resigned September 7, 1951, to become N.J. Assistant Attorney General.
Ohio 3 82nd November 6, 1951 Ed Breen (D) Paul Schenck (R) Resigned October 1, 1951, due to ill health.
Pennsylvania 8 82nd November 6, 1951 Albert C. Vaughn (R) Karl C. King (R) Died September 1, 1951.
Pennsylvania 14 82nd November 6, 1951 Wilson D. Gillette (R) Joseph L. Carrigg (R) Died August 7, 1951.
Nebraska 3 82nd December 4, 1951 Karl Stefan (R) Bob Harrison (R) Died.
Georgia 2 83rd February 4, 1953 Eugene Cox (D) J. L. Pilcher (D) Died.
New Jersey 6 83rd November 3, 1953 Clifford P. Case (R) Harrison A. Williams (D) Resigned August 16, 1953, to become President of The Fund for the Republic.
California 24 83rd November 10, 1953 Norris Poulson (R) Glen Lipscomb (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Los Angeles.
Hawaii Territory at-large 83rd July 31, 1954 Joe Farrington (R) Elizabeth Farrington (R) Died.
Georgia 4 83rd November 2, 1954 Albert Camp (D) John Flynt (D) Died.
Florida 6 84th January 11, 1955 Dwight L. Rogers (D) Paul Rogers (D) Died December 1, 1954.
Michigan 15 84th December 13, 1955 John D. Dingell Sr. (D) John D. Dingell Jr. (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 30 84th January 24, 1956 Vera Buchanan (D) Elmer J. Holland (D) Died November 26, 1955.
Pennsylvania 2 84th November 6, 1956 William T. Granahan (D) Kathryn E. Granahan (D) Died May 25, 1956.
New Mexico at-large 85th April 9, 1957 Antonio Fernández (D) Joseph Montoya (D) Died.
New Jersey 2 85th November 5, 1957 T. Millet Hand (R) Milton W. Glenn (R) Died December 26, 1956.
Pennsylvania 13 85th November 5, 1957 Samuel K. McConnell Jr. (R) John A. Lafore Jr. (R) Resigned September 1, 1957, to become Executive Director of United Cerebral Palsy.
Georgia 7 85th January 8, 1958 Henderson Lanham (D) Harlan Mitchell (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 21 85th January 21, 1958 Augustine Kelley (D) John H. Dent (D) Died November 20, 1957.
Pennsylvania 4 85th May 20, 1958 Earl Chudoff (D) Robert Nix (D) Resigned January 5, 1958, upon election as a judge for the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas.
Pennsylvania 17 86th April 26, 1960 Alvin Bush (R) Herman T. Schneebeli (R) Died November 5, 1959.
Pennsylvania 18 86th April 26, 1960 Richard M. Simpson (R) Douglas Elliott (R) Died January 7, 1960.
Ohio 6 86th November 8, 1960 James G. Polk (D) Ward Miller (R) Died April 28, 1959.
Pennsylvania 18 86th November 8, 1960 Douglas Elliott (R) J. Irving Whalley (R) Died June 19, 1960.
Washington 3 86th November 8, 1960 Russell V. Mack (R) Julia Butler Hansen (D) Died March 28, 1960.
Arkansas 6 87th April 19, 1961 William F. Norrell (D) Catherine Norrell (D) Died.
Arizona 2 87th May 2, 1961 Stewart Udall (D) Mo Udall (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
Pennsylvania 16 87th May 16, 1961 Walter M. Mumma (R) John C. Kunkel (R) Died February 25, 1961.
Tennessee 1 87th May 16, 1961 B. Carroll Reece (R) Louise Goff Reece (R) Died March 19, 1961.
Louisiana 4 87th December 19, 1961 Overton Brooks (D) Joe Waggonner (D) Died.
Texas 4 87th January 30, 1962 Sam Rayburn (D) Ray Roberts (D) Died.
South Carolina 2 87th April 10, 1962 John J. Riley (D) Corinne Riley (D) Died.
California 1 88th January 22, 1963 Clement Miller (D) Don Clausen (R) Died.
California 23 88th June 11, 1963 Clyde Doyle (D) Del Clawson (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 15 88th July 30, 1963 Francis E. Walter (D) Fred B. Rooney (D) Died May 31, 1963.
North Dakota 1 88th October 22, 1963 Hjalmar Carl Nygaard (R) Mark Andrews (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 23 88th November 5, 1963 Leon H. Gavin (R) Albert W. Johnson (R) Died September 15, 1963.
California 37 88th February 18, 1964 Jack Shelley (D) Phillip Burton (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of San Francisco.
Tennessee 2 82nd March 10, 1964 Howard Baker Sr. (R) Irene Baker (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 5 88th April 28, 1964 William J. Green Jr. (D) William J. Green III (D) Died December 21, 1963.
Oregon 1 88th November 3, 1964 Walter Norblad (R) Wendell Wyatt (R) Died.
Louisiana 7 89th October 2, 1965[6] Ashton Thompson (D) Edwin Edwards (D) Died.
Ohio 7 89th November 2, 1965 Clarence J. Brown (R) Bud Brown (R) Died August 23, 1965.
California 26 89th December 15, 1965 James Roosevelt (D) Tom Rees (D) Resigned to unsuccessfully run for Mayor of Los Angeles.
Texas 8 89th March 26, 1966 Albert Thomas (D) Lera Thomas (D) Died.
California 14 89th June 7, 1966 John Baldwin (R) Jerry Waldie (D) Died.
Rhode Island 2 90th March 28, 1967 John Fogarty (D) Robert Tiernan (D) Died.
California 11 90th December 12, 1967 Arthur Younger (R) Pete McCloskey (R) Died.
New York 13 90th February 20, 1968 Abraham Multer (D) Bert Podell (D) Resigned to become a judge for the New York Supreme Court.
Mississippi 3 90th March 12, 1968 John Williams (D) Charles Griffin (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Mississippi.
Texas 3 90th August 24, 1968 Joe Pool (D) Jim Collins (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 20 90th November 5, 1968 Elmer Holland (D) Joe Gaydos (D) Died August 9, 1968.

91st through 100th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Tennessee 8 91st March 25, 1969 Fats Everett (D) Ed Jones (D) Died.
Wisconsin 7 91st April 1, 1969 Melvin Laird (R) Dave Obey (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
California 27 91st April 29, 1969 Ed Reinecke (R) Barry Goldwater Jr. (R) Resigned upon election as Lieutenant Governor of California.
Montana 2 91st June 24, 1969 James Battin (R) John Melcher (D) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of Montana.
Massachusetts 6 91st September 30, 1969 Bill Bates (R) Mike Harrington (D) Died.
New Jersey 8 91st November 4, 1969 Charles Joelson (D) Bob Roe (D) Resigned to become judge for the New Jersey Superior Court.
Illinois 13 91st November 25, 1969 Donald Rumsfeld (R) Phil Crane (R) Resigned to become director of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
California 35 91st June 30, 1970 Jim Utt (R) John Schmitz (R) Died.
California 24 91st June 30, 1970 Glen Lipscomb (R) John Rousselot (R) Died.
Connecticut 2 91st November 3, 1970 Bill St. Onge (D) Robert Steele (R) Died.
New Jersey 6 91st November 3, 1970 Bill Cahill (R) Edwin Forsythe (R) Resigned upon election as Governor of New Jersey.
Ohio 19 91st November 3, 1970 Mike Kirwan (D) Charles Carney (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 9 91st November 3, 1970 Robert Watkins (R) John Ware (R) Died August 7, 1970 (heart attack).
Illinois 6 91st December 3, 1970 Dan Ronan (D) George Collins (D) Died.
South Carolina 1 92nd April 27, 1971 Mendel Rivers (D) Mendel Davis (D) Died.
Maryland 1 92nd May 25, 1971 Rogers Morton (R) Bill Mills (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
Pennsylvania 18 92nd November 2, 1971 Bob Corbett (R) John Heinz (R) Died April 25, 1971.
Kentucky 6 92nd December 4, 1971 John Watts (D) Bill Curlin (D) Died.
Vermont at-large 92nd January 7, 1972 Robert Stafford (R) Richard Mallary (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator from Vermont.
Alabama 3 92nd April 4, 1972 George Andrews (D) Elizabeth Andrews (D) Died December 25, 1971.
Illinois 15 92nd April 4, 1972 Charlotte Reid (R) Cliffard Carlson (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Communications Commission.
Pennsylvania 27 92nd April 25, 1972 Jim Fulton (R) Bill Conover (R) Died October 6, 1971 (heart attack).
Louisiana 7 92nd September 30, 1972 Edwin Edwards (D) John Breaux (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Virginia 6 92nd November 7, 1972 Richard Poff (R) Caldwell Butler (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Supreme Court of Virginia.
Alaska at-large 93rd March 6, 1973 Nick Begich (D) Don Young (R) Died.
Louisiana 2 93rd March 20, 1973 Hale Boggs (D) Lindy Boggs (D) Died.
Illinois 7 93rd June 5, 1973 George Collins (D) Cardiss Collins (D) Died.
Maryland 1 93rd August 21, 1973 Bill Mills (R) Bob Bauman (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 12 93rd February 25, 1974 John Saylor (R) John Murtha (D) Died October 28, 1973 (complications from surgery).
Michigan 5 93rd February 18, 1974 Gerald Ford (R) Richard VanderVeen (D) Resigned to become Vice President of the United States.
Ohio 1 93rd March 5, 1974 Bill Keating (R) Tom Luken (D) Resigned to take a position as president of The Cincinnati Enquirer.
Michigan 8 93rd April 16, 1974 James Harvey (R) Bob Traxler (D) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.
California 6 93rd June 4, 1974 Bill Mailliard (R) John Burton (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States.
California 13 93rd June 4, 1974 Charles Teague (R) Bob Lagomarsino (R) Died.
Louisiana 6 94th January 7, 1975 John Rarick (D) W. Henson Moore (R) Re-run of the preceding general election because of claimed irregularities in the tabulation; Moore defeated the Democrat Jeffrey D. LaCaze, who had unseated John Rarick in the Democratic runoff election of 1974.
California 37 94th April 29, 1975 Jerry Pettis (R) Shirley Pettis (R) Died.
Illinois 5 94th July 8, 1975 John Kluczynski (D) John Fary (D) Died.
Tennessee 5 94th November 25, 1975 Dick Fulton (D) Clifford Allen (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Nashville.
New York 39 94th March 2, 1976 Jim Hastings (R) Stan Lundine (D) Resigned upon conviction of bribery and mail fraud.
Texas 22 94th April 3, 1976 Bob Casey (D) Ron Paul (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Maritime Commission.
Texas 1 94th June 19, 1976 Wright Patman (D) Sam Hall (D) Died.
Massachusetts 7 94th November 2, 1976 Torbert MacDonald (D) Ed Markey (D) Died.
Missouri 6 94th November 2, 1976 Jerry Litton (D) Earl Coleman (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 94th November 2, 1976 Bill Barrett (D) Ozzie Myers (D) Died April 12, 1976.
Minnesota 7 95th February 22, 1977 Bob Bergland (D) Arlan Stangeland (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.
Georgia 5 95th April 6, 1977 Andrew Young (D) Wyche Fowler (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Washington 7 95th May 17, 1977 Brock Adams (D) John Cunningham (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Transportation.
Louisiana 1 95th August 27, 1977 Rick Tonry (D) Bob Livingston (R) Resigned upon conviction of taking illegal campaign contributions.
New York 18 95th February 14, 1978 Ed Koch (D) Bill Green (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of New York City.
New York 21 95th February 14, 1978 Herman Badillo (D) Robert Garcia (D) Resigned to become deputy mayor of New York City.
California 11 96th April 3, 1979 Leo Ryan (D) Bill Royer (R) Died.
Illinois 10 96th January 22, 1980 Abner Mikva (D) John Porter (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
West Virginia 3 96th April 9, 1980 John Slack (D) John Hutchinson (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 11 96th April 9, 1980 Dan Flood (D) Raphael Musto (D) Resigned after being investigated for bribery.
Louisiana 3 96th May 17, 1980 Dave Treen (R) Billy Tauzin (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Michigan 13 96th November 4, 1980 Charles Diggs (D) George Crockett (D) Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud.
Michigan 4 97th April 21, 1981 David Stockman (R) Mark Siljander (R) Resigned to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Maryland 5 97th May 19, 1981 Gladys Spellman (D) Steny Hoyer (D) Fell into a permanent coma, resulting in the seat being declared vacant.
Ohio 4 97th June 25, 1981 Tennyson Guyer (R) Mike Oxley (R) Died.
Mississippi 4 97th July 7, 1981 Jon Hinson (R) Wayne Dowdy (D) Resigned after being charged with sodomy for participating in consensual gay sex.
Pennsylvania 3 97th July 21, 1981 Ray Lederer (D) Joe Smith (D) Resigned April 29, 1981, upon indictment for his role in the Abscam sting.
Connecticut 1 97th January 12, 1982 Bill Cotter (D) Barbara Kennelly (D) Died.
Ohio 17 97th June 29, 1982 John Ashbrook (R) Jean Ashbrook (R) Died.
California 30 97th July 13, 1982 George Danielson (D) Marty Martinez (D) Resigned to become Judge of the Fourth District of the California Courts of Appeal.
Indiana 1 97th November 2, 1982 Adam Benjamin (D) Katie Hall (D) Died.
Texas 6 98th February 12, 1983 Phil Gramm (D) Phil Gramm (R) Resigned upon leaving the Democratic Party and won reelection as a Republican.
New York 7 98th March 1, 1983 Ben Rosenthal (D) Gary Ackerman (D) Died.
Colorado 6 98th March 29, 1983 None[z] Dan Schaefer (R) (See note.)
California 5 98th June 21, 1983 Phillip Burton (D) Sala Burton (D) Died.
Illinois 1 98th August 23, 1983 Harold Washington (D) Charles Hayes (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Chicago.
Georgia 7 98th November 8, 1983 Larry McDonald (D) Buddy Darden (D) Died September 1, 1983 (airliner shootdown incident).
Wisconsin 4 98th April 3, 1984 Clement Zablocki (D) Jerry Kleczka (D) Died.
Kentucky 7 98th November 6, 1984 Carl Perkins (D) Chris Perkins (D) Died.
New Jersey 13 98th November 6, 1984 Edwin Forsythe (R) Jim Saxton (R) Died March 29, 1984 (lung cancer).
Louisiana 8 99th March 30, 1985 Gillis Long (D) Catherine Small Long (D) Died.
Texas 1 99th September 4, 1985 Sam Hall (D) Jim Chapman (D) Resigned to become Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas.
New York 6 99th July 10, 1986 Joe Addabbo (D) Alton Waldon (D) Died.
Hawaii 1 99th September 20, 1986 Cec Heftel (D) Neil Abercrombie (D) Resigned to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Hawaii.
North Carolina 10 99th November 4, 1986 Jim Broyhill (R) Cass Ballenger (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
California 5 100th June 2, 1987 Sala Burton (D) Nancy Pelosi (D) Died.
Connecticut 4 100th August 18, 1987 Stewart McKinney (R) Chris Shays (R) Died.
Louisiana 4 100th April 16, 1988 Buddy Roemer (D) Jim McCrery (R) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Tennessee 5 100th January 19, 1988 Bill Boner (D) Bob Clement (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Nashville.
Virginia 5 100th June 14, 1988 Dan Daniel (D) Lewis Payne (D) Died.
Illinois 21 100th August 9, 1988 Melvin Price (D) Jerry Costello (D) Died.
New Jersey 3 100th November 8, 1988 James Howard (D) Frank Pallone (D) Died March 25, 1988 (heart attack).
Tennessee 2 100th November 8, 1988 John Duncan (R) Jimmy Duncan (R) Died.

101st through 110th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Indiana 4 101st March 28, 1989 Dan Coats (R) Jill Long (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator from Indiana.
Alabama 3 101st April 4, 1989 Bill Nichols (D) Glen Browder (D) Died.
Wyoming at-large 101st April 26, 1989 Dick Cheney (R) Craig Thomas (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
Florida 18 101st August 29, 1989 Claude Pepper (D) Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R) Died.
California 15 101st September 12, 1989 Tony Coelho (D) Gary Condit (D) Resigned due to an investigation on his involvement in the savings and loan crisis.
Texas 12 101st September 12, 1989 Jim Wright (D) Pete Geren (D) Resigned due to an investigation on his involvement in the savings and loan crisis.
Mississippi 5 101st October 17, 1989 Larkin Smith (R) Gene Taylor (D) Died.
Texas 18 101st December 9, 1989 Mickey Leland (D) Craig Washington (D) Died.
New York 14 101st March 20, 1990 Guy Molinari (R) Susan Molinari (R) Resigned upon election as Borough President of Staten Island.
New York 18 101st March 20, 1990 Robert Garcia (D) Jose Serrano (D) Resigned upon his indictment for involvement in the Wedtech scandal.
Hawaii 2 101st September 22, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) Patsy Mink (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New Jersey 1 101st November 6, 1990 Jim Florio (D) Rob Andrews (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of New Jersey.
Texas 3 102nd May 18, 1991 Steve Bartlett (R) Sam Johnson (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Dallas.
Massachusetts 1 102nd June 4, 1991 Silvio Conte (R) John Olver (D) Died.
Illinois 15 102nd July 2, 1991 Ed Madigan (R) Tom Ewing (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Agriculture.
Pennsylvania 2 102nd November 5, 1991 Bill Gray (D) Lucien Blackwell (D) Resigned to become director of the United Negro College Fund.
Virginia 7 102nd November 5, 1991 D. French Slaughter (R) George Allen (R) Resigned due to ill health (stroke).
Arizona 2 102nd September 24, 1991 Mo Udall (D) Ed Pastor (D) Resigned due to ill health (Parkinson's disease).
New York 17 102nd November 3, 1992 Ted Weiss (D) Jerrold Nadler (D) Died.
North Carolina 1 102nd November 3, 1992 Walter Jones Sr. (D) Eva Clayton (D) Died.
Mississippi 2 103rd April 13, 1993 Mike Espy (D) Bennie Thompson (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Agriculture.
Wisconsin 1 103rd May 4, 1993 Les Aspin (D) Peter Barca (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
Ohio 2 103rd May 4, 1993 Bill Gradison (R) Rob Portman (R) Resigned to become president of the Health Insurance Association of America.
California 17 103rd June 8, 1993 Leon Panetta (D) Sam Farr (D) Resigned to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Michigan 3 103rd December 7, 1993 Paul Henry (R) Vern Ehlers (R) Died.
Oklahoma 6 103rd May 10, 1994 Glenn English (D) Frank Lucas (R) Resigned to become vice president of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.
Kentucky 2 103rd May 24, 1994 William Natcher (D) Ron Lewis (R) Died.
Oklahoma 1 103rd November 8, 1994 Jim Inhofe (R) Steve Largent (R) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator from Oklahoma.
California 15 104th December 12, 1995 Norman Mineta (D) Tom Campbell (R) Resigned to become vice president of Lockheed Martin.
Illinois 2 104th December 12, 1995 Mel Reynolds (D) Jesse Jackson Jr. (D) Resigned after being convicted of statutory rape.
California 37 104th March 26, 1996 Walter Tucker (D) Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) Resigned due to investigations over extortion and tax evasion.
Maryland 7 104th April 16, 1996 Kweisi Mfume (D) Elijah Cummings (D) Resigned to become director of the NAACP.
Oregon 3 104th May 21, 1996 Ron Wyden (D) Earl Blumenauer (D) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator from Oregon.
Kansas 2 104th November 5, 1996 Sam Brownback (R) Jim Ryun (R) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator from Kansas.
Missouri 8 104th November 5, 1996 Bill Emerson (R) Jo Ann Emerson (R) Died.
Texas 28 105th April 12, 1997 Frank Tejeda (D) Ciro Rodriguez (D) Died.
New Mexico 3 105th May 13, 1997 Bill Richardson (D) Bill Redmond (R) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
New York 13 105th November 4, 1997 Susan Molinari (R) Vito Fossella (R) Resigned to become anchor of CBS This Morning.
New York 6 105th February 3, 1998 Floyd Flake (D) Gregory Meeks (D) Resigned to focus on his ministerial career.
California 22 105th March 10, 1998 Walter Capps (D) Lois Capps (D) Died.
California 9 105th April 7, 1998 Ron Dellums (D) Barbara Lee (D) Resigned to take a position as a lobbyist.
California 44 105th April 7, 1998 Sonny Bono (R) Mary Bono (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 105th May 19, 1998 Tom Foglietta (D) Bob Brady (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to Italy.
New Mexico 1 105th June 23, 1998 Steven Schiff (R) Heather Wilson (R) Died.
Georgia 6 106th February 23, 1999 Newt Gingrich (R) Johnny Isakson (R) Resigned after the Republican caucus attempted to defeat him for another term as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives due to a poor United States House of Representatives elections, 1998 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives due to a poor electoral showing.
Louisiana 1 106th May 29, 1999 Bob Livingston (R) David Vitter (R) Resigned upon the discovery of an extramarital affair.
California 42 106th November 16, 1999 George Brown Jr. (D) Joe Baca (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 9 107th May 15, 2001 Bud Shuster (R) Bill Shuster (R) Resigned after failing to be reappointed as chair of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee.
California 32 107th June 5, 2001 Julian Dixon (D) Diane Watson (D) Died.
Virginia 4 107th June 19, 2001 Norman Sisisky (D) Randy Forbes (R) Died.
Massachusetts 9 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Moakley (D) Stephen Lynch (D) Died.
Florida 1 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Scarborough (R) Jeff Miller (R) Resigned to spend more time with his children.
Arkansas 3 107th November 20, 2001 Asa Hutchinson (R) John Boozman (R) Resigned to become Director of the Drug Enforcement Administration.
South Carolina 2 107th December 18, 2001 Floyd Spence (R) Joe Wilson (R) Died.
Oklahoma 1 107th January 8, 2002 Steve Largent (R) John Sullivan (R) Resigned to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Oklahoma.
Hawaii 2 107th November 30, 2002 Patsy Mink (D) Ed Case (D) Died.
Hawaii 2 108th January 4, 2003 Ed Case (D) Ed Case (D) Death of Patsy Mink, who had been reelected posthumously.
Texas 19 108th June 3, 2003 Larry Combest (R) Randy Neugebauer (R) Resigned after the sudden death of his daughter.
Kentucky 6 108th February 17, 2004 Ernie Fletcher (R) Ben Chandler (D) Resigned after being elected Governor of Kentucky.
South Dakota at-large 108th June 1, 2004 Bill Janklow (R) Stephanie Herseth (D) Resigned after being convicted of vehicular manslaughter.
North Carolina 1 108th July 20, 2004 Frank Ballance (D) G. K. Butterfield (D) Resigned due to health concerns and subsequent investigations over money laundering and mail fraud.
California 5 109th March 8, 2005 Bob Matsui (D) Doris Matsui (D) Died.
Ohio 2 109th August 2, 2005 Rob Portman (R) Jean Schmidt (R) Resigned to become United States Trade Representative.
California 48 109th December 6, 2005 Christopher Cox (R) John Campbell (R) Resigned to become Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
California 50 109th June 6, 2006 Duke Cunningham (R) Brian P. Bilbray (R) Resigned after pleading guilty to tax evasion, conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, and wire fraud.
New Jersey 13 109th November 7, 2006 Bob Menendez (D) Albio Sires (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Texas 22 109th November 7, 2006 Tom DeLay (R) Shelley Sekula-Gibbs (R) Resigned after being indicted for conspiracy to commit election fraud.
Georgia 10 110th July 19, 2007 Charlie Norwood (R) Paul Broun Jr. (R) Died.
California 37 110th August 21, 2007 Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) Laura Richardson (D) Died.
Massachusetts 5 110th October 16, 2007 Marty Meehan (D) Niki Tsongas (D) Resigned to become chancellor of the University of Massachusetts Lowell.
Ohio 5 110th December 11, 2007 Paul Gillmor (R) Bob Latta (R) Died.
Virginia 1 110th December 11, 2007 Jo Ann Davis (R) Rob Wittman (R) Died.
Illinois 14 110th March 8, 2008 Dennis Hastert (R) Bill Foster (D) Resigned to become a lobbyist.
Indiana 7 110th March 11, 2008 Julia Carson (D) André Carson (D) Died.
California 12 110th April 8, 2008 Tom Lantos (D) Jackie Speier (D) Died.
Louisiana 1 110th May 3, 2008 Bobby Jindal (R) Steve Scalise (R) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Louisiana.
Louisiana 6 110th May 3, 2008 Richard Baker (R) Don Cazayoux (D) Resigned to take a lobbyist position with the Managed Funds Association.
Mississippi 1 110th May 13, 2008 Roger Wicker (R) Travis Childers (D) Resigned to become United States Senator from Mississippi.
Maryland 4 110th June 17, 2008 Albert Wynn (D) Donna Edwards (D) Resigned after being defeated in the primary by Donna Edwards.
Ohio 11 110th November 18, 2008 Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D) Marcia Fudge (D) Died.

111th through 116th congresses[edit]

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
New York 20 111th March 31, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) Scott Murphy (D) Resigned to become United States Senator from New York.
Illinois 5 111th.[aa] April 7, 2009 Rahm Emanuel (D) Michael Quigley (D) Resigned to become White House Chief of Staff.
California 32 111th July 14, 2009 Hilda Solis (D) Judy Chu (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Labor.
California 10 111th November 3, 2009 Ellen Tauscher (D) John Garamendi (D) Resigned to become Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs.
New York 23 111th November 3, 2009 John M. McHugh (R) Bill Owens (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Army.
Florida 19 111th April 13, 2010 Robert Wexler (D) Ted Deutch (D) Resigned to become director of the S. Daniel Abraham Center for Middle East Peace.
Pennsylvania 12 111th May 18, 2010 John Murtha (D) Mark Critz (D) Died February 8, 2010 (surgical complications).
Hawaii 1 111th May 22, 2010 Neil Abercrombie (D) Charles Djou (R) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Hawaii.
Georgia 9 111th June 8, 2010[ab] Nathan Deal (R) Tom Graves (R) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Georgia.
Indiana 3 111th November 2, 2010 Mark Souder (R) Marlin Stutzman (R) Resigned after admitting to an affair with one of his part-time female staff members.[7]
New York 29 111th November 2, 2010 Eric Massa (D) Tom Reed (R) Resigned due to a pending House Ethics Committee investigation into allegations of sexual misconduct.
New York 26 112th May 24, 2011 Chris Lee (R) Kathy Hochul (D) Resigned after being found to have been sexually soliciting at least one woman on Craigslist and emailed a shirtless photo of himself.
California 36 112th July 12, 2011 Jane Harman (D) Janice Hahn (D) Resigned to become the director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.[8]
Nevada 2 112th September 13, 2011 Dean Heller (R) Mark Amodei (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New York 9 112th September 13, 2011 Anthony Weiner (D) Bob Turner (R) Resigned due to the Anthony Weiner sexting scandal.
Oregon 1 112th January 31, 2012 David Wu (D) Suzanne Bonamici (D) Resigned due to accusations that he made unwanted sexual advances on the teenage daughter of a campaign donor and friend.
Arizona 8 112th June 12, 2012 Gabby Giffords (D) Ron Barber (D) Resigned due to injuries sustained in the 2011 Tucson shooting.
Kentucky 4 112th November 6, 2012 Geoff Davis (R) Thomas Massie (R) Resigned due to family health issues.
Michigan 11 112th November 6, 2012 Thad McCotter (R) David Curson (D) Resigned after failing to qualify for the 2012 Republican primary in his congressional district after massive fraud by his staff resulted in the rejection of approximately 85% of his petition signatures as invalid.[9][10]
New Jersey 10 112th November 6, 2012 Donald M. Payne (D) Donald Payne Jr. (D) Died (colon cancer).
Washington 1 112th November 6, 2012 Jay Inslee (D) Suzan DelBene (D) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Washington.
Illinois 2 113th April 9, 2013 Jesse Jackson Jr. (D) Robin Kelly (D) Resigned, citing mental and physical health problems, and also acknowledged that he was under two separate investigations by the House Ethics Committee and the FBI.[11]
South Carolina 1 113th May 7, 2013 Tim Scott (R) Mark Sanford (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator from South Carolina.
Missouri 8 113th June 4, 2013 Jo Ann Emerson (R) Jason Smith (R) Resigned to become the president of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.
Louisiana 5 113th November 16, 2013 Rodney Alexander (R) Vance McAllister (R) Resigned to become secretary of the Louisiana Department of Veterans Affairs.
Massachusetts 5 113th December 10, 2013 Edward Markey (D) Katherine Clark (D) Resigned upon his election as United States Senator from Massachusetts.
Alabama 1 113th December 17, 2013 Jo Bonner (R) Bradley Byrne (R) Resigned to become the vice chancellor of The University of Alabama.
Florida 13 113th March 11, 2014 Bill Young (R) David Jolly (R) Died October 18, 2013.
Florida 19 113th June 24, 2014 Trey Radel (R) Curt Clawson (R) Resigned January 27, 2014, following conviction for cocaine possession.
North Carolina 12 113th November 4, 2014 Mel Watt (D) Alma Adams (D) Resigned January 6, 2014, to become director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency.
New Jersey 1 113th November 4, 2014 Rob Andrews (D) Donald Norcross (D) Resigned February 18, 2014, due to ethics investigation.
Virginia 7 113th November 4, 2014 Eric Cantor (R) Dave Brat (R) Resigned August 1, 2014, after being defeated in the primary by Dave Brat.
New York 11 114th May 5, 2015 Michael Grimm (R) Daniel M. Donovan Jr. (R) Resigned January 5, 2015, after guilty plea to felony tax evasion.
Mississippi 1 114th May 12, 2015 Alan Nunnelee (R) Trent Kelly (R) Died February 6, 2015 (brain cancer).
Illinois 18 114th September 10, 2015 Aaron Schock (R) Darin LaHood (R) Resigned March 31, 2015, due to ethics probe into office spending.
Ohio 8 114th June 7, 2016 John Boehner (R) Warren Davidson (R) Resigned October 29, 2015.
Pennsylvania 2 114th November 8, 2016 Chaka Fattah (D) Dwight Evans (D) Resigned June 23, 2016, after conviction of fraud and money laundering.
Hawaii 1 114th November 8, 2016 Mark Takai (D) Colleen Hanabusa (D) Died July 20, 2016 (pancreatic cancer).
Kentucky 1 114th November 8, 2016 Ed Whitfield (R) James Comer (R) Resigned September 6, 2016.
Kansas 4 115th April 11, 2017 Mike Pompeo (R) Ron Estes (R) Resigned January 23, 2017, to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Montana at-large 115th May 25, 2017 Ryan Zinke (R) Greg Gianforte (R) Resigned March 1, 2017, to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
California 34 115th June 6, 2017 Xavier Becerra (D) Jimmy Gomez (D) Resigned January 24, 2017, to become Attorney General of California.
Georgia 6 115th June 20, 2017 Tom Price (R) Karen Handel (R) Resigned February 10, 2017, to become United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.
South Carolina 5 115th June 20, 2017 Mick Mulvaney (R) Ralph Norman (R) Resigned February 16, 2017, to become director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Utah 3 115th November 7, 2017 Jason Chaffetz (R) John Curtis (R) Resigned June 30, 2017.
Pennsylvania 18 115th March 13, 2018 Tim Murphy (R) Conor Lamb (D) Resigned October 21, 2017, following extra-marital affair.[12]
Arizona 8 115th April 24, 2018 Trent Franks (R) Debbie Lesko (R) Resigned December 8, 2017, due to investigation into sexual harassment.
Texas 27 115th June 30, 2018 Blake Farenthold (R) Michael Cloud (R) Resigned April 6, 2018, due to ethics investigation into sexual harassment.
Ohio 12 115th August 7, 2018 Pat Tiberi (R) Troy Balderson (R) Resigned January 15, 2018.
Michigan 13 115th November 6, 2018 John Conyers (D) Brenda Jones (D)[13] Resigned December 5, 2017, following allegations of sexual harassment.
New York 25 115th November 6, 2018 Louise Slaughter (D) Joseph Morelle (D) Died March 16, 2018.
Pennsylvania 7 115th November 6, 2018 Pat Meehan (R) Mary Gay Scanlon (D) Resigned April 27, 2018.
Pennsylvania 15 115th November 6, 2018 Charlie Dent (R) Susan Wild (D) Resigned May 12, 2018.
Pennsylvania 12 116th May 21, 2019 Tom Marino (R) Fred Keller (R) Resigned January 23, 2019.
North Carolina 3 116th September 10, 2019 Walter B. Jones Jr. (R) Greg Murphy (R) Died February 10, 2019.
North Carolina 9 116th September 10, 2019 None[ac] Dan Bishop (R) In December 2018, North Carolina State Board of Elections refused to certify election results following allegations of election fraud and vote tampering.[14] They proceeded to investigate these allegations. On February 21, 2019, following a 3 day hearing on the allegations, the State Board of Elections unanimously ordered a special election.[15]
Maryland 7 116th April 28, 2020 Elijah Cummings (D) TBD Died October 17, 2019.
Wisconsin 7 116th May 12, 2020 Sean Duffy (R) TBD Resigned September 23, 2019.
New York 27 116th TBA Chris Collins (R) TBD Resigned October 1, 2019 due to guilty plea to insider trading charges.
California 25 116th TBA Katie Hill (D) TBD Resigned November 1, 2019 due to inappropriate sexual relationships.

Summary[edit]

In a few instances more than one seat was filled in a single special election, but each seat is counted separately in the list below.

Cong
ress
Start End Special
elections
Cumulative
total
1st March 4, 1789 March 3, 1791 2 2
2nd March 4, 1791 March 3, 1793 6 8
3rd March 4, 1793 March 3, 1795 8 16
4th March 4, 1795 March 3, 1797 12 28
5th March 4, 1797 March 3, 1799 15 43
6th March 4, 1799 March 3, 1801 11 54
7th March 4, 1801 March 3, 1803 18 72
8th March 4, 1803 March 3, 1805 11 83
9th March 4, 1805 March 3, 1807 16 99
10th March 4, 1807 March 3, 1809 11 110
11th March 4, 1809 March 3, 1811 12 122
12th March 4, 1811 March 3, 1813 7 129
13th March 4, 1813 March 3, 1815 21 150
14th March 4, 1815 March 3, 1817 23 173
15th March 4, 1817 March 3, 1819 17 190
16th March 4, 1819 March 3, 1821 15 205
17th March 4, 1821 March 3, 1823 21 226
18th March 4, 1823 March 3, 1825 11 237
19th March 4, 1825 March 3, 1827 16 253
20th March 4, 1827 March 3, 1829 16 269
21st March 4, 1829 March 3, 1831 14 283
22nd March 4, 1831 March 3, 1833 9 292
23rd March 4, 1833 March 3, 1835 23 315
24th March 4, 1835 March 3, 1837 20 335
25th March 4, 1837 March 3, 1839 19 354
26th March 4, 1839 March 3, 1841 18 372
27th March 4, 1841 March 3, 1843 23 395
28th March 4, 1843 March 3, 1845 14 409
29th March 4, 1845 March 3, 1847 13 422
30th March 4, 1847 March 3, 1849 10 432
31st March 4, 1849 March 3, 1851 14 446
32nd March 4, 1851 March 3, 1853 6 452
33rd March 4, 1853 March 3, 1855 9 461
34th March 4, 1855 March 3, 1857 9 470
35th March 4, 1857 March 3, 1859 11 481
36th March 4, 1859 March 3, 1861 7 488
37th March 4, 1861 March 3, 1863 20 508
38th March 4, 1863 March 3, 1865 6 514
39th March 4, 1865 March 3, 1867 7 (+2 [16]) 523
40th March 4, 1867 March 3, 1869 11 534
41st March 4, 1869 March 3, 1871 16 550
42nd March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 10 560
43rd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 13 573
44th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 16 589
45th March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 6 595
46th March 4, 1879 March 3, 1881 8 603
47th March 4, 1881 March 3, 1883 16 619
48th March 4, 1883 March 3, 1885 15 634
49th March 4, 1885 March 3, 1887 11 645
50th March 4, 1887 March 3, 1889 8 653
51st March 4, 1889 March 3, 1891 17 670
52nd March 4, 1891 March 3, 1893 15 685
53rd March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 21 706
54th March 4, 1895 March 3, 1897 11 717
55th March 4, 1897 March 3, 1899 13 730
56th March 4, 1899 March 3, 1901 20 750
57th March 4, 1901 March 3, 1903 17 767
58th March 4, 1903 March 3, 1905 14 781
59th March 4, 1905 March 3, 1907 17 798
60th March 4, 1907 March 3, 1909 13 811
61st March 4, 1909 March 3, 1911 13 824
62nd March 4, 1911 March 3, 1913 15 839
63rd March 4, 1913 March 3, 1915 19 858
64th March 4, 1915 March 3, 1917 12 870
65th March 4, 1917 March 3, 1919 23 893
66th March 4, 1919 March 3, 1921 24 917
67th March 4, 1921 March 3, 1923 20 937
68th March 4, 1923 March 3, 1925 24 961
69th March 4, 1925 March 3, 1927 11 972
70th March 4, 1927 March 3, 1929 15 987
71st March 4, 1929 March 3, 1931 27 1,014
72nd March 4, 1931 March 3, 1933 24 1,038
73rd March 4, 1933 January 3, 1935 15 1,053
74th January 3, 1935 January 3, 1937 10 1,063
75th January 3, 1937 January 3, 1939 15 1,078
76th January 3, 1939 January 3, 1941 24 1,102
77th January 3, 1941 January 3, 1943 19 1,121
78th January 3, 1943 January 3, 1945 18 1,139
79th January 3, 1945 January 3, 1947 16 1,155
80th January 3, 1947 January 3, 1949 19 1,174
81st January 3, 1949 January 3, 1951 11 1,185
82nd January 3, 1951 January 3, 1953 15 1,200
83rd January 3, 1953 January 3, 1955 9 1,209
84th January 3, 1955 January 3, 1957 5 1,214
85th January 3, 1957 January 3, 1959 10 1,224
86th January 3, 1959 January 3, 1961 10 1,234
87th January 3, 1961 January 3, 1963 12 1,246
88th January 3, 1963 January 3, 1965 12 1,258
89th January 3, 1965 January 3, 1967 10 1,268
90th January 3, 1967 January 3, 1969 6 1,274
91st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1971 14 1,288
92nd January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 10 1,298
93rd January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 10 1,308
94th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1977 10 1,318
95th January 3, 1977 January 3, 1979 6 1,324
96th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 7 1,331
97th January 3, 1981 January 3, 1983 9 1,340
98th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1985 9 1,349
99th January 3, 1985 January 3, 1987 5 1,354
100th January 3, 1987 January 3, 1989 8 1,362
101st January 3, 1989 January 3, 1991 12 1,374
102nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 6 1,380
103rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 7 1,387
104th January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 6 1,393
105th January 3, 1997 January 3, 1999 9 1,402
106th January 3, 1999 January 3, 2001 3 1,405
107th January 3, 2001 January 3, 2003 9 1,414
108th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 5 1,419
109th January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 6 1,425
110th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2009 13 1,438
111th January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 11 1,449
112th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 10 1,459
113th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 11 1,470
114th January 3, 2015 January 3, 2017 7 1,477
115th January 3, 2017 January 3, 2019 14 1,491
116th January 3, 2019 January 3, 2021 3 1,494

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Congress during which election occurred
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l For elections prior to 1901, the date of election was not typically recorded, so the date the Representative was seated is provided.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek Date of election. Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results. McFarland and Company.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Representative-elect, who served after the start of the Congress but vacated the seat without being sworn in.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Representative-elect, who vacated the seat before the start of the Congress.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election (source: Congressional Biographical Directory). In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  7. ^ MD-7 12th C.: The vacancies, for the remainder of the 11th Congress and the whole of the 12th Congress, were both filled by one ballot. This was the first of three examples of this method being used in Congressional special elections
  8. ^ NY-15 13th C.: Bowers election was challenged by Isaac Williams Jr. (D-R). Williams was seated in place of Bowers December 20, 1813
  9. ^ NH-AL 13th C.: Samuel Smith resigned May 21, 1814 (although the resignation is not mentioned in the Congressional Biographical Directory). At the special election no candidate received the more than 50% of the votes required to be elected. The seat appears to have been left vacant for the remainder of the Congress
  10. ^ NJ-AL 13th C.: Jacob Hufty was elected from the 3rd District, but by the time of the special election the legislature had reinstated at-large elections. This was the second of three cases when the special election was held on a different basis than the general election
  11. ^ Date seated. Election date unknown.
  12. ^ MA-10 18th C.: Bailey had presented credentials as a Member-elect, but the election was contested on the ground that he was not a resident of the district he purported to represent, and the House declared he was not entitled to the seat. He returned to a home in the district and was subsequently elected.[4]
  13. ^ Edward Tattnall, who previously represented Georgia at-large in the U.S. House of Representatives, was re-elected in the First district, but resigned before the beginning of the next Congress
  14. ^ In the 1826 elections, there was a tie vote in the 2nd district, as a result, there was no winner and a second election was held in 1827.
  15. ^ After his initial election, Sutherland resigned to accept a judicial position, but then subsequently resigned from that position and ran, successfully, in the special election called as a result of his own resignation
  16. ^ George W. Towns was installed January 5, 1846, after Representative-elect Washington Poe never took seat. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  17. ^ Died before taking office, necessitating the November 26 special election
  18. ^ Alexander H. Stephens was installed December 1, 1873, after Representative-elect Ambrose R. Wright died before taking seat. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  19. ^ Benjamin Harvey Hill was installed May 5, 1875, after Representative-elect Garnett McMillan died before taking office. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  20. ^ Democrat George A. La Dow was elected, but died before Congress convened.
  21. ^ William A. Pirce was declared the winner of the 1884 election, but his seat was later declared vacant due to election irregularities.
  22. ^ The seat was declared vacant due to failure of candidates to attain majority of the vote.
  23. ^ Democrat Brigham Henry Roberts was elected, but was not allowed to take office because he practiced polygamy
  24. ^ James Wickersham (R) contested Charles August Sulzer's (D) election to the 66th U.S. Congress, however Sulzer died April 28 before the issue was settled. Wickersham was later declared the winner of the 1918 election after a long drawn out recount and seated March 1, 1921
  25. ^ Died before taking the oath of office
  26. ^ District created following the 1980 Census. Republican Jack Swigert died before taking office.
  27. ^ Resigned in the 110th Congress, but the special election was not held until the 111th congress
  28. ^ The special election for Georgia's 9th district was scheduled for May 18, 2010, but since no candidate received 50% of the vote, a runoff was held June 8, 2010
  29. ^ North Carolina State Board of Elections refused to certify this election following allegations of election fraud. They proceeded to investigate the allegations.
  1. ^ Knotts, H. Gibbs; Ragusa, Jordan (2016). "The Nationalization of Special Elections for the U.S. House of Representatives". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. 26 (1): 22–39. doi:10.1080/17457289.2015.1063497.
  2. ^ Knotts, H. Gibbs; Ragusa, Jordan M. (January 2, 2016). "The Nationalization of Special Elections for the U.S. House of Representatives". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. 26 (1): 22–39. doi:10.1080/17457289.2015.1063497. ISSN 1745-7289.
  3. ^ "DAVENPORT, James - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov.
  4. ^ Bioguide.
  5. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  6. ^ "LA District 7 Special Runoff Race".
  7. ^ Souder to resign, Goshen News, 2010 May 18 (accessed 2010 May 18).
  8. ^ "The Fix - Jane Harman to resign from Congress". Washington Post. February 7, 2011.
  9. ^ Spangler, Todd; Gray, Kathleen; Laitner, Bill (June 2, 2012). "McCotter ends write-in campaign for re-election". Detroit Free-Press. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  10. ^ Lange, Amy. "AG announces charges against 4 after McCotter petition mess". WJBK Fox 2. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  11. ^ Camia, Catalina; Davis, Susan (November 21, 2012). "Jesse Jackson Jr. to resign from Congress". USA Today. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  12. ^ "Tim Murphy resigns from Congress". Politico. October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  13. ^ https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/13/brenda-jones-congress-swearing-thanksgiving/1989804002/
  14. ^ CNN, Adam Levy. "North Carolina elections board delays certification of congressional election results again". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  15. ^ CNN, Veronica Stracqualursi, Dianne Gallagher and Kate Sullivan. "North Carolina elections board votes for new election in congressional race". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  16. ^ The two additional special elections were held in states which had not then been re-admitted to representation in Congress, after the Civil War. Those elections were rejected by the House of Representatives.

Sources and external links[edit]