List of fascist movements by country N–T

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

Fascist movements, sorted by country[edit]

Overview A-F G-M N-T U-Z

Name of movement Country of predominant operation Came to power? Founded post-World War II? Active? General influence Notes
Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging Netherlands Yes No (1931) No Nazism Originated in 1931 as a fascist movement, converted to antisemitism and national-socialism in 1936-1937, never gained more than 8% of the Dutch voters
Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij Netherlands No No (1931) No Nazism broke away from NSB
Algemeene Nederlandsche Fascisten Bond Netherlands No No (1932) No Italian Fascism
Black Front Netherlands No No (1934) No Clerical fascism
National Socialist Party of New Zealand New Zealand No ? ? Nazism
New Zealand National Front New Zealand No Yes (1968) Yes Neo-Nazism splinter group of the League of Empire Loyalists, not a fascist organization
Unit 88 New Zealand No Yes ? Neo-Nazism
Nasjonal Samling (NS) Norway Yes No (1933) No Nazism Founded and led by Vidkun Quisling. Formed German puppet government in Norway. Banned 1945.
Norges Nasjonalsosialistiske Bevegelse (Norway's National Socialistic Movement) Norway No Yes (1988) Yes Nazism
Norwegian Front (NF) Norway No Yes (1975) No Neo-fascism[1][2]
National Socialist Arab party Palestine No ? ?
Brit HaBirionim Palestine (British Mandate of Palestine) No No (1930) No Italian Fascism Founded by of Dr. Abba Ahimeir, Uri Zvi Greenberg and Dr. Joshua Yeivin.
Arnulfista Party Panama Yes Yes (1990)
Panameñism
Accion Comunal Panama Yes No
Panameñism Founded by Dr. Arnulfo Arias
Falange Peru Peru No Yes ? Falangism official site
Revolutionary Union Peru Yes No (1931) No independent Founded by Peruvian President Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
Ganap Philippines Yes (as part of KALIBAPI) No (1941) No far-right nationalism, fascism Collaboratonist movement deriving from Sakdalista party
KALIBAPI Philippines yes No (1942) No fascism[3][4][5][6] Collaboratonist movement
Makapili Philippines Yes (as part of KALIBAPI) No (1941) No far-right nationalism, fascism Extreme nationalist, collaborationist movement, Anti-American party.
Philippine Falange Philippines No No (late 1930s) No Falangism Branch of the Spanish Falange. Leadership positions held by influential Spanish businessmen.
Camp of Great Poland (OWP) Poland No No (1925) No Far-right nationalism Founded and led by Roman Dmowski. Banned 1933
National Radical Camp (1934) (ONR) Poland No No (1934) No National radicalism, far-right nationalism Splinter group of the National Party (SN), led by Jan Mosdorf. Banned soon after its establishment, in 1934. Splintered into ONR-ABC and RNR-Falanga.
National Radical Camp-ABC (ONR-ABC) Poland No No (1935) No National radicalism, far-right nationalism Breakaway movement led by Henryk Rossman. During World War II ONR-ABC was transformed into resistance movement called the "Rampart" Group.
National Radical Movement-Falanga (RNR-Falanga) Poland No No (1935) No National radicalism, far-right nationalism Breakaway movement led by Bolesław Piasecki. Commonly known as the ONR-Falanga. During World War II RNR-Falanga was transformed into resistance movement called the Confederation of the Nation (KN).
Party of National Socialists (PNS) Poland No No (1933) No Nazism Splinter group of The National Labour Party (NSP).
Young German Party in Poland (JDP) Poland No No (1931) No Nazism Party of the German minority. Ceased activity after the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
German Union for Western Poland (DV) Poland No No (1934) No Nazism Party of the German minority. Ceased activity after the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
National Radical Camp (ONR) Poland No Yes (1993) Yes National radicalism, far-right nationalism Nationalist movement based on the tradition of a pre-war group of the same name.
National Revival of Poland (NOP) Poland No Yes (1981) Yes National radicalism, far-right nationalism, third position Led by Adam Gmurczyk. Party refers to the pre-war polish national radical movements.
Polish National Community-Polish National Party (PWN-PSN) Poland No Yes (1990) Yes Far-right nationalism. Anti-clerical and pan-slavist movement. Led by Bolesław Tejkowski.
Movimento de Acção Nacional (MAN, "National Action Movement") Portugal No Yes (1986) No Nazism Inactive 1992
National Syndicalists Portugal No No No independent Banned by the Estado Novo
National Union Portugal Yes No (1932) ? Estado Novo/Clerical Fascism
Ordem Nova ("New Order") Portugal No Yes (1978) No Nazism Inactive 1982
Crusade of Romanianism Romania No No No Romanian fascism Initially called the White Eagles
Iron Guard Romania Yes No (1927) No Romanian fascism Breakaway group from National-Christian Defense League; members were called "Green Shirts" because of their green uniforms[citation needed]
National-Christian Defense League Romania No No (1923) No Romanian fascism Iron Guard was a breakaway group from this movement
National Fascist Movement Romania No No (1923) No Italian Fascism/independent Union of NIRFM and NRF
National Italo-Rumanian Fascist Movement Romania No No (1921) No Italian Fascism Led by Elena Bacaloglu
National Rumanian Fascio Romania No No (1921) No independent Led by Titus Vifor
National Socialist Party Romania No No (1932) No Nazism
Noua Dreaptă Romania No Yes Yes Romanian fascism
Romanian Front Romania No No (1935) No Romanian fascism splinter group of National Peasants' Party led by Alexandru Vaida-Voevod
Northern Alliance (Severny Alliyans, Северный Альянс)[citation needed] Russia No Yes ? Neo-Nazism neo-nazis taking inspiration from collaborationist movements from World War II.
Pamyat Russia No Yes No Monarchist restoration, ultra-nationalism Splintered into Russian National Union and National Unity of Russia
Russian National Socialist Party (formerly Russian National Union) (Russkiy Natsionalʼniy Soyuz Русский Национальний Союз) Russia No Yes (1992) Yes Neo-Nazism Led by Konstantin Kassimovsky; became Russian National Socialist Party in 1998; splinter of Pamyat in 1992
Russian National Unity (Russkoye Natsionalʼnoye Yedinstvo, Русское Национальное Единство) Russia No Yes Yes Nazism
Barkashov's Guards Russia No Yes Yes Neo-Nazism Led by Barkashov
Russian Radical Fascism Russia No Yes ? ?
White Legion 88 Russia No Yes ? Neo-Nazism
National Socialist Society (Natsional-sotsialisticheskoye obshchestvo, NSO, нaциoнaл-coциaлстичecкoe общество, HCO) Russia No Yes (2004) Yes Neo-Nazism Official site
Sammarinese Fascist Party San Marino Yes No (1922) No Italian Fascism Collapsed in 1943, refounded as Republican Fascio of San Marino in January 1944 and subsequently banned in November
Nacionalni stroj Serbia No Yes Yes Neo-Nazism Neo-Nazi skinheads
Otačastveni pokret Obraz Serbia No Yes Yes Clerical fascism
Slovenska Pospolitost ("Slovakian Solidarity") Slovakia No Yes Yes Fascism Banned in 2006
Slovak People's Party Slovakia, Czechoslovakia, Austria-Hungary Yes No (1906) No Clerical fascism Formed German puppet government in Slovakia
Afrikaner Studentebond South Africa No Yes ? Nazism
Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging South Africa No Yes (1973) Yes Neo-Nazism
Boerestaat Party South Africa No Yes ? Apartheid Paramilitary group, the Boere Weerstandsbeweging
National Party South Africa Yes No (1914) No Apartheid
Ossewabrandwag South Africa No No (1939) No Apartheid
South African Christian National Socialist Movement South Africa No
No Nazism paramilitary group was the Gryshemde, “Grayshirts”
Bases Autónomas Spain No Yes ? Neo-Nazism/National Anarchism
Círculo Español de Amigos de Europa (CEDADE, "Spanish Circle of Friends of Europe") Spain No Yes (1966) No Neo-Nazi Disbanded 1993
España 2000 Spain No Yes (2002) Yes Patriotic, Neo-Nazi
Falange Española Spain Yes No (1937) Yes Falangism
Bodu Bala Sena Sri Lanka No Yes Yes Ethno-fascism
Clerical People's Party Sweden No No (1930) No Clerical fascism
Swedish Socialist Party Sweden No No (1929) No Fascism/Nazism Disbanded in 1944
National Socialist Workers' Party (Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Arbetarpartiet) Sweden No No (1933) No Nazism Became Swedish Socialist Coalition (Swedish: Svensk Socialistisk Samling) in 1938
National Socialist Bloc Sweden No No (1933) No Nazism Formed from merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet and Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and, later, Nationalsocialistisk Samling
Nordic Realm Party Sweden No Yes (1955) Yes Neo-Nazi
White Aryan Resistance (Swedish: Vitt Ariskt Motstånd) Sweden No Yes (1991) No Neo-Nazi Paramilitary group active between 1991 and 1993.
National Alliance Sweden No Yes (1993) Yes Neo-Nazi Founded as Young National Socialists of Stockholm (Swedish: Stockholms Unga Nationalsocialister (SUNS)) in 1993. Became the National Alliance in 1996.
National Socialist Front (Swedish: Nationalsocialistisk Front) Sweden No Yes (1994) No Neo-Nazi Disbanded in 2008
Swedish Resistance Movement (Swedish: Svenska motståndsrörelsen (SMR)) Sweden No Yes (1995) Yes Neo-Nazi Militant organisation.
National Youth (Swedish: Nationell Ungdom) Sweden No Yes (1997) Yes Neo-Nazi Youth organisation of the Swedish Resistance Movement
Legion Wasa (Swedish: Legion Wasa) Sweden No Yes (1999) Yes Neo-Nazi Militant organisation
Party of the Swedes (Swedish: Svenskarnas Parti) Sweden No Yes (2008) No Ethnic nationalist, Swedish nationalist, Neo-Nazi Successor of National Socialist Front, first founded under the name People's Front (Swedish: Folkfronten). Disbanded in 2015.
Eidgenössische Sammlung Switzerland No No (1940) No Nazism Successor movement to the National Front
National Front Switzerland No No (1930) No Nazism/independent
National Movement of Switzerland Switzerland No No (1940) No Nazism
National Union Switzerland No No (1932) No Nazism/independent Francophone group
Swiss National Socialist Party Switzerland No No ? Nazism
Volkspartei der Schweiz Switzerland No Yes (1951) No Neo-Nazi Led by Gaston-Armand Amaudruz
League of Nationalist Action Syria No No (1932) No Fascism Was founded in 1932 in Syria.
Syrian Social Nationalist Party Syria, Lebanon No No (1932) Yes Nazism[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Advocates the establishment of a Greater Syrian national state, including present Syria, Lebanon, the Hatay Province of Turkey, Israel, the Palestinian territories, the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, Cyprus, Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait.
Republican Villagers Nation Party Turkey Yes (as part of coalition governments: 1962, 1965) Yes (1958) No far-right nationalism, neo-fascism, third position Precursor of the Nationalist Movement Party.
Vigorous Development in National Activity Turkey No Yes (1969) No Neo-Nazi A National Socialist group existed in 1969 in İzmir, when a group of former CKMP members (precursor party of the MHP) founded the association "Nasyonal Aktivitede Zinde İnkişaf" (NAZİ). The club maintained two combat units. The members wore SA uniforms and used the Hitler salute. One of the leaders (Gündüz Kapancıoğlu) was re-admitted to the MHP in 1975.[14]
Nationalist Movement Party Turkey Yes (as part of coalition governments: 1975, 1977, 1999) Yes (1969) Yes far-right nationalism, neo-fascism[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][20][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Described as a neo-fascist party linked to extremist and violent militias: Grey Wolves.
Great Unity Party Turkey No Yes (1993) Yes Islamofascism (clerical fascism) Islamist splinter group separated from the Nationalist Movement Party.

Overview A-F G-M N-T U-Z

References[edit]

  1. ^ Szajkowski, Bogdan (2004). Revolutionary and Dissident Movements of the World. John Harper Pub. p. 363. ISBN 9780954381127.
  2. ^ Ó Maoláin, Ciarán (1987). The radical right: a world directory. Longman. p. 215. ISBN 9780874365146.
  3. ^ Peter de Mendelssohn, Japan's Political Welfare, Taylor & Francis US, 2010, p. 121
  4. ^ David Bernstein, The Philippine Story, READ BOOKS, 2007, p. 163
  5. ^ Felixberto G. Bustos, And Now Comes Roxas: The Story of the First President of the Republic of the Philippines and the Occupation, C. Z. Bustos, 1945, p. 187
  6. ^ Augusto V. de Viana, Kulaboretor!: The Issue of Political Collaboration During World War II, University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2003, p. 46
  7. ^ Simon, Reeva S. (1996). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East. Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 0-02-896011-4. The Syrian Social Nationalist party (SSNP) was the brainchild of Antun Sa'ada, a Greek Orthodox Lebanese who was inspired by Nazi and fascist ideologies.
  8. ^ Ya’ari, Ehud (June 1987). "Behind the Terror". Atlantic Monthly. [The SSNP] greet their leaders with a Hitlerian salute; sing their Arabic anthem, "Greetings to You, Syria," to the strains of "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles"; and throng to the symbol of the red hurricane, a swastika in circular motion.
  9. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506022-9. The SSNP flag, which features a curved swastika called the red hurricane (zawba'a), points to the party's fascistic origins.
  10. ^ Rolland, John C. (2003). Lebanon. Nova Publishers. ISBN 1-59033-871-5. [The SSNP's] red hurricane symbol was modeled after the Nazi swastika.
  11. ^ Johnson, Michael (2001). All Honourable Men. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-715-4. Saadeh, the party's 'leader for life', was an admirer of Adolf Hitler and influenced by Nazi and fascist ideology. This went beyond adopting a reversed swastika as the party's symbol and singing the party's anthem to Deutschland über alles, and included developing the cult of a leader, advocating totalitarian government, and glorifying an ancient pre-Christian past and the organic whole of the Syrian Volk or nation.
  12. ^ Becker, Jillian (1984). The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78547-8. [The SSNP] had been founded in 1932 as a youth movement, deliberately modeled on Hitler's Nazi Party. For its symbol it invented a curved swastika, called the Zawbah.
  13. ^ Yamak, Labib Zuwiyya (1966). The Syrian Social Nationalist Party: An Ideological Analysis. Harvard University Press.
  14. ^ Jürgen Roth and Kamil Taylan: Die Türkei – Republik unter Wölfen. Bornheim-Merten, p. 119.
  15. ^ Sullivan, Colleen (2011). "Grey Wolves". In Martin, Gus (ed.). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (2nd ed.). Sage Publications. pp. 236–7.
  16. ^ Karasapan, Omer (1989). "Turkey and US Strategy in the Age of Glasnost". Middle East Report. 17 (160): 587–606. doi:10.2307/3013440. JSTOR 260523. The US also established contacts with the neofascist Nationalist Movement Party and its militants, the Grey Wolves.
  17. ^ Aslan, Fikret; Bozay, Kemal, eds. (2012). Graue Wölfe heulen wieder: Türkische Faschisten und ihre Vernetzung in Deutschland [Grey wolves howl again: Turkish fascists and their networks in Germany] (in German) (3rd. ed.). Unrast Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89771-035-1.
  18. ^ Canefe, Nergis; Bora, Tanıl (2004). "Intellectual Roots of Anti-European Sentiments in Turkish Politics: The Case of Radical Turkish Nationalism". In Çarkoğlu, Ali; Rubin, Barry (eds.). Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration and International Dynamics. Routledge. p. 125, 129. ISBN 978-1-135-76120-2.
  19. ^ Cooley, John K. (2002). Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (3rd ed.). London: Pluto Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-7453-1917-9. A Turkish Fascist youth group, the "Grey Wolves," was recruited to fight with the Chechens.
  20. ^ a b Arıkan, E. Burak (1999). The Programme of the Nationalist Action Party: An Iron Hand in a Velvet Glove?. Turkey Before and After Atatürk. Frank Cass. pp. 122–125.
  21. ^ Jacoby, Tim (2012). Fascism, Civility and the Crisis of the Turkish State. Political Civility in the Middle East. Routledge. p. 112.
  22. ^ Political Terrorism, by Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl, Transaction Publishers, 2005, p. 674
  23. ^ Annual of Power and Conflict, by Institute for the Study of Conflict, National Strategy Information Center, 1982, p. 148
  24. ^ The Nature of Fascism, by Roger Griffin, Routledge, 1993, p. 171
  25. ^ Political Parties and Terrorist Groups, by Leonard Weinberg, Ami Pedahzur, Arie Perliger, Routledge, 2003, p. 45
  26. ^ The Inner Sea: The Mediterranean and Its People, by Robert Fox, 1991, p. 260
  27. ^ Martin A. Lee "On the Trail of Turkey's Terrorist Grey Wolves" The Consortium, 1997
  28. ^ "Crime of the Century". The Weekly Standard. 7 April 2005.