|Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2019|
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.
Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.
The United States is the world's largest economy with a GDP of approximately $20.513 trillion, notably due to high average incomes, a large population, capital investment, low unemployment, high consumer spending, a relatively young population, and technological innovation. Tuvalu is the world's smallest national economy, with a GDP of about $32 million, because of its very small population, a lack of natural resources, reliance on foreign aid, negligible capital investment, demographic problems, and low average incomes.
Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output. Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation, the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth in 1978 to second to only the United States in 2016 as economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016. India has also experienced a similar economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s. When supranational entities are included, the European Union is the second largest economy in the world. It was the largest from 2004, when ten countries joined the union, to 2014, after which it was surpassed by the United States.
The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.
|Per the International Monetary Fund (2019 estimates)||Per the World Bank (2018)||Per the United Nations (2017)|
- List of countries by GDP (PPP)
- List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita
- List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
- List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal)
- List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP)
- Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
- The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. As the EU is not a country, China is the second ranked country on these lists.
- Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
- Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
- Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.
- Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
- Includes Western Sahara.
- Covers mainland Tanzania only.
- Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
- Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
- Excludes data for Transnistria.
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- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. April 2019.
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- "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". United Nations Statistics Division. January 2019.
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- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
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Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.
- "All countries and regions/subregions (totals) for all years - sorted by region/subregion". United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved 28 January 2019.