List of Marian apparitions

Marian apparitions are reported supernatural appearances by Mary, the mother of Jesus. Below is a list of alleged events surrounding notable Marian apparitions, which have either been approved by a major Christian church, or which retain a significant following despite the absence of official approval or despite an official determination of inauthenticity.

Catholic Church[edit]

According to norms of the Catholic Church which have been in effect since the Council of Trent in the 16th century,[1] the initial responsibility of evaluating the merits of any purported apparition falls to the bishop of the area in which the events allegedly occurred.[2] If, after an investigation, the bishop determines that the apparition constitutes an authentic supernatural appearance of the Blessed Virgin Mary, then the apparition is considered approved for the entire Church, unless his successor or the Holy See were to overturn his decision.

Positive judgment[edit]

The apparitions in this category have been judged to be "worthy of belief."

Approved, with widespread liturgical veneration endorsed by the Holy See[edit]

A distinction is sometimes made between apparitions that are "Vatican approved" and those that are not. However, under the norms of Normae Congregationis, the only formal mechanisms for Holy See approval of an apparition would be the pope approving an apparition that had occurred in the Diocese of Rome, or the pope approving an apparition against the will of the local bishop, neither of which has happened to date. Even in cases in which the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith cooperates with an investigation that yields a positive result, the consequent approval derives its authority from the local bishop, not from the Holy See.[3][4] Because Holy See approval can only be claimed based on informal indicators of endorsement, lists of "Vatican-approved Marian apparitions" vary widely depending on the criteria used.[5][6][7] The criterion used here is that the Holy See must have approved the widespread veneration of the apparition by inscribing it on a liturgical calendar besides that of the particular diocese in which the apparition occurred.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval Feast day
Our Lady of Guadalupe 1531 Tepeyac, Mexico City, Mexico St. Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin 1555[8] December 12 in the General Roman Calendar
Juan Diego, an Aztec who had recently converted to the Catholic faith, saw an apparition of Mary early in the morning on December 9, 1531, during which Mary asked that a church be built in the spot of the apparition. The local bishop did not believe his story. In response, during another appearance to Juan Diego three days later, Our Lady imprinted an image of herself on Juan Diego's cloak (tilma), which today is on display at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. Over the years, Our Lady of Guadalupe became a symbol of the Catholic faith in Mexico and the Mexican diaspora.[9]
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal
Our Lady of Graces
1830 Rue du Bac, Paris, France St. Catherine Labouré 1836[10]
Archbishop Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen
Archdiocese of Paris
November 27 in the Roman Calendar for Venezuela and the Vincentian orders[citation needed]
Catherine, a novice at the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, reported that Mary appeared to her one night in the convent chapel and asked that a specific medallion be made, promising that "all who wear this medal will receive great graces."[11] The medal eventually produced is most commonly known as the Miraculous Medal due to the many miracles that were connected with it. The front of the medal displays a picture of Mary as Catherine described her. The design on the reverse includes the letter M and a cross.
Our Lady of La Salette 1846 Mount Sous-Les Baisses, La Salette-Fallavaux, France Mélanie Calvat
Maximin Giraud
September 19, 1851[12][13]
Bishop Philibert de Bruillard [fr; pl]
Diocese of Grenoble
September 19 in the Roman Calendar for France[14]
Two shepherd children reported seeing an apparition of Mary, who was weeping because of the disrespect shown to the Lord's Day and to the Lord's name. She entrusted one secret to each of the two children, which they wrote down and delivered to Pope Pius IX.
Our Lady of Lourdes
The Immaculate Conception
1858 Lourdes, France St. Bernadette Soubirous January 18, 1862[15][16]
Bishop Bertrand-Sévère Laurence [fr]
Diocese of Tarbes
February 11 in the General Roman Calendar[17]
A 14-year-old shepherd girl named Bernadette Soubirous reported seeing Mary appear to her while she was out gathering firewood in the countryside. Mary identified herself as "the Immaculate Conception" and told Bernadette of the location of a spring, promising miraculous healings from its waters. Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures. An independent study of cures published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive, incredibly effective, and awaiting a scientific explanation."[18]
Our Lady of Knock 1879 Knock, County Mayo, Ireland Group of 15 people 1879[19]
Archbishop John MacHale
Archdiocese of Tuam
August 17 in the Roman Calendar for Ireland[20]

On August 21, 1879,[note 1] a group of 15 men, women, and children, ranging in age from 5 to 75, reported seeing an apparition behind their church, against the back wall, of an altar with a lamb on it (understood to represent Jesus), surrounded by a multitude of angels. Off to the side in prayer stood Mary, Joseph, and St. John (with St. John dressed as a bishop). Because Mary was among those seen, the apparition is classified as Marian, although the simultaneous appearance of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, John, and numerous angels makes it unique among this category. A further distinctive characteristic is that this apparition was silent: no verbal messages were given. The apparition lasted for an hour and a half.[23]

Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of the Rosary
The Immaculate Heart of Mary
1917 Cova da Iria, Fátima, Portugal Servant of God Lúcia Santos
St. Jacinta Marto
St. Francisco Marto
October 13, 1930[24][25]
Bishop José Alves Correia da Silva
Diocese of Leiria
May 13 in the General Roman Calendar
Three shepherd children reported seeing apparitions of an angel (who identified himself as the Guardian Angel of Portugal) followed by apparitions of Mary. Mary revealed to the children three secrets: first, the reality of hell and the means of saving people from it through personal sacrifices and Acts of reparation; second, a prediction of future upheavals (beginning with World War II), the spiritual means of ending them (a Consecration of Russia and Communions of reparation on First Saturdays), and a prediction of an eventual "triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary"; third, an obscure vision of future persecution of the Church. The apparitions culminated with the Miracle of the Sun, an astronomical phenomenon witnessed by a crowd of approximately 70,000 people, and even by others located miles away.[26] All nine popes since the apparitions – Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul I, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis – have indicated their belief in the authenticity of the apparitions. Pope John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life after he was shot in Rome on the May 13 feast day of the apparition in 1981, and donated the bullet that wounded him to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.[27] In 1925, eight years after the Fátima events, Lúcia, then Sister Lúcia, reported another set of related apparitions, which became known as the Pontevedra apparitions.[28]

Approved[edit]

Below are additional apparitions which have been approved by the local ordinary (i.e. the bishop assigned over the area in which the events allegedly occurred).

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval
Our Lady of the Good Event 1594-1634 Quito, Ecuador Servant of God Mother Mariana de Jesus Torres 1611[29]
Bishop Salvador Ribera Avalos
Diocese of Quito
A religious sister, Mother Mariana de Jesus Torres, reported that the Virgin Mary appeared to her at the Conceptionist Convent in Quito, Ecuador, under the title "Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso."[30] According to Mother Mariana, Mary requested that a statue be made in her likeness and made several predictions, saying that the Church and the world would enter into a period of crisis beginning in the mid-20th century, and that this period would be followed by a complete restoration.[31] Although the phrase "Good Event" in the apparition title is also understood to refer to this prophesied restoration, the phrase, properly speaking, refers to the Purification of Mary and the Presentation of Jesus.[32]
Our Lady of Laus 1664–1718 Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, France Venerable Benoîte Rencurel May 4, 2008[note 2]
Bishop Jean-Michel Di Falco [de; it; la; nl; pl]
Diocese of Gap and Embrun
Beginning in 1664, a young shepherdess reported seeing multiple visions of Mary, who said, "I have asked my Son for this place for the conversion of sinners and He has granted it to me." Mary charged Benoîte to prepare sinners for the Sacrament of Penance,[35] a vocation for which she received the gift of reading souls.[36] Mary asked for a sanctuary to be built, and foretold that it would last until the end of the world, emerging from obscurity and becoming well-known shortly before the onset of the endtimes.[37] Benoîte continued to receive apparitions until her death in 1718. The local archbishop at the time approved the public veneration of the initial apparitions in 1665, but the apparitions themselves were not approved until almost four centuries later.[34]
Our Lady of Good Help 1859 Champion, Wisconsin, United States Adele Brise December 8, 2010[38]
Bishop David L. Ricken
Diocese of Green Bay
In Robinsonville (now called Champion), Wisconsin, a young Belgian immigrant woman named Adele Brise was walking through a wooded area when she saw a beautiful woman standing between a maple and a hemlock tree. She saw the lady again on her way to Mass, and walked past her again. After Mass she told her priest about the apparition, and he told her to ask the Lady "In God's name, who are you and what do you want of me?" When Adele walked past the spot again, the Lady was there, and Adele asked what she was told by the priest. The Lady replied, "I am the Queen of Heaven who prays for the conversion of sinners." She gave Adele the mission to pray for sinners and teach the children of the area their Catechism, with the assurance, "Go and fear nothing, I will help you." Soon after, Adele's father built a small chapel between the trees, and later two more churches were built on the spot before the present brick church, built in 1942. Our Lady of Good Help is the first approved apparition in the United States.[39]
Our Lady of Pontmain
Our Lady of Hope
1871 Pontmain, France Eùgene Barbadette
Joseph Barbadette
Jeanne-Marie Lebossé
Françoise Richer
February 2, 1872[40][41]
Bishop Casimir Wicart [fr]
Diocese of Laval
At the height of the Franco-Prussian War, Pontmain, a hamlet of about 500 inhabitants, found itself between the oncoming Prussian army and the city of Laval. While two boys, Joseph and Eugène, aged ten and twelve, were helping their father in the barn, Eugène saw in the night sky apparition of a beautiful woman smiling at him; she was wearing a blue gown covered with golden stars, and a black veil under a golden crown. Joseph came to look and could see the lady as well. As a crowd gathered, two girls, Françoise Richer and Jeanne-Marie Lebosse, ages nine and eleven, reported seeing Mary as well, and described her in the same way. None of the adults, however, could see Mary, but only saw three stars forming a triangle. The crowd began praying the Rosary. The children saw a banner unfurl beneath the Lady with a message: "But pray, my children. God will hear you in time. My Son allows Himself to be touched." The apparition lasted about three hours. It was later discovered that the advance of the Prussian troops was halted at the same time that the appraition began; the general reported that the advance was blocked by a "Madonna."
Our Lady of Gietrzwałd 1877 Gietrzwałd, Warmia-Mazury, Poland Stanisława Samulowska
Justyna Szafryńska
September 1, 1977[42]
Bishop Józef Drzazga
Diocese of Warmia
A 13-year-old girl named Justyna Szafryńska reported that, while praying the Angelus on June 27, 1877, she saw a woman seated on a gold throne near a maple tree, accompanied by an angel. The following day, she saw another apparition, this time also with the Christ child. Three days after the first event, both she and 12-year-old Barbara Samulowska saw Mary, and Justyna asked: "What do you want, Holy Mary?" Mary answered in the local Polish dialect, "I want you to pray the Rosary daily." During the apparition the next day, Justyna asked, "Who are You?" and Mary replied, "I am the Blessed Virgin Mary of Immaculate Conception." In the coming days, Mary promised that fervent prayer would be able to end the persecutions of Catholic Poles that had occurred under Kulturkampf. The apparitions continued for three months. On September 8, about a week before the apparitions ended, Mary blessed a spring of water, from which pilgrims have subsequently reported healings. Our Lady of Gietrzwałd is the only approved Marian apparition in Poland.[43]
Our Lady of Beauraing
Virgin of the Golden Heart
1932-1933 Beauraing, Belgium Andree Degeimbre
Gilberte Degeimbre
Albert Voisin
Fernande Voisin
Gilberte Voisin
July 2, 1949[44]
Bishop André-Marie Charue [de; fr; fi; lb]
Diocese of Namur
Five children, ages 9 to 15, reported seeing 33 apparitions of Mary between November 1932 and January 1933. Mary asked for prayer and for the construction of a chapel as a place of pilgrimage, promising to convert sinners.[45]
Our Lady of Banneux
Virgin of the Poor
1933 Banneux, Belgium Mariette Beco August 22, 1949[46]
Bishop Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs [de; lb; nl]
Diocese of Liège
A child named Mariette Beco reported that Mary appeared to her, calling herself "the Virgin of the Poor."[47] Mary said "I come to relieve suffering" and indicated a spring through which miracles of healing would be worked.[48]
The Lady of All Nations
The Mother of All Nations
Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate
1945-1959 Amsterdam, Netherlands Ida Peerdeman May 31, 2002[49]
Bishop Jozef Marianus Punt
Diocese of Haarlem-Amsterdam
A Dutch secretary named Ida Peerdeman reported receiving Marian apparitions over the course of 14 years. In the apparition messages, as related by Peerdeman, Mary uses Scripture to draw a particular connection between herself and Eve. In the book of Genesis, Adam names his wife twice, naming her "Woman" at her creation and "Mother of All Living" after the Fall. Similarly, in the Gospel of John, Jesus calls Mary "Woman" at the Wedding at Cana but shifts from "Woman" to "Mother" at the end of the Passion account. The apparition messages draw on this parallelism to say that Mary, like Eve, has two names,[50] the first name being "Mary" or "Lady" (corresponding to Eve's first name, "Woman"), and the second name expressible as "The Lady of All Nations" or "The Mother of All Nations"[51] (corresponding to Eve's second name, "Mother of All Living"). Consequently, the speaker in the apparition messages repeatedly identifies herself as "the Lady of All Nations, who once was Mary." Peerdeman's apparition messages predict that this "second name" of Mary will one day be codified in a Marian dogma that will express Mary's motherhood using the three titles of Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate.[52]
Our Lady of Akita 1973 Yuzawadai, Akita, Japan Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa April 22, 1984[53]
Bishop John Shojiro Ito
Diocese of Niigata
Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa reported seeing a statue of The Lady of All Nations illuminate and reported hearing messages, even though she was deaf. The same statue also miraculously wept, a phenomenon repeated on 101 occasions and broadcast on Japanese national television. The messages were apocalyptic in nature, warning of coming calamities if mankind is to not repent. One such prophesy stated,

"if men do not repent and better themselves, the Father will inflict a terrible punishment on all humanity. It will be a punishment greater than the deluge, such as one will never have seen before. Fire will fall from the sky and will wipe out a great part of humanity...the good as well as the bad, sparing neither priests nor faithful. The survivors will find themselves so desolate that they will envy the dead. The only arms which will remain for you will be the Rosary and the Sign left by My Son. Each day recite the prayer of the Rosary. With the Rosary pray for the Pope, bishops and the priests. The work of the devil will infiltrate even into the Church in such a way that one will see cardinals opposing cardinals, and bishops against other bishops."[54]

Our Lady of Cuapa 1980 San Francisco de Cuapa, Nicaragua Bernardo Martinez 1994[55]
César Bosco Vivas Robelo [es; de; fi; pl]
Diocese of León in Nicaragua
A sacristan named Bernardo Martinez reported seeing a supernatural light emanating from a statue of the Virgin Mary in the parish church on April 15, 1980. When walking through the fields shortly thereafter on May 8, he saw a vision of the Virgin Mary, who encouraged him to pray the rosary daily and to promote peace, saying, "Make peace. Don't ask Our Lord for peace because, if you do not make it, there will be no peace."[56] At this time, Nicaragua was going through a civil war, with the Sandinista government facing armed opposition from the Contras. Bernardo reported that Mary asked people to burn books that deny God and promote sin. Many locals understood this to mean Marxist books, and the consequent book-burnings resulted in backlash from supporters of the Communist government.[57] In 2005, Silvio Sirias wrote a novel, Bernardo and the Virgin, based on the apparition events.[58]
Mary, Virgin and Mother, Reconciler of All Peoples and Nations [it] 1984 Finca Betania, Miranda, Venezuela Servant of God Maria Esperanza de Bianchini and 150 other people 1987[59]
Bishop Pío Bello Ricardo
Diocese of Los Teques
Maria Esperanza de Bianchini had several Marian apparitions among her many mystical experiences. In one event on March 25, 1984, 150 other people also said they saw the Blessed Mother along with Maria Esperanza. The apparition is known under the title "Mary, Virgin and Mother, Reconciler of All Peoples and Nations."
Our Lady of Kibeho
Mother of the Word
1981-1983[60] Kibeho, Rwanda Alphonsine Mumureke
Nathalie Mukamazimpaka
Marie Claire Mukangango
June 29, 2001[60]
Bishop Augustin Misago
Diocese of Gikongoro
On November 28, 1981, in the African college of Kibeho, Rwanda, the Virgin Mary reportedly appeared to three teenage students, Alphonsine Mumureke, Nathalie Mukamazimpaka, and Marie Claire Mukangango. The apparition identified herself in the native Rwandan dialect as "Nyina wa Jambo" ("Mother of the Word")[61] and warned of the coming 1994 Rwandan Genocide (in which Mukangango was killed). The Marian sanctuary at Kibeho was named "Shrine of Our Lady of Sorrows" in 1992, two years before the genocide. Only the apparitions to Mumureke, Mukamazimpaka, and Mukangango were approved; other apparitions reported by several other girls and one boy were not. An estimated 500,000 pilgrims visit the site every year.[62]
Our Lady of the Rosary of San Nicolás 1983-1990[63] San Nicolás de los Arroyos, Buenos Aires, Argentina Gladys Quiroga de Motta May 22, 2016[64]
Bishop Héctor Cardelli [es; de; fi; pl]
Diocese of San Nicolás de los Arroyos
Amid reports of rosaries mysteriously glowing in homes throughout San Nicolas, a mother and grandmother named Gladys Quiroga de Motta, upon witnessing the phenomenon, began to pray to the Virgin Mary, who then appeared to Gladys wearing a blue gown and veil. Mary asked Gladys to go look for a statue that had been blessed by Pope Leo XIII but was hidden away, forgotten, in a church. She found the Marian statue, which bore a resemblance to Mary's appearance in the apparition, in the belfry of the diocesan cathedral. Gladys continued to receive apparitions from Mary and Jesus, some of them apocalyptic in nature, warning of mankind's impending self-destruction and the loss of many souls.[64]

Positive judgment of related effects[edit]

In some cases, the apparitions do not receive a positive judgment in themselves (because an investigation is still in progress, or because an investigation is judged not to be feasible or necessary, etc.), but elements surrounding the apparition receive approval.

Approved contemporaneous miracle[edit]

In cases in which a seer reports that Mary appeared to him or her and worked a miracle, ecclesial authorities will occasionally evaluate and certify the miracle — thereby implying belief in the person's account of how it happened — but without directly commenting on the apparition itself.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval of associated miracle
Madonna of the Miracle
Our Lady of Zion
1842 Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, Italy Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne June 3, 1842[65]
Costantino Cardinal Patrizi
Vicariate of Rome
A Jewish man named Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne reported seeing an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary in a side chapel in the church of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome. The experience led him to convert to Catholicism. His complete transformation from vehement opposition to the Catholic faith was determined a miracle. St. Maximilian Kolbe, a devotee of the apparition, celebrated his first Mass as a priest in that same chapel.

Approved public veneration[edit]

There are cases in which the Holy See or a local ordinary chooses not to open or definitively conclude an investigation into the supernatural character of the apparitions themselves, but approves of the public religious activity inspired by the apparition. Such approval can come by way of an explicit decree, or by implicit means, such as the authorization of liturgical veneration.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval of public veneration
Our Lady of the Pillar 40 Zaragoza, Spain St. James the Apostle Liturgical veneration approved[66]
1730
Pope Clement XII
Catholic tradition holds that, in the early days of Christianity, the Apostles of Jesus spread the Gospel throughout the known world, with St. James the Greater evangelizing in Roman Hispania (modern-day Spain). James confronted great difficulties in his missionary efforts and faced severe discouragement. In AD 40, while he was praying by the banks of the Ebro at Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), Mary bilocated from Jerusalem, where she was living at the time, and appeared to James, accompanied by thousands of angels, to console and encourage him.[66] Our Lady of the Pillar is considered the first Marian apparition, although it is unique in this regard because it is the only one to have occurred while Mary was still alive on earth.[67]
Our Lady of Walsingham 1061 Walsingham, England Richeldis de Faverches Shrine approved[68][69]
1897
Pope Leo XIII
In 1061, a devout Saxon noblewoman named Richeldis de Faverches reported that Mary showed her, through a vision, the house of Mary in Nazareth in which the Annunciation took place, and asked her to build a replica of it. Once constructed, the shrine passed into the care of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine sometime between 1146 and 1174. Late in 1538, King Henry VIII's soldiers sacked the priory at Walsingham, killed two monks and destroyed the shrine. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII re-established the nearby 14th-century Slipper Chapel as a Roman Catholic shrine. Today the Holy House is in the care of the Church of England.
Our Lady of Mount Carmel 1251 Aylesford, England[70] St. Simon Stock Repeated endorsement of the associated devotional scapular by the Holy See[71][72][73]
According to Carmelite tradition, Mary appeared to St. Simon Stock, who was Prior General of the Order in the mid 13th century.[74] The earliest reference to the tradition of his Marian apparition, dating from the late 14th century, states that "St. Simon was an Englishman, a man of great holiness and devotion, who always in his prayers asked the Virgin to favor his Order with some singular privilege. The Virgin appeared to him holding the Brown Scapular in her hand saying, 'This is for you and yours a privilege; the one who dies in it will be saved.'"[75] A scapular, properly speaking, is a double-sided apron-like garment that forms part of the Carmelite religious habit.[76] In its original context, the Blessed Virgin Mary's promise was an assurance that Carmelites who persevered in their vocation would be saved. Beginning in the latter half of the 16th century, a small devotional scapular became very popular as a sacramental.[75]
Our Lady of the Watch 1490 Monte Figogna, Italy Benedetto Pareto Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica[77]
March 11, 1915
Pope Benedict XV
An Italian peasant named Benedetto Pareto reported seeing an apparition of Mary on top of Monte Figogna (near Genoa, Italy) on August 29, 1490. Pareto said that the Virgin Mary appeared to him and asked him to build a church atop the mountain. Pareto at first refused, saying that he was just a poor man, but he eventually built a small wooden structure, which in time gathered many pilgrims and is now contained within the Shrine of Our Lady of the Watch. (The apparition is so-named because Monte Figogna used to be a watch-point for the strategic observation of armies and ships.)
Our Lady of Good Health
Our Lady of Velankanni
1570 and 1587[78] Velankanni, Tamil Nadu, India Two children, on separate occasions Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica[78]
1962
Pope John XXIII
The Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni commemorates two distinct but similar apparitions: the first in 1570 and the second in 1578. In each case, a local child reported a woman appearing and asking for milk to feed her infant. Each appearance was followed by a miracle, leading the locals to believe that both times it was Mary with the child Jesus who had appeared.[78]
Our Lady of Šiluva 1608 Šiluva, Lithuania Group of non-Catholics[79] Public veneration approved[80]
1755
Pope Pius VI
With the advent of the Reformation in 16th century Lithuania, many of the inhabitants in the region around Šiluva converted to Calvinism. This caused the Catholic church building in Šiluva to eventually be ransacked and closed around 1569. The last parish priest, John Holubka, buried the remaining church valuables and legal documents and deeds in an iron box near the vandalized church. Subsequent attempts by the Catholics to regain the property through legal proceedings against the Calvinists were hindered by the fact that the exact location of the documents pertaining to the church were unknown. In 1608, Mary appeared to miraculously intervene in the matter by appearing at the church and holding the baby Jesus in her arms and weeping bitterly. The apparition was on the site of the buried valuables and documents, leading to the recovery of the deed, the reclaiming of the church land by the Catholics, and the conversion of many Calvinists. Devotion to Our Lady of Šiluva was temporarily suppressed during the period that Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union. She remains a significant symbol of Lithuanian cultural heritage.
Our Lady of La Vang 1798 Hải Lăng, Quảng Trị, Vietnam Vietnamese villagers Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica[81]
August 22, 1961
Pope John XXIII
A group of Vietnamese had been fleeing anti-Catholic persecution by hiding in the jungle, and many had become very ill. The community would gather every night at the foot of a tree to pray the rosary. The group reported that, one night, Mary appeared to them all, wearing the traditional áo dài Vietnamese dress, holding the child Jesus, and accompanied by angels. She comforted them and instructed them on how to use herbs in the rainforest to cure their illnesses. Although ecclesial authorities never opened a formal investigation, Our Lady of La Vang and her importance for Vietnamese Catholics has been endorsed numerous times by various bishops and popes.[81][82] She is also venerated by some Vietnamese Protestants and Buddhists.[83]
Our Lady of Pellevoisin 1876 Pellevoisin, France Estelle Faguette Associated confraternity and scapular approved by Pope Leo XIII[84]
In 1876, a French domestic servant, Estelle Faguette, reported seeing a series of 15 apparitions of the Virgin Mary in the bedroom where she was staying near Pellevoisin, France. When her visions allegedly began, Faguette was terminally ill with tuberculosis and near death. However, in the second apparition, she heard Mary tell her that she would be healed; she recovered and lived until 1929. (In 1983, following a medical and theological inquiry, Archbishop Paul Vignancour of Bourges recognized her recovery as having a miraculous nature.) Faguette also said that during a later apparition, she saw Mary show her the design for the Scapular of the Sacred Heart and told her to ask her bishop to encourage its devotional use. The Shrine of Our Lady of Pellevoisin was later constructed near the site of the apparitions.[85] Although Pope Leo XIII approved the scapular and a confraternity to spread its use, the apparition itself was never approved.[86]
Our Lady of Prayer 1947 L'Île-Bouchard, France Jacqueline Aubry [fr]
Jeannette Aubry
Nicole Robin
Laura Croizon
Public veneration approved[87][88]
December 8, 2001
Archbishop André Vingt‑Trois
Archdiocese of Tours
On December 8, 1947, 12-year-old Jacqueline Aubry, her sister Jeannette, and cousin Nicole Robin were among students in L'Île-Bouchard in France whose teacher asked them to spend the lunch hour "praying for France". Although their families were nonpracticing and anticlerical, the girls agreed to their teacher's request. This was a period of intense civil strife in France and many believed civil war was imminent. The girls were saying the Rosary in the church of St. Gilles when they experienced the first of several Marian apparitions. They said they saw a beautiful young lady with long curly blonde hair, accompanied by an angel (whom they later identified as Gabriel) who knelt at her side. Running out into the street, the girls asked two friends to come and see the vision: one, Laura Croizon, was able to see it and became the fourth visionary. The day after the first apparition, labor unions agreed to go into negotiations with the government, and believers credited the apparition and the children's prayers. The visitations went on for six days.
Our Lady of America
Our Lady of the Divine Indwelling
1956-1959 Rome City, Indiana, United States Sister Mildred Mary Neuzil Public veneration incrementally approved over time[89]
Archbishop Paul Leibold
Archdiocese of Cincinnati
Sister Mildred Mary Ephrem Neuzil of the Sisters of the Most Precious Blood reported seeing multiple apparitions of Mary, Joseph, and angels. In the apparition messages, Mary identified herself as patronness of the United States under the title Our Lady of America,[90] and pleaded for the United States to return to the virtue of purity. She also identified herself as Our Lady of the Divine Indwelling, a title which describes Mary as exemplar of one who possesses sanctifying grace. Saint Joseph reportedly requested a First Wednesday devotion to the Pure Heart of Joseph, to complement the existing First Friday and First Saturday devotions. The local bishop gradually authorized various aspects of public devotion, but without passing judgement on the supernatural character of the apparitions themselves. The apparitions have been endorsed by several bishops, including Raymond Cardinal Burke.

Approved public pilgrimages[edit]

For alleged apparitions in this category, public pilgrimages are permitted, but not public veneration.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval of pilgrimages
Our Lady of Medjugorje
The Gospa
Queen of Peace
1981–present Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina Jakov Čolo
Ivan Dragičević
Mirjana Dragičević
Marija Pavlović
Ivanka Ivanković
Vicka Ivanković
May 12, 2019[91]
Pope Francis
The reported apparitions of the Virgin Mary to six children in Medjugorje, beginning in 1981, have received significant attention, due to the numerous miracles that large crowds of pilgrims report experiencing on an almost-daily basis, including dramatic conversions, visions, rosaries turning to a gold color, astronomical phenomena like the Miracle of the Sun, etc. The apparitions are also notable for their duration, having been occurring continuously for almost 40 years. The apparition messages contain five main requests: first, to pray the entire Rosary daily; second, to fast on Wednesdays and Fridays; third, to attend Mass as often as possible; fourth, to go to Confession at least monthly; and fifth, to read the Bible daily. The alleged apparitions were vigorously opposed by the local bishop, Pavao Žanić of Mostar-Duvno. Various commissions appointed to investigate the apparitions did not come to a definitive conclusion and left the events open to further study.[92] On March 17, 2010, the Holy See announced it was taking over formal investigation of the apparitions at Medjugorje, with Camillo Cardinal Ruini heading an investigatory commission that ran from 2010 to 2014.[93] Pope Francis authorized official church pilgrimages in 2019, but without making any declaration on the apparitions themselves.[91]

No judgment[edit]

Apparitions in this category have not received judgment on the apparitions themselves or on associated elements, either because an investigation was never opened, or because an investigation is still in progress.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers
Our Lady of the Universe
Our Lady of the Concourse
1945 Bronx, New York, United States Joseph Vitolo
On October 29, 1945 at 7 pm, 9-year-old Joseph Vitolo was one of a group of children playing outside his home near The Bronx's Grand Concourse. The children saw something floating above a hill behind the house, and when Joseph recited a Hail Mary he immediately saw a young woman whom he identified as the Virgin. He heard her ask him to come back at the same hour for sixteen nights and to pray for world peace. Joseph did so, accompanied by his mother and numerous onlookers. Within a few days, the visitations were receiving worldwide attention and up to 20,000 people attended the nightly vigil. Among those who expressed interest in the events were Frank Sinatra, Lou Costello, and Francis Cardinal Spellman. Revered as a saint by the pilgrims, Joseph was frequently asked to cure the sick and injured and would respond by praying with them. The place where Joseph saw the visions was bought by a devotee who created a shrine there, but there was never any official investigation or attempt to confirm the reported visitations as legitimate. Joseph struggled throughout his life, taking various menial jobs to support his family. He continued to visit the shrine at 7 p.m. each evening until age and poor health prevented him from climbing the hill. The apparitions were never officially approved, but the nearby St. Philip Neri church holds special Masses at the shrine on the anniversaries of the first and last reported visitations.[94][95][96][97][98]
Our Lady of Soufanieh 1982-1983 Soufanieh, Damascus, Syria Mary Kourbet "Myrna" (Al-Akhras) Nazzour
Myrna Nazzour, a Melkite Catholic woman married to an Orthodox husband,[99] has reported experiencing various mystical phenomena over the years beginning in 1982, including olive oil oozing both from an icon and from her own hands, stigmata wounds on her body, and apparitions of Mary. Mary appeared five times between 1982 and 1983, asking for prayers for Christian unity (especially between Catholics and Orthodox), particularly stressing the importance of a unified date for Easter.[100] Myrna reported continuing to receive locutions even after the apparitions ceased.

Neutral judgment[edit]

Apparitions in this category have been evaluated, but received neither approval nor rejection. This is known as a "non constat" judgment.[101] They also lack approval for any related elements, such as public veneration or pilgrimages.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Neutral judgment
Our Lady of Mount Carmel of Garabandal 1961-1965 San Sebastián de Garabandal, Cantabria, Spain Jacinta González
Mari Cruz González
Maria "Conchita" Concepción González
Mari Loli Mazón
November 7, 2001[102][101]
Bishop José Vilaplana Blasco [ca; es; de; fi; pl]
Diocese of Santander
Four girls reported seeing apparitions of St. Michael the Archangel and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Mary predicted a forthcoming "Warning" from God, apparent to the whole world, that will precede a "Great Miracle." If these do not result in the conversion of the world, a great Chastisement will follow.

Negative judgment[edit]

Some apparitions, despite being officially rejected, are notable for continuing to have a substantial following. In rare cases, rejected apparitions are approved at a later date once new evidence becomes available.

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Rejection
Mary, Mediatrix of All Grace 1948 Lipa, Batangas, Philippines Teresita Castillo 1951[103]
Pope Pius XII
A postulant at a Carmelite Monastery reported seeing multiple apparitions of Mary during 1948. In 1951, the alleged apparitions were rejected by a panel of bishops, a decision confirmed by the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith under Pope Pius XII. Despite the rejection, the apparition continued to receive high-profile support, including from two Presidents of the Philippines (Corazon Aquino and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo). In 2015, the local bishop declared the apparitions to be approved, in what is the only known case of a local bishop attempting to ignore a Vatican decision on the authenticity of an apparition.[104] The Vatican overruled the bishop and reasserted its previous decision later that same year. The apparition is also notable for likely being the only case in which the supernatural nature of the apparitions is denied, but the veneration surrounding the apparition is allowed to continue.[105]

Coptic Orthodox Church[edit]

Associated Marian titles Years Location Seers Approval
Our Lady of Zeitoun 1968 Zeitoun, Cairo, Egypt Thousands, including Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser May 4, 1968[106]
Cyril VI
Patriarchate of Cairo
According to witnesses, Mary appeared in different forms over the Coptic Orthodox Church of Saint Mary in the Zeitoun district of Cairo, Egypt, for a period of 2–3 years, beginning on April 2, 1968, some ten months after the Six-Day War. It was a mass apparition, reportedly witnessed by many thousands of people, including Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and captured by newspaper photographers and Egyptian television. The apparitions each lasted from a few minutes up to several hours and were sometimes accompanied by dove-shaped luminous bodies. There have been conversions to Christianity and claims of miraculous cures[107][108] associated with the apparitions. A month into the events, the apparitions up to that point were approved by Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria.
Our Lady of Assiut 2000-2001 Asyut, Egypt Thousands October 13, 2001
Acknowledged as "apparitions of Virgin Mary" by Coptic priests in Assiut[109]
The apparitions of Our Lady of Assiut were also mass apparitions in Assiut, Egypt, during 2000 and 2001 and many thousands of witnesses produced photographs of them, which were reprinted in several newspapers.[110][111] The reports state that during mass, pictures hung on the wall inside the altar, which show St Mary with a dove above her started to illuminate first, then the light from the dove in the pictures started to flow down. The lights thereafter appeared above the church as well and were seen by thousands of people.[112] The Coptic church approved of the apparitions.
Our Lady of Warraq 2009 Warraq al-Hadar, Giza, Egypt Approximately 3,000 people[113] December 2009[113]
Bishop Anba Theodosius
Giza
Early on December 11, 2009, various phenomena began appearing above a church in Warraq al-Hadar. Shortly thereafter, the bishop authenticated the apparitions with a statement describing the events:

"The Bishopric of Giza announces that the Holy Virgin has appeared in a transfiguration at the Church named after her in Warraq al-Hadar, Giza, in the early hours of Friday 11 December 2009 at 1:00am. The Holy Virgin appeared in her full height in luminous robes, above the middle dome of the church, in pure white dress and a royal blue belt. She had a crown on her head, above which appeared the cross on top of the dome. The crosses on top of the church’s domes and towers glowed brightly with light. The Holy Virgin moved between the domes and on to the top of the church gate between its two twin towers. The local residents all saw her. The apparition lasted from 1:00am till 4:00am on Friday, and was registered by cameras and cell phones. Some 3,000 people from the neighbourhood, surrounding areas, and passers-by gathered in the street in front of the church to see the apparition. Since Friday, the huge crowds gathered in the vicinity of the church have been seeing luminous white pigeons soaring above the church during various times of the night, as well as a star which emerges suddenly in the heaven, travels some 200 metres across, then disappears. The huge crowds gathered around the church do not cease singing hymns and praises for the Holy Virgin."[113]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This was the same day, incidentally, that Our Lady of La Salette received a canonical coronation from Pope Leo XIII.[21][22]
  2. ^ Although news outlets widely reported the apparition as being "Vatican approved,"[33] the approval was given by the local bishop with the CDF's permission, not by the CDF directly.[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kosloski, Philip (May 15, 2019). "This map illustrates 500 years of Mary's apparitions". Aleteia. Retrieved October 7, 2019. It wasn’t until the Council of Trent in the 16th century that a more formal method of approving apparitions was established, which has been further refined during the past century. This has allowed the Church the ability to properly discern which apparitions are supernatural in nature and worthy of belief.
  2. ^ "Norms Regarding the Manner of Proceeding in the Discernment of Presumed Apparitions or Revelations". Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. February 24, 1978.
  3. ^ Rahner, Karl (1995). Visioni e profezie: mistica ed esperienza della trascendenza (in Italian). Translated by Dell'Oro, Roberto. p. 109. è sorprendente che la Santa Sede abbia evitato nei casi di Beauraing e Banneaux di concedere l'autorizzazione come i vescovi volevano; per questo però diede il permesso, a che essi facessero ciò con la loro autorità episcopale
  4. ^ Connolly, Rev. Seán (October 9, 2019). "A conversation with Bishop Ricken about the Apparition of Our Lady of Good Help". Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  5. ^ "Bishop Approved Apparitions with Vatican Recognition". Miracle Hunter. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  6. ^ Kosloski, Philip (April 18, 2018). "These apparitions were officially approved by the Holy See as "worthy of belief"". Aleteia. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  7. ^ Slick, Matt. "What are the approved apparitions of Mary in the Roman Catholic Church?". Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  8. ^ "Ten Things to Know About Our Lady of Guadalupe". University of Dayton. January 27, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2019. The church approved the apparition in 1555.
  9. ^ Brading, David A. (2001). Mexican Phoenix Our Lady of Guadalupe: Image and Tradition Across Five Centuries. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780521801317.
  10. ^ Dirvin, Fr. Joseph. "Saint Catherine Laboure of the Miraculous Medal". EWTN. Archbishop de Quelen [decided] to institute a canonical inquiry. He appointed Monseigneur Quentin, Vicar General of Paris, to conduct it. The sessions were opened on 1836 ... The findings of the Canonical Inquiry of Paris completely vindicated Catherine. The court extolled her character and virtue, and placed wholehearted credence in her visions. Two important conclusions were reached: that the Medal was of supernatural origin, and that the wonders worked through it were genuine.
  11. ^ PD-icon.svg Glass, Joseph (1913). "Miraculous Medal". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  12. ^ "History of La Salettes". Missionaries of Our Lady of La Salette. April 26, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2019. 1851 … Bishop de Bruillard publishes the Doctrinal Statement of September 19: the Apparition is authentic; public worship is authorized; a church will be built on the site of the Apparition.
  13. ^ "Excerpts from The Pastoral Letter of Mgr de Bruillard, Bishop of Grenoble, on the Fifth Anniversary of the La Salette Apparition". Miracle Hunter. September 19, 1851. Retrieved October 11, 2019. We judge that the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin to the two cowherds on the 19th of September, 1846, on a mountain of the chain of Alps, situated in the parish of LaSalette, in the archpresbytery of Corps, bears within Itself all the characteristics of truth, and that the faithful have grounds for believing it indubitable and certain.
  14. ^ "La Salette au propre de France" (PDF). Église dans les Hautes-Alpes (in French) (122): 4. June 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  15. ^ Spano, Susan (September 7, 2008). "Lourdes, France, through the centuries". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 8, 2019. 1862: After questioning Bernadette, Bishop Bertrand-Severe Laurence of the diocese of Tarbes (later Tarbes and Lourdes) confirms the apparitions.
  16. ^ Laurence, Bertrand (January 18, 1862). "Report of the Episcopal Commission". Miracle Hunter.
  17. ^ Fastiggi, Dr. Robert (January 1, 2017). "The meaning of Fatima: 100 years later". Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  18. ^ François, Bernard; Sternberg, Esther M.; Fee, Elizabeth (January 2014). "The Lourdes Medical Cures Revisited". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 69 (1): 135–162. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrs041. PMC 3854941. PMID 22843835.
  19. ^ "The Story of Knock: 1879". Knock Shrine. Retrieved October 10, 2019. On 8 October 1879, Archbishop Mac Hale of Tuam set up an ecclesiastical Commission of Enquiry to investigate the Apparition. It consisted of Canon Ulick Burke, PP Claremorris, Canon James Waldron of Ballyhaunis, Archdeacon Cavanagh, PP, Knock and 6 local curates. The testimonies of all 15 official witnesses to the Apparition were found to be trustworthy and satisfactory.
  20. ^ "31 March 2011: Additions to the National Calendar and Proper". National Centre for Liturgy, St Patrick's College, Maynooth. Approval has been received from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments for the following additions to the National Calendar and Proper: 17 August - Our Lady of Knock - memorial
  21. ^ Johnson, Gregory. "Our Lady Appears at Knock During Her Crowning at La Salette". traditioninaction.org.
  22. ^ LaBanca, Nicholas (October 22, 2018). "A Guide to 5 Key Marian Apparitions". Ascension Press. Retrieved October 8, 2019. A canonical coronation was bestowed upon the Blessed Mother’s image at the Basilica of Our Lady of LaSalette by Pope Leo XIII on August 21, 1879.
  23. ^ Hill, Patrick (1879). "Deposition to the investigatory commission". Miracle Hunter. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  24. ^ "Approval by the Bishop (1930)". The Fatima Center. Retrieved October 10, 2019. [W]e hereby: 1. Declare worthy of belief, the visions of the shepherd children in the Cova da Iria, parish of Fatima, in this diocese, from the 13th May to 13th October, 1917. 2. Permit officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima.
  25. ^ "Lucia dos Santos". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 10, 2019. After years of investigation, the veneration of Our Lady of Fátima was authorized by the bishop of Leiria, Portugal, on October 13, 1930.
  26. ^ Arcement, Katherine (October 13, 2017). "Our Lady of Fatima: The Virgin Mary promised three kids a miracle that 70,000 gathered to see". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  27. ^ Raj, Razaq (2007). Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Festivals. p. 214. ISBN 9781845932251.
  28. ^ "Anniversary of apparition of child Jesus to Sister Lucia to be commemorated in Spain". Catholic News Agency. February 15, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  29. ^ Graves, Jim (March 31, 2011). "Marian Messenger". National Catholic Register. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  30. ^ "Conceptionists celebrate their 500th anniversary". Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  31. ^ Oddie, William (July 26, 2012). "Our Lady of Quito prophesied that in the 60s there would be spiritual catastrophe in the Church; then, through the faith of the just, a 'complete restoration'". The Catholic Herald. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  32. ^ Governing Council of the Real Monasterio de la Immaculada Concepción of Quito, Equador (July 1, 2017). "Clarification on the Title 'Buen Suceso of the Purification'".
  33. ^ "Vatican recognizes Marian apparitions in France". Catholic News Agency. May 5, 2008. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  34. ^ a b "La reconnaissance officielle des apparitions". Sanctuary of Our Lady of Laus (in French). Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  35. ^ "Vatican recognizes Marian apparitions in France". Catholic News Agency. May 5, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2019. Benedicta took the mission she received from Mary seriously and dedicated herself to preparing sinners to receive the sacrament of Penance.
  36. ^ Pronechen, Joseph (August 4, 2019). "Before Lourdes and Fatima, Our Lady Appeared in Laus". Our Lady told her God was giving her the gift of reading souls, much as what would later be given to Padre Pio, in order to help people to know their sins, remembered or forgotten, repent, confess in the sacrament of Penance, and return to God.
  37. ^ Matt, Michael (September 15, 1995). "Sanctuary in the Alps". The Remnant. Retrieved October 5, 2019. Laus [was to be] a sanctuary in the Alps that would withstand the test of time and last until the very end of the world. ... [T]here is also a prediction which states that the extraordinary events and message of Laus would be forgotten and ignored by the world for a very long time. However, word of Laus would re-surface, the prediction states, at a point in time when the End Times were close at hand.
  38. ^ "Bishop Ricken Approves Marian Apparitions at Shrine of Our Lady of Good Help". Diocese of Green Bay. December 8, 2010. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. 'I declare with moral certainty and in accord with the norms of the Church that the events, apparitions and locutions given to Adele Brise in October of 1859 do exhibit the substance of supernatural character, and I do hereby approve these apparitions as worthy of belief (although not obligatory) by the Christian faithful.'
  39. ^ Mann, Benjamin (December 9, 2010). "Wisconsin chapel approved as first US Marian apparition site". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  40. ^ Hostachy, Victor (1943). L'éloquente apparition de Notre-Dame de La Salette (in French). pp. 18–19. Mgr Wicart, évêque de Laval, portait son jugement, le 2 février 1872, sur le prodige de Pontmain … : «…Nous jugeons que l’Immaculée Vierge Marie, Mère de Diu, a véritablement apparu, le 17 janvier 1871 à Eugène Barbedette, Joseph Barbedette, Françoise Richer et Jeanne-Marie Lebossé, dans le hameau de Pontmain.»
  41. ^ Lindsey, David Michael (January 31, 2001). The Woman and the Dragon: Apparitions of Mary. Pelican Publishing. p. 103. The apparition of Mary at Pontmain was authenticated by the local bishop on February 2, 1872.
  42. ^ "Our Lady of Gietrzwald: Poland's only approved Marian appearance". Aleteia. October 18, 2017. On September 1, 1977 … Bishop Józef Drzazga of Warmia solemnly recognized the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Gietrzwałd. He issued a decree validating the credibility of the apparitions and proclaiming them as in compliance with Christian faith and morality.
  43. ^ "Our Lady of Gietrzwald: Poland's only approved Marian appearance". Aleteia. October 18, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  44. ^ Charue, André-Marie (July 2, 1949). "Letter to the Clergy of the Diocese". Miracle Hunter. Retrieved October 11, 2019. we are able in all serenity and prudence to affirm that the Queen of Heaven appeared to the children of Beauraing during the winter of 1932-1933
  45. ^ Armstrong, Patti (August 10, 2016). "The "Golden Heart" Apparition of Our Lady of Beauraing". National Catholic Register. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  46. ^ Pope John Paul II (July 31, 1999). "On the 50th Anniversary of the Recognition of the Apparitions of Our Lady at Banneux". Letter to Bishop Albert Houssiau. Fifty years ago, on 22 August 1949, Bishop Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs, your predecessor in the see of Liège, definitively recognized the reality of the apparitions of Our Lady of the Poor in Banneux.
  47. ^ Teahan, Madeleine (December 7, 2011). "Visionary who reported eight apparitions of Mary dies aged 90". Catholic Herald. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  48. ^ Looney, Rev. Edward (March 23, 2016). "Mary's Message for Belgium: Beauraing and Banneux". Catholic Exchange. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  49. ^ Punt, Jozef (May 31, 2002). "In Response to Inquiries Concerning the Lady of All Nations Apparitions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2009.
  50. ^ "43rd Message". The Lady of All Nations. October 5, 1952.
  51. ^ "27th Message". The Lady of All Nations. February 11, 1951.
  52. ^ "35th Message". The Lady of All Nations. August 15, 1951.
  53. ^ Ito, John Shojiro (April 22, 1984). "Akita apparition letter". The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011.
  54. ^ Ata, John. "A Message From Our Lady - Akita, Japan". EWTN.
  55. ^ Peterson, Larry (January 20, 2019). "Our Lady of Cuapa: These alleged apparitions from 1980 will remind you of Fatima". Aleteia. Retrieved October 8, 2019. In 1994, Bishop Robelo gave a diocesan-level approval to the apparitions, saying that they were 'worthy of belief.'
  56. ^ Weglian, Miriam and Stephen (1996). Let Heaven and Earth Unite. Milford, Ohio: Faith Publishing Company. p. 24.
  57. ^ "Revista Envío – Church-State Relations A Chronology – Part II". Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  58. ^ Sirias, Silvio (2005). Bernardo and the Virgin. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 9780810124271.
  59. ^ "Metuchen opens sainthood cause for Venezuelan mystic who died in US". Retrieved October 6, 2019. The apparition was deemed valid by Bishop Pio Bello Ricardo of Los Teques, Venezuela, in 1987.
  60. ^ a b "Dichiarazione del vescovo di Gikongoro in merito alle apparizioni di Kibeho" [Declaration of the Bishop of Gikongoro on the merits of the Kibeho apparitions] (in French). Holy See Press Office.
  61. ^ "Jubilee Year to Focus on Mary's Message in Rwanda". Zenit. November 13, 2006.
  62. ^ Nkurunziza, Michel (January 26, 2019). "Kibeho decry lack of investments in the hospitality industry". The New Times. Retrieved October 8, 2019. 'We now receive between 500,000 and 600,000 pilgrims every year'
  63. ^ "A Marian apparition has been approved in Argentina - and it's a big deal". June 4, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2019. …the bishops have approved the apparition messages from 1983-1990, even though the apparition is continuing today.
  64. ^ a b "A Marian apparition has been approved in Argentina - and it's a big deal". June 4, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  65. ^ Patrizi, Costantino. "Decree verifying and accrediting the Miraculous Conversion of M. Maria-Alphonse Ratisbonne". In Lockhart, Rev. W. (ed.). The Conversion of M. Maria-Alphonse Ratisbonne: Original Narrative of Baron Théodore De Bussières. Burns and Oates, Ltd. pp. 18–19.
  66. ^ a b Peterson, Larry (October 12, 2017). "Did you know the 1st apparition of the Blessed Mother was an act of bilocation?". Aleteia. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  67. ^ "Nuestra Senora del Pilar (Our Lady of the Pillar)". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved May 30, 2019. Unlike every other recorded apparition, this one took place during the earthly life of the Mother of God.
  68. ^ "A Brief History". Basilica of Our Lady of Walsingham. In 1897 by rescript of Pope Leo XIII, the sanctuary of Our Lady of Walsingham was restored with the building of a Holy House as the Lady Chapel of the Catholic Church of the Annunciation, King's Lynn.
  69. ^ Peterson, Larry (May 8, 2018). "England's only approved Marian apparition gives us a peek at Nazareth". Aleteia. Retrieved October 10, 2019. The importance of Our Lady of Walsingham is shown through pontifical approbation (recognition), which has been given to it by four popes: Pope Leo XIII, in 1897; Pope Pius XII, in 1954; Pope St. John Paul II, in 1982; and Pope Francis, in 2015.
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  71. ^ "Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy: Principles and Guidelines". Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. December 2001. The history of Marian piety also includes 'devotion' to various scapulars, the most common of which is devotion to the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Its use is truly universal and, undoubtedly, its is one of those pious practices which the Council described as 'recommended by the Magisterium throughout the centuries'.
  72. ^ Pope John Paul II (March 25, 2001). "Message of John Paul II to the Carmelite Family". I too have worn the Scapular of Carmel over my heart for a long time!
  73. ^ PD-icon.svg Hilgers, Joseph (1913). "Scapular". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. The authentic list of indulgences, privileges, and indults of the Scapular Confraternity of Mount Carmel was last approved on 4 July 1908, by the Congregation of Indulgences.
  74. ^ Saggi, O.Carm, Louis. "Simon Stock" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2010.
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  79. ^ "Envoy Named for Centenary of Lithuania Apparitions". Zenit. August 22, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2019. Mary appeared in Siluva in 1608 to non-Catholics. Little shepherds saw what they described as a beautiful woman, dressed in white and blue, with a baby in her arms, enveloped in gentle splendor. The Lady wept bitterly and suddenly disappeared. Subsequently, the Virgin, again weeping, appeared to a crowd that had formed at the site where the children indicated. The town’s Calvinist pastor was among the group.
  80. ^ Ball, Ann (2004). The Other Faces of Mary: Stories, Devotions, and Pictures of the Holy Virgin Around the World. p. 153. Pope Pius VI approved the cult of Our Lady of Siluva and enriched it with indulgences.
  81. ^ a b "The Catholics of Viet Nam Pay Homage to Our Lady of La Vang". CatholicCulture.org. L'Osservatore Romano. August 12, 1998. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  82. ^ "Feast of Our Lady of La Vang". The Catholic Sun. August 22, 2018. Although not formally recognized by the Vatican, Our Lady of La Vang’s to the Vietnamese people importance has been widely recognized.
  83. ^ "Some 80,000 Catholics visited La Vang shrine to celebrate the Assumption of Mary". AsiaNews.it. August 22, 2019. The veneration for Our Lady of La Vang is not limited to Catholics. Buddhists and Protestants also pray to the Virgin Mary for special graces.
  84. ^ Ball, Ann (2003). Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor. p. 515. ISBN 9780879739102. The Confraternity of Our Lady of Pellevoisin was established, and Pope Leo XIII gave approbation both to the confraternity and to the scapular.
  85. ^ Cruz, Joan Carroll (2012). See How She Loves Us: 50 Approved Apparitions of Our Lady. Charlotte, North Carolina: TAN Books. pp. 205–211. ISBN 9780895558039.
  86. ^ "All About Mary: Pellevoisin Apparitions". The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  87. ^ "L'lle-Bouchard, France: Apparitions of Our Lady of Prayer". The Catholic Travel Guide. Retrieved October 8, 2019. The site was declared an official pilgrimage site of the diocese of Tours on 8 December 2001 by the archbishop Monseigneur André Vingt-Trois. … The apparitions themselves, however, still await approval
  88. ^ "Chinon: disparition d'une des fillettes qui déclaraient avoir vu la Sainte Vierge" [Chinon: Death of one of the girls who claimed to see the Virgin Mary] (in French). La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest. March 17, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2019. [les] apparitions … n'ont été officiellement reconnues par l'église qu'en 2001, quand Mgr André Vingt-Trois, alors archevêque de Tours, autorisait officiellement les pèlerinages et le culte public à Notre-Dame-de-la-Prière
  89. ^ Burke, Archbishop Raymond (May 31, 2007). "Regarding Our Lady of America". EWTN. Retrieved October 8, 2019. What can be concluded canonically is that the devotion was both approved by Archbishop Leibold and, what is more, was actively promoted by him. In addition, over the years, other Bishops have approved the devotion and have participated in public devotion to the Mother of God, under the title of Our Lady of America.
  90. ^ Burke, Archbishop Raymond (May 31, 2007). "Regarding Our Lady of America". EWTN. Retrieved October 8, 2019. Sister Mary Ephrem responded that Our Lady of Guadalupe is Empress of all the Americas, whereas "Our Lady of America, The Immaculate Virgin," is the patroness of our nation, the United States of America.
  91. ^ a b Harris, Elise (May 12, 2019). "Pope okays pilgrimage to Medjugorje, says apparitions 'need study'". Crux.
  92. ^ Gaspari, Antonio. "Medjugorje Deception or Miracle?". EWTN. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  93. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (May 17, 2017). "Medjugorje; the findings of the Ruini report". La Stampa. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
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