List of countries by GDP (PPP)

Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2019
according to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2018

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing the quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2018 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2019. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2018, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity has also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Lists[edit]

All figures are in current international dollars (Int$).

List by the International Monetary Fund (2018)[5] List by the World Bank (2018)[6][7] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[8]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
 World 135,178.32
1  China[n 1] 25,270.066
 European Union[n 2] 22,023.14
2  United States 20,494.050
3  India 10,505.288
4  Japan 5,594.452
5  Germany 4,356.353
6  Russia 4,213.403
7  Indonesia 3,494.737
8  Brazil 3,365.343
9  United Kingdom 3,037.787
10  France 2,962.799
11  Mexico 2,569.806
12  Italy 2,397.403
13  Turkey 2,292.511
14  South Korea 2,136.315
15  Spain 1,864.419
16  Saudi Arabia 1,857.525
17  Canada 1,836.816
18  Iran 1,610.677
19  Thailand 1,320.364
20  Australia 1,318.153
21  Egypt 1,296.286
 Taiwan 1,234.860
22  Poland 1,212.925
23  Nigeria 1,168.515
24  Pakistan 1,141.403
25  Malaysia 999.397
26  Netherlands 969.228
27  Philippines 952.569
28  Argentina 915.125
29  South Africa 789.423
30  Bangladesh 761.699
31  Colombia 744.696
32  United Arab Emirates 723.676
33  Vietnam 710.307
34  Iraq 673.251
35  Algeria 657.462
36  Singapore 565.811
37  Belgium 550.501
38   Switzerland 548.483
39  Sweden 542.037
40  Romania 516.336
41  Kazakhstan 508.642
42  Chile 481.756
 Hong Kong 480.494
43  Austria 463.220
44  Peru 457.483
45  Czech Republic 395.868
46  Norway 395.867
47  Ukraine 390.336
48  Ireland 385.851
49  Qatar 354.762
50  Myanmar 344.005
51  Israel 337.231
52  Venezuela 330.984
53  Portugal 329.241
54  Morocco 314.605
55  Greece 312.661
56  Hungary 311.944
57  Kuwait 306.441
58  Denmark 301.319
59  Sri Lanka 290.561
60  Finland 256.456
61  Uzbekistan 250.328
62  Ethiopia 219.545
63  Ecuador 199.481
64  Angola 199.319
65  Oman 198.486
66  New Zealand 197.827
67  Slovak Republic 191.216
68  Ghana 190.677
69  Dominican Republic 189.237
70  Belarus 189.178
71  Azerbaijan 179.673
72  Sudan 177.678
73  Kenya 177.285
74  Tanzania 175.785
75  Bulgaria 162.318
76  Guatemala 145.635
77  Tunisia 144.244
 Puerto Rico 129.822
78  Serbia 122.759
79  Turkmenistan 112.666
80  Croatia 107.406
81  Côte d'Ivoire 106.984
82  Panama 106.775
83  Lithuania 97.006
84  Uganda 96.963
85  Cameroon 95.262
86  Paraguay 94.477
87  Jordan 93.427
88  Lebanon 89.478
89  Costa Rica 88.220
90    Nepal 86.073
91  Bolivia 84.099
92  Uruguay 81.599
 Macau 77.334
93  Slovenia 75.976
94  Libya 74.693
95  Bahrain 74.146
96  Yemen 73.258
97  Zambia 72.932
98  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72.924
99  Afghanistan 72.648
100  Cambodia 70.452
101  Luxembourg 64.237
102  Senegal 59.521
103  Latvia 57.840
104  Laos 53.701
105  El Salvador 53.401
106  Honduras 49.157
107  Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.266
108  Estonia 44.955
109  Trinidad and Tobago 44.357
110  Mali 44.203
111  Mongolia 43.544
112  Madagascar 42.917
113  Georgia 42.606
114  Zimbabwe 42.547
115  Botswana 41.944
116  Mozambique 39.181
117  Burkina Faso 38.845
118  Albania 38.356
119  Gabon 37.968
120  Nicaragua 35.733
121  Brunei Darussalam 34.552
122  Cyprus 34.546
123  North Macedonia 32.627
124  Tajikistan 31.108
125  Papua New Guinea 30.855
126  Guinea 30.705
127  Armenia 30.438
128  Republic of Congo 30.297
129  Chad 30.166
130  Mauritius 29.994
131  Equatorial Guinea 29.838
132  Benin 27.718
133  Rwanda 27.405
134  Namibia 27.106
135  Jamaica 27.016
136  Moldova 25.888
137  Kyrgyzstan 24.531
138  Malawi 23.653
139  Niger 23.531
140  Malta 21.298
141  Somalia 21.155
 Kosovo 20.942
142  Haiti 20.726
143  South Sudan 19.491
144  Iceland 19.484
145  Mauritania 18.138
146  Togo 13.954
147  Bahamas, The 12.612
148  Sierra Leone 12.265
149  Eswatini 12.132
150  Montenegro 11.891
151  Eritrea 10.017
152  Fiji 9.106
153  Suriname 8.927
154  Burundi 8.200
155  Maldives 7.956
156  Bhutan 7.794
157  Lesotho 6.906
158  Guyana 6.664
159  Timor-Leste 6.653
160  Liberia 6.327
161  Gambia, The 6.057
162  Barbados 5.309
163  Cape Verde 4.045
164  Djibouti 3.971
165  Central African Republic 3.617
166  Guinea-Bissau 3.366
167  Belize 3.365
168  Seychelles 2.913
169  Antigua and Barbuda 2.580
170  St. Lucia 2.536
171  San Marino 2.019
172  Grenada 1.751
173  St. Kitts and Nevis 1.669
174  Solomon Islands 1.406
175  Comoros 1.386
176  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.319
177  Samoa 1.174
178  Vanuatu 0.816
179  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.723
180  Dominica 0.699
181  Tonga 0.616
182  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.356
183  Palau 0.276
184  Kiribati 0.240
185  Marshall Islands 0.207
186  Nauru 0.159
187  Tuvalu 0.044
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1  China[n 1] 23,300,783
2  United States 19,390,604
3  India 11,948,659
4  Japan 5,487,161
5  Germany 4,187,583
6  Russia 3,817,201
7  Indonesia 3,242,769
8  Brazil 3,240,524
9  United Kingdom 2,896,833
10  France 2,871,264
11  Italy 2,410,985
12  Mexico 2,344,197
13  Turkey 2,254,114
14  Korea, South 1,969,106
15  Spain 1,773,972
16  Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17  Canada 1,702,435
18  Iran 1,700,356
19  Thailand 1,233,736
20  Australia 1,157,298
21  Egypt 1,129,919
22  Nigeria 1,118,755
23  Poland 1,112,364
24  Pakistan 1,088,982
25  Malaysia 930,749
26  Argentina 920,248
27  Netherlands 907,032
28  Philippines 875,311
29  South Africa 765,567
30  Colombia 714,003
31  United Arab Emirates 694,468
32  Iraq 658,200
33  Vietnam 647,368
34  Bangladesh 637,078
35  Algeria 631,150
36   Switzerland 550,346
37  Belgium 540,867
38  Singapore 527,021
39  Romania 506,132
40  Sweden 504,088
41  Kazakhstan 476,366
42  Austria 462,990
 Hong Kong 454,886
43  Chile 434,848
44  Peru 432,115
45  Venezuela 409,389
46  Czech Republic 390,989
47  Ukraine 368,217
48  Ireland 367,301
49  Qatar 338,817
50  Israel 334,667
51  Portugal 331,445
52  Myanmar 327,629
53  Norway 322,101
54  Greece 299,241
55  Morocco 298,230
56  Kuwait 297,594
57  Denmark 291,600
58  Hungary 277,543
59  Sri Lanka 274,718
60  Finland 249,065
61  Uzbekistan 222,338
62  Ethiopia 199,336
63  Sudan 198,758
64  New Zealand 196,152
65  Oman 193,218
66  Ecuador 193,138
67  Angola 190,290
68  Belarus 179,203
69  Slovakia 174,678
70  Dominican Republic 172,591
71  Azerbaijan 171,588
72  Tanzania 163,886
73  Kenya 163,309
74  Bulgaria 143,850
75  Guatemala 137,849
76  Tunisia 137,358
77  Ghana 133,826
78  Libya 125,142
79  Serbia 105,966
80  Croatia 104,233
81  Turkmenistan 103,604
82  Panama 100,194
83  Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84  Lithuania 90,749
85  Lebanon 89,263
86  Cameroon 88,859
87  Jordan 88,809
88  Costa Rica 83,615
89  Bolivia 83,546
90  Uganda 79,889
91    Nepal 78,591
92  Uruguay 77,992
93  Yemen 75,346
94  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95  Slovenia 71,926
 Macau 71,672
96  Bahrain 70,937
97  Afghanistan 70,368
98  Zambia 69,235
99  Paraguay 66,007
100  Cambodia 64,050
101  Luxembourg 62,139
102  Latvia 53,561
103  El Salvador 51,061
104  Laos 48,167
105  Honduras 46,198
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107  Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108  Senegal 42,992
109  Estonia 41,619
110  Mali 41,004
111  Mongolia 39,982
112  Botswana 39,770
113  Georgia 39,768
114  Madagascar 39,764
115  Mozambique 37,005
116  Gabon 36,823
117  Nicaragua 36,324
118  Burkina Faso 35,887
119  Papua New Guinea 34,633
120  Albania 34,541
121  Zimbabwe 34,476
122  Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123  North Macedonia 31,729
124  Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125  Cyprus 29,606
126  Guinea 29,056
127  Chad 28,924
128  Tajikistan 28,373
129  Armenia 28,271
130  Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131  Mauritius 28,174
132  Namibia 26,542
133  Jamaica 25,999
134  Benin 25,327
135  Rwanda 24,852
136  Kyrgyzstan 23,104
137  West Bank and Gaza 22,886
138  Malawi 22,387
139  Niger 21,834
140  Moldova 20,226
141  Haiti 19,930
 Kosovo 19,688
142  Malta 18,395
143  Iceland 18,265
144  Mauritania 17,458
145  Togo 12,240
146  Bahamas, The 12,031
147  Montenegro 11,681
148  Eswatini 11,617
149  Sierra Leone 10,264
150  Timor-Leste 9,350
151  Fiji 8,652
153  Suriname 8,515
153  Burundi 8,376
154  Bhutan 7,721
155  Maldives 7,273
156  Lesotho 6,991
157  Guyana 6,349
158  Barbados 5,326
159  Liberia 3,911
160  Cape Verde 3,733
161  Djibouti 3,716
162  Gambia, The 3,602
163  Central African Republic 3,382
164  Belize 3,219
165  Guinea-Bissau 3,165
166  Seychelles 2,776
167  Saint Lucia 2,543
168  Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
169  San Marino 2,085
170  Grenada 1,609
171  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
172  Solomon Islands 1,480
173  Samoa 1,299
174  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
175  Comoros 1,263
176  Vanuatu 886
177  Dominica 785
178  Sao Tome and Principe 685
179  Tonga 643
180  Micronesia, Federated States of 382
181  Palau 316
182  Kiribati 253
183  Marshall Islands 223
184  Nauru 193
185  Tuvalu 44
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1  China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
 European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2  United States 19,360 2017 est.
3  India 11,947 2017 est.
4  Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5  Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6  Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7  Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8  Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10  France 2,826 2017 est.
11  Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12  Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13  Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14  Korea, South 2,027 2017 est.
15  Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16  Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17  Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18  Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19  Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20  Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21  Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
 Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
22  Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
23  Poland 1,111 2017 est.
24  Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
25  Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
26  Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
27  Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
28  Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
29  South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
30  Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
31  United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
32  Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
33  Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
34  Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
35  Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
36  Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
37  Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
38   Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
39  Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
40  Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
41  Romania 474.0 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
42  Chile 452.1 2017 est.
43  Austria 434.1 2017 est.
44  Peru 424.6 2017 est.
45  Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
46  Norway 375.9 2017 est.
47  Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
48  Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
49  Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
50  Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
51  Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
52  Israel 315.6 2017 est.
53  Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
54  Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
55  Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
56  Greece 299.5 2017 est.
57  Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
58  Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
59  Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
60  Finland 242.4 2017 est.
61  Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
62  Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
63  Angola 192.0 2017 est.
64  Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
65  Oman 187.9 2017 est.
66  Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
67  New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
68  Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
69  Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
70  Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
71  Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
72  Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
73  Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
74  Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
75  Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
76  Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
77  Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
78  Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
 Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
79  Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
80  Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
81  Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
82  Panama 99.43 2017 est.
83  Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
84  Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
85  Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
86  Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
87  Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
88  Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
89  Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
90  Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
91    Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
92  Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
 Macau 73.58 2017 est.
93  Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
94  Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
95  Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
96  Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
97  Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
98  Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
100  Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
101  Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
102  Libya 63.14 2017 est.
103  El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
104  Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
105  Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106  Laos 49.21 2017 est.
107  Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
108  Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
109  Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
110  Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
111  Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
112  Mali 40.98 2017 est.
113  Korea, North 40.00 2015 est.
114  Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
115  Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
116  Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
117  Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
118  Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
119  Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
120  Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
121  Albania 35.87 2017 est.
122  Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
123  Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
124  Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
125  North Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
126  Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
127  Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
128  Chad 29.64 2017 est.
129  Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
130  Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
131  Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
132  Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
133  Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
134  Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
135  Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
136  Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
137  Benin 25.29 2017 est.
138  Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
139  Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
140  Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
141  Niger 21.62 2017 est.
142  Palestine (west bank) 21.22 2014 est.
143  Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
144  Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
145  South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
 Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
146  Malta 18.53 2017 est.
147  Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
148  Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
149  Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
150  Togo 12.43 2017 est.
151  Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
152  Eswatini 11.34 2017 est.
153  Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
154  Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
155  Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
156  Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
157  Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
158  Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
159  Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
160  Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
 Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
161  Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
162  Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
163  Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
164  Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
 Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
 Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
165  Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
166  Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
 Guam 4.882 2013 est.
167  Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
168  Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
169  Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
170  Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
 Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
171  Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
172  Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
173  Belize 3.230 2017 est.
 Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
174  Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
175  Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
 Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
 Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
176  Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
177  Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
 Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
178  San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
 Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
 Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
179  Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
180  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
181  Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
182  Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
183  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
184  Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
185  Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
186  Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
 American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
187  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
188  Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
Flag of the Collectivity of Saint Martin.svg Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
 British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
 Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
189  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
190  Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
 Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
191  Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192  Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
 Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193  Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
 Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194  Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
 Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
 Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[9] As the EU is not a country, the U.S is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  6. ^ ""Gross domestic product 2018, PPP", World Bank, released on 9 July 2019" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 22 July 2019..
  7. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  8. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  9. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.