List of smallest stars

This is a list of stars which are the least voluminous known (the smallest stars by volume).

List[edit]

Notable small stars[edit]

This is a list of small stars that are otherwise notable for characteristics that are not separately listed.

Star name Star mean radius, km Star class Notes References
PSR J0348+0432 A 6.5 + 1 Pulsar Orbited by a white dwarf star (see below) [1]
PSR B1257+12 10 Orbited by three planets. [2]
PSR B0531+21 10 [3]
Geminga 10 [4]
Vela pulsar 10 - 13.6 [5]
XTE J1739-285 10.9 Pulsar (quark star?) [6]
PSR J1748-2446ad <16 Pulsar Fastest-spinning pulsar known. [7]
PSR B1937+21 20,18 [8]
XTE J1650-500 B 24 black hole This binary X-ray transient system, XTE J1650-500, component black hole, at 3.8 solar masses, is smaller than the previous recordholder GRO J1655-40 B of 6.3 MSun in the microquasar system GRO J1655-40. [9]
GRW +70 8247 3300 white dwarf Smallest white dwarf star known [10]
HZ Ceti A 4477.5
Sirius B 5466 Historically first detected white dwarf star [11]
LB 1497 5494.5 [12]
40 Eridani B 5547.5
ZZ Ceti 5890[citation needed]
GD 165 5998[citation needed]
G 29-38 6000[citation needed]
Procyon B 6700 [13][14]
ESO 439-26 8775.5 Faintest known white dwarf.[15]
Van Maanen 2 9048 [16]
PSR J0348+0432 B 45268 White dwarf A white dwarf that orbits its pulsar companion (see above) [1]
EBLM J0555-57Ab 59000 red dwarf This red dwarf is slightly larger than the planet Saturn. As of 2019, it is the second lightest hydrogen-fusing star known, marginally heavier (0.0777-0.0852M) than the 2MASS J0523-1403. Although its mass is comparable to that of TRAPPIST-1A, its radius is 1/3 smaller. [17][18][19]
SSSPM J0829-1309 61300 [20]
2MASS J0523-1403 70600 As in 2019, with mass 67.54±12.79MJ (0.0523-0.0767M) is the lowest known mass hydrogen-burning star. [21][20][22]
OGLE-TR-122B 81100 This was once the smallest known actively fusing star, when found in 2005, through 2013. It is the smallest eclipsing red dwarf, and smallest observationally measured diameter. [23][24][25]
Gliese 229 B 83480 brown dwarf [26]
TRAPPIST-1 84180 red dwarf Hosts a planetary system with at least seven rocky planets. [27]
Teegarden's Star 88354 Two potentially habitable planets [28]
Luyten 726-8 (A and B) 97000 [29]
Proxima Centauri 101000 This is the nearest neighbouring star to the Sun. [30]
Wolf 359 111400 [31]
Ross 248 111400 [32]
Barnard's Star 136400 [33]
CM Draconis B 167000 [34]
Ross 154 167000 [35]
CM Draconis A 176000 [34]
Kapteyn's Star 203000 This is the closest halo star to the Sun. [30]
Luyten's Star 243500 [36]
Teide 1 270240 Brown dwarf [37]
Lalande 21185 273500 Red dwarf [38]
Lacaille 9352 320000 [39]

Smallest stars by type[edit]

List of the smallest stars by star type
Type Star name Radius
Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Radius
Jupiter radii
(Jupiter = 1)
Radius
Earth radii
(Earth = 1)
Radius
(km / mi)
Date Notes References
Red dwarf EBLM J0555-57Ab 0.084 0.84 59,000 km (37,000 mi) 2017 The red dwarf stars are considered the smallest stars known, and representative of the smallest star possible. [17][18][19]
Brown dwarf Luhman 16 45,000 km

(28,000 mi)

Brown dwarfs are not massive enough to build up the pressure in the central regions to allow nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. They are best described as extremely massive gas giants that were not able to ignite into a hydrogen-fusing star.
White dwarf GRW +70 8247 0.0047 0.047 0.52 3,300 km (2,100 mi) 1934 White dwarfs are stellar remnants produced when a star with around 8 solar masses or less sheds its outer layers into a planetary nebula. The leftover core becomes the white dwarf. It is thought that white dwarfs cool down over quadrillions of years to produce a black dwarf. [10]
Neutron star PSR B0943+10 2.6 km

(1.61 mi)

Neutron stars are stellar remnants produced by stars with around 9 solar masses or more explodes in a supernova at the end of its life. They are usually produced by stars with less than 20 solar masses, although a more massive star may produce a neutron star in certain cases. PSR B0943+10 is one of the least massive stars with 0.02 solar masses.
Stellar-mass black hole XTE J1650-500 B 24 km (15 mi) 2008 Black holes are stellar remnants usually produced when extremely massive stars explode in a supernova or hypernova at the end of their lives. [9]

Timeline of smallest red dwarf star recordholders[edit]

Red dwarfs are considered the smallest star known that are active fusion stars, and are the smallest stars possible that is not a brown dwarf.

List of smallest red dwarf titleholders
Star name Date Radius
Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Radius
Jupiter radii
(Jupiter = 1)
Radius
km
(mi)
Notes
EBLM J0555-57Ab 2017— 0.085 0.85 59,000 km (37,000 mi) This star is slightly larger than the planet Saturn. [17][18][19]
2MASS J0523-1403 2013-2017 0.102 1.01 70,600 km (43,900 mi) Lowest mass main sequence star as in 2019. [21][20][40][41]
OGLE-TR-122B 2005-2013 0.117 1.16 81,100 km (50,400 mi) [23][24][25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Antoniadis, J.; Freire, P. C. C.; Wex, N.; Tauris, T. M.; Lynch, R. S.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Kramer, M.; Bassa, C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Driebe, T.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Langer, N.; Marsh, T. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pennucci, T. T.; Ransom, S. M.; Stairs, I. H.; Van Leeuwen, J.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Whelan, D. G. (2013). "A Massive Pulsar in a Compact Relativistic Binary". Science. 340 (6131): 1233232. arXiv:1304.6875. Bibcode:2013Sci...340..448A. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.769.4180. doi:10.1126/science.1233232. PMID 23620056.
  2. ^ http://www.phy.cuhk.edu.hk/opus/comments_2011/hckrep.pdf
  3. ^ "psr b0531 21 radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  4. ^ "Geminga | pulsar". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  5. ^ "1996rftu.proc..173P Page 173". adsbit.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  6. ^ Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Zhao, Y. H.; Wei, Y. C.; Li, X. D. (October 2007). "Does Sub-millisecond Pulsar XTE J1739-285 Contain a Low Magnetic Neutron Star or Quark Star ?". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 119 (860): 1108–1113. arXiv:0708.3566. doi:10.1086/522796. ISSN 0004-6280.
  7. ^ "PSR J1748-2446ad is the fastest-spinning pulsar known, at 716 Hz, or 716 times a second. This pulsar was discovered by Jason W. T. Hessels… | Astro Sci | Pinterest". Pinterest. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  8. ^ "psr b1937 21 radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  9. ^ a b Andrea Thompson (1 April 2008). "Smallest Black Hole Found". Space.com.
  10. ^ a b Kuiper, G. P. (February 1936). "The White Dwarf A.C.+70°8247, the Smallest Star Known". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 30: 48. Bibcode:1936JRASC..30...48K.
  11. ^ Peter Thejll; Harry L. Shipman (1986). "Temperature, radius, and rotational velocity of Sirius B". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (published October 1986). 98 (608): 922–926. Bibcode:1986PASP...98..922T. doi:10.1086/131845. ISSN 0004-6280. JSTOR 40678784.
  12. ^ Wegner, Gary; Reid, I. N.; McMahan, Robert K., Jr. (July 1991). "Gravitational redshift for the Pleiad white dwarf LB 1497". The Astrophysical Journal. 376: 186. Bibcode:1991ApJ...376..186W. doi:10.1086/170266. ISSN 0004-637X.
  13. ^ Emily M. Levesque; Philip Massey; Bertrand Plez; Knut A. G. Olsen (June 2009). "The Physical Properties of the Red Supergiant WOH G64: The Largest Star Known?". Astronomical Journal. 137 (6): 4744. arXiv:0903.2260. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4744L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4744.
  14. ^ J. L. Provencal; H. L. Shipman; F. Wesemael; P. Bergeron; H. E. Bond; James Liebert; E. M. Sion (30 September 1996). "Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Photometry of the Bright, Mysterious White Dwarf Procyon B". The Astrophysical Journal (published 10 May 1997). 480 (2): 777–783. Bibcode:1997ApJ...480..777P. doi:10.1086/304003.
  15. ^ Ruiz, María Teresa; Bergeron, P.; Leggett, S. K.; Anguita, Claudio (1995-12-20). "The Extremely Low Luminosity White Dwarf ESO 439−26". The Astrophysical Journal. 455 (2): L159. Bibcode:1995ApJ...455L.159R. doi:10.1086/309845. ISSN 0004-637X.
  16. ^ Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P. (April 2012). "Know Your Neighborhood: A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Nearby White Dwarfs". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 199 (2): 29. arXiv:1202.5581. Bibcode:2012ApJS..199...29G. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/29. Based on log L/L = −3.77.
  17. ^ a b c Eric Mack (11 July 2017). "Saturn-sized star is the smallest ever discovered". cnet.
  18. ^ a b c "Smallest-ever star discovered by astronomers". University of Cambridge. 2017.
  19. ^ a b c Alexander von Boetticher; et al. (12 June 2017). "The EBLM project; III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 604: L6. arXiv:1706.08781. Bibcode:2017A&A...604L...6V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731107. EBLM_III.
  20. ^ a b c Sergio B. Dieterich; Todd J. Henry; Wei-Chun Jao; Jennifer G. Winters; Altonio D. Hosey; Adric R. Riedel; John P. Subasavage (May 2014). "The Solar Neighborhood XXXII. The Hydrogen Burning Limit". The Astronomical Journal. 147 (5): 25. arXiv:1312.1736. Bibcode:2014AJ....147...94D. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/5/94. 94.
  21. ^ a b John Bochanski (23 December 2013). "New Cutoff for Star Sizes". Sky and Telescope.
  22. ^ Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L.; Van Gordon, Mollie M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Kramer, Michael; Bassa, Cees; Dhillon, Vik S.; Driebe, Thomas; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Langer, Norbert; Marsh, Thomas R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Joeri van Leeuwen; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Whelan, David G. (2015). "Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime". The Astrophysical Journal. 810 (2): 158. arXiv:1508.01767. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/158.
  23. ^ a b Robert Roy Britt (3 March 2005). "Newfound Star Smaller than Some Planets". Space.com.
  24. ^ a b Jonathan O'Callaghan; Josh Barker (National Space Centre) (22 March 2013). "What is the smallest star?". SpaceAnswers.com.
  25. ^ a b Pont, F.; Melo, C. H. F.; Bouchy, F.; Udry, S.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Santos, N. C. (27 January 2005). "A planet-sized transiting star around OGLE-TR-122. Accurate mass and radius near the hydrogen-burning limit". Astronomy and Astrophysics (published April 2005). 433 (2): L21–L24. arXiv:astro-ph/0501611. Bibcode:2005A&A...433L..21P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500025.
  26. ^ "gliese 229 b radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  27. ^ "trappist 1 radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  28. ^ "teegarden star radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  29. ^ Delfosse, X.; et al. (December 2000). "Accurate masses of very low mass stars. IV. Improved mass-luminosity relations". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 364: 217–224. arXiv:astro-ph/0010586. Bibcode:2000A&A...364..217D.
  30. ^ a b B.-O. Demory; D. Segransan; T. Forveille; D. Queloz; J.-L. Beuzit; X. Delfosse; E. Di Folco; P. Kervella; J.-B. Le Bouquin; C. Perrier (2 June 2009). "Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI". Astronomy and Astrophysics (published October 2009). 505 (1): 205–215. arXiv:0906.0602. Bibcode:2009A&A...505..205D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911976.
  31. ^ Doyle, J. G.; et al. (1990). "Optical and infrared photometry of dwarf M and K stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 235 (1–2): 335–339. Bibcode:1990A&A...235..335D.
  32. ^ Johnson, H. M.; Wright, C. D. (November 1983). "Predicted infrared brightness of stars within 25 parsecs of the Sun". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 53: 643–711, 705. Bibcode:1983ApJS...53..643J. doi:10.1086/190905.
  33. ^ "barnard's star radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  34. ^ a b J.C. Morales; I. Ribas; C. Jordi; G. Torres; J. Gallardo; E.F. Guinan; D. Charbonneau; M. Wolf; D.W. Latham; G. Anglada-Escudé; D.H. Bradstreet; M.E. Everett; F.T. O'Donovan; G. Mandushev; R.D. Mathieu (2009) [8 October 2008]. "Absolute properties of the low-mass eclipsing binary CM Draconis". The Astrophysical Journal (published February 2009). 691 (2): 1400–1411. arXiv:0810.1541. Bibcode:2009ApJ...691.1400M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1400.
  35. ^ Johnson, H. M.; Wright, C. D. (1983). "Predicted infrared brightness of stars within 25 parsecs of the sun". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 53: 643–711. Bibcode:1983ApJS...53..643J. doi:10.1086/190905.—see p. 693.
  36. ^ Nidever, David L.; et al. (August 2002). "Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 141 (2): 503–522. arXiv:astro-ph/0112477. Bibcode:2002ApJS..141..503N. doi:10.1086/340570.
  37. ^ "Teide 1 Radius - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  38. ^ Demory, B.-O.; et al. (October 2009). "Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 505 (1): 205–215. arXiv:0906.0602. Bibcode:2009A&A...505..205D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911976.
  39. ^ Demory, B.-O.; et al. (October 2009). "Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 505 (1): 205–215. arXiv:0906.0602. Bibcode:2009A&A...505..205D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911976.
  40. ^ Garmany, Katy. "NOAO/SOAR: Where do stars end and brown dwarfs begin?". National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  41. ^ Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L.; Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L.; Van Gordon, Mollie M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Kramer, Michael; Bassa, Cees; Dhillon, Vik S.; Driebe, Thomas; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Langer, Norbert; Marsh, Thomas R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Joeri van Leeuwen; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Whelan, David G. (2015). "Fundamental Parameters and Spectral Energy Distributions of Young and Field Age Objects with Masses Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Regime". The Astrophysical Journal. 810 (2): 158. arXiv:1508.01767. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/158.