Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement.
Russian philosophy as a separate entity started its development in the 19th century, defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as a unique civilization. The latter group included Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of eurasianism. The discussion of Russia's place in the world has since become the most characteristic feature of Russian philosophy.
In its further development, Russian philosophy was also marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; cosmos and religion were other notable subjects.
Notable philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Vasily Rozanov, Lev Shestov, Leo Tolstoy, Sergei Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, Pitirim Sorokin, and Vladimir Vernadsky.
From the early 1920s to late 1980s, Russian philosophy was dominated by Marxism presented as dogma and not grounds for discussion. Stalin's purges, culminating in 1937, delivered a deadly blow to the development of philosophy.
A handful of dissident philosophers survived through the Soviet period, among them Aleksei Losev. Stalin's death in 1953 gave way for new schools of thought to spring up, among them Moscow Logic Circle, and Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School.
- 1 Major thinkers
- 1.1 Russian Enlightenment
- 1.2 Slavophiles and pochvennichestvo
- 1.3 Russian symbolists
- 1.4 Westernizers
- 1.5 Russian Schellingians
- 1.6 Russian positivists
- 1.7 Russian cosmists
- 1.8 Occultists
- 1.9 Epistemologists, logicians and metaphysicians
- 1.10 Anarchists
- 1.11 Materialists and nihilists
- 1.12 Socialists and Marxists
- 1.13 Christian philosophers
- 1.14 Orthodox Christian theologians
- 1.15 Intuitivist-personalists
- 1.16 Existentialists
- 1.17 Aestheticians
- 1.18 Historians of thought
- 1.19 Globalists
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 Bibliography
- 5 External links
- Vasily Tatishchev (1668–1750)
- Mikhail Shcherbatov (1733–1790)
- Andrey Bolotov (1738–1833)
- Alexander Radishchev (1749–1802)
- Ivan Kireyevsky (1806–1856)
- Aleksey Khomyakov (1804–1860)
- Vladimir Odoyevsky (1803–1869)
- Konstantin Aksakov (1817–1860)
- Yuri Samarin (1819–1876)
- Fyodor Tyutchev (1803–1873)
- Nikolay Danilevsky (1822–1885)
- Nikolay Strakhov (1828–1896)
- Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881) Religious philosopher artist (see Nikolai Berdyaev)
- Konstantin Pobedonostsev (1827–1907)
- Konstantin Leontiev (1831–1891)
- Ivan Ilyin (1883–1954)
- Dmitry Merezhkovsky (1866–1941)
- Zinaida Gippius (1869–1945)
- Valery Bryusov (1873–1924)
- Konstantin Balmont (1867–1942)
- Max Voloshin (1877–1932)
- Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874–1940)
- Alexander Blok (1880–1921)
- Andrei Bely (1880–1934)
- Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866–1949)
- Innokenty Annensky (1855–1909)
- Fyodor Sologub (1863–1927)
- Pyotr Chaadayev (1794–1856)
- Nikolai Stankevich (1813–1840)
- Vissarion Belinsky (1811–1848)
- Alexander Herzen (1812–1870) Father of Russian Socialism
- Pyotr Chaadayev (1794–1856)
- Dmitry Venevitinov (1805–1827)
- Vissarion Belinsky (1811–1848)
- Vladimir Solovyov (1853–1900)
- Peter Lavrovich Lavrov (1823–1900)
- Grigory Vyrubov (1843–1913)
- Nikolay Mikhaylovsky (1842–1910)
- Konstantin Kavelin (1818–1885)
- Nikolai Korkunov (1853–1904)
- Nikolay Fyodorov (1829–1903) N O Lossky lists Fyodorov as primarily a Christian philosopher.
- Nicholas Roerich (1874–1947)
- Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945)
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935)
- Alexander Chizhevsky (1897–1964)
- Victor Skumin (1948–)
- Nikolay Novikov (1744–1818)
- Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891)
- G. I. Gurdjieff (1872–1949)
- P. D. Ouspensky (1878–1947)
- Mikhail Bakunin (1814–1876), listed also among the materialist and nihilist theorists
- Count Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), whom some consider the greatest of Russian novelists
- Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842–1921), known as the 'Anarchist Prince' or 'Father of Anarchism'
Materialists and nihilists
Socialists and Marxists
- George Plekhanov (1856–1918) The first major Russian Marxist thinker.
- Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) The founder of Leninism.
- Alexandra Kollontai
- Alexander Herzen
- Leon Trotsky (1879–1940) The founder of Trotskyism.
- Sofya Yanovskaya (1896–1966)
- Aleksandr Zinovyev (1922–2006)
- Evald Ilyenkov (1924–1979)
- Pamfil Yurkevich (1826–1874)
- Vladimir Solovyov (1853–1900) Solovyov is noted to have created the first complete encompassing system of Russian philosophy.
- Vasily Rozanov (1856–1919)
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821–1881) listed also as an existentialist
- Sergei Bulgakov (1871–1944)
- Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948) listed also as an existentialist
- Count Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) listed also as the greatest of novelists and an anarchist
- Georges Florovsky (1893–1979)
- Michael Pomazansky (1888–1988)
- Alexander Schmemann (1921–1983)
- John Meyendorff (1926–1992)
- Vladimir Lossky (1903–1958)
- Pavel Florensky (1882–1937)
- Nikolai Lossky (1870–1965)
- Semyon Frank (1877–1950)
- Aleksei Losev (1893–1988)
- Leo Lopatin (1855–1920)
Historians of thought
- Isaiah Berlin (1909 – 1997)
- Alexander Chumakov (1950–)
- Philosophy in the Soviet Union
- Philosophers' ship
- Russian literature
- Valentin A. Bazhanov
- Lev Gumilev
- Dmitry Likhachev
- Vasily Nalimov
- Victor Ovcharenko
- Karen A. Swassjan
- Nicolai A. Vasiliev
- History of Russian Philosophy p. 59 by N. O. Lossky
- History of Russian Philosophy p. 81 by N. O. Lossky
- History of Russian Philosophy (История российской Философии) (1951) by N. O. Lossky. Publisher: Allen & Unwin, London. International Universities Press Inc NY, NY sponsored by Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary.
- A History of Philosophy, Volume 10: Russian Philosophy (1986) by Frederick Copleston. Publisher: Continuum, London.
- A history of Russian Philosophy (2 vols.) by Vasilii Vasilevich Zenkovsky; translator George L. Kline Publisher: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1953).
- Russian Philosophy. English-Russian Dictionary (ed. Vasily Vanchugov). Moscow, People's Friendship University of Russia, 2005.
- Books on Russian philosophy at Runivers.ru
- Brief overview of Russian philosophy
- PHILTAR—Comprehensive web site with links to texts and resources
- Gallery of Russian Thinkers edited by Dmitry Olshansky
- Russian philosophy—entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Directory of links to Russian philosophers, mostly in Russian
- Routledge entry
- Konstantin Leontiev
- Sergius Bulgakov Society at the Wayback Machine (archived October 26, 2009)—Extensive collection of links to Bulgakov resources