List of C.S. states by date of admission to the Confederacy

Map of the Confederate States with names and borders of states

A state of the Confederate States of America was one of the 13 constituent entities that shared its sovereignty with the Confederate government. Confederates were citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they resided, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the Confederate government.[1] Virginia was admitted into the Confederacy as a commonwealth rather than a state.[2]

States were the primary subdivisions of the Confederate States and possessed a number of powers and rights under the Confederate States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state had its own constitution grounded in republican principles, and government consisting of executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[3]

All states and their residents were represented in the Confederate States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state was represented by two Senators, while Representatives were distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census. Additionally, each state was entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that elected the President of the Confederate States, equal to the total of Representatives and Senators in Congress from that state.[3]

Every new state was admitted pursuant to Article I, Section 6 of the Confederacy's Provisional Constitution which required a simple majority vote in the Provisional Congress. Since the establishment of the Confederate States in 1861, the number of states expanded from the original seven to 13. Each new state had been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.[3] Under Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the permanent Constitution Congress had the authority to admit additional states into the Confederacy, but unlike the United States and Provisional Confederate Constitutions which required a simple majority vote admission of new states to the Confederacy required a two-thirds vote in each House with the Senators from each state voting jointly.

The following table is a list of all 13 states and their respective dates of statehood. The first seven became states in February and March 1861 upon agreeing to the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States, and each joined the permanent Confederation of states between March 12 and April 22, 1861, upon ratifying the Confederate States Constitution, its permanent constitution (a separate table is included below showing Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States adoption dates). These seven states are presented in the order in which each ratified the permanent Constitution, thus joining the permanent government. The date of admission listed for Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, Missouri, and Kentucky was the official date set by an act of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States.[1]

List of C.S. states[edit]

State Date
(admitted or ratified)
1 Flag of Alabama (1861, obverse).svg Alabama March 13, 1861[4]
(ratified)
2 Flag of the State of Georgia (non-official).svg Georgia March 16, 1861[5]
(ratified)
3 Flag of Louisiana (February 1861).svg Louisiana March 21, 1861[6]
(ratified)
4 Flag of Texas.svg Texas March 23, 1861[7]
(ratified)
5 Flag of Mississippi (1861–1865).gif Mississippi March 29, 1861[8]
(ratified)
6 Flag of South Carolina (1861).svg South Carolina April 3, 1861[9]
(ratified)
7 Flag of Florida (1861–1865).svg Florida April 22, 1861[1]
(ratified)
8 Flag of Virginia (1861–1865).svg Virginia May 7, 1861[2]
(admitted)
9  Arkansas May 18, 1861[10]
(admitted)
10 Flag of North Carolina (1861–1865).svg North Carolina May 20, 1861[11][12]
(admitted)
11  Tennessee July 2, 1861[13][14]
(admitted)
12  Missouri November 28, 1861[15]
(admitted)
13  Kentucky December 10, 1861[16]
(admitted)

Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States adoption dates[edit]

A provisional congress made up of six Southern states meeting at the Alabama State Capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, approved the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States on February 8, 1861.[17] On February 22, 1862, the temporary government under the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States was replaced with a permanent federal government under the Confederate States Constitution.[3]

State Date
1 Flag of South Carolina (1861).svg South Carolina February 8, 1861[18]
2 Flag of the State of Georgia (non-official).svg Georgia February 8, 1861[18]
3 Flag of Florida (1861–1865).svg Florida February 8, 1861[18]
4 Flag of Alabama (1861, obverse).svg Alabama February 8, 1861[18]
5 Flag of Mississippi (1861–1865).gif Mississippi February 8, 1861[18]
6 Flag of Louisiana (February 1861).svg Louisiana February 8, 1861[18]
7 Flag of Texas.svg Texas March 2, 1861[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Background of the Confederate States Constitution". civilwarhome.com.
  2. ^ a b Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 104 – via Internet Archive.
  3. ^ a b c d Constitution of the Confederate States of America, Adopted unanimously by the Congress of the Confederate States of America, March 11, 1861. Montgomery, Ala.: Shorter & Reid. 1861. OCLC 002513345. OL 24392191M – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ Ordinances and Constitution of the State of Alabama, With the Constitution of the Provisional Government and of the Confederate States of America. Montgomery: Barrett, Wimbish & Co. 1861. p. 42. LCCN 16025838. OL 6592763M – via Internet Archive.
  5. ^ Journal of the Public and Secret Proceedings of the Convention of the People of Georgia, Held in Milledgeville and Savannah in 1861. Together With the Ordinances Adopted. Milledgeville, Ga.: Boughton, Nisbet & Barnes. 1861. p. 393 – via Internet Archive.
  6. ^ Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of the State of Louisiana. New Orleans: J. O. Nixon. 1861. p. 277. LCCN 10012518. OL 7019133M – via Internet Archive.
  7. ^ Winkler, William, ed. (1912). Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas, 1861. Austin Printing Company. p. 232-35. LCCN 12033692. OCLC 217767. OL 6550923M – via Internet Archive.
  8. ^ Journal of the State Convention, and Ordinances and Resolutions Adopted in March, 1861. Jackson: E. Barksdale. 1861. p. 77 – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ Journal of the Convention of the People of South Carolina, Held in 1860-'61. Charleston: Evans & Cogswell. 1861. pp. 243-51. OL 24587259M – via Internet Archive.
  10. ^ Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 120 – via Internet Archive.
  11. ^ Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. pp. 118-19 – via Internet Archive.
  12. ^ Journal of the convention of the People of North Carolina, Held on the 20th Day of May, A. D. 1861. Raleigh: Jno. W. Syme. 1862. p. 18. LCCN 02014915. OCLC 6786362. OL 13488372M – via Internet Archive.
  13. ^ Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 119 – via Internet Archive.
  14. ^ "Tennessee Admitted as a Member of the Confederacy". Louisville Daily Courier. 33 (6). July 6, 1861. p. 1.
  15. ^ Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 221 – via Internet Archive.
  16. ^ Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 222 – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ Constitution of the provisional government of the Confederate States of America. Montgomery, Ala.: Shorter & Reid. 1861. OL 24392168M – via Internet Archive.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Matthews, James M., ed. (1864). The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, from the Institution of the Government, February 8, 1861, to its Termination, February 18, 1862, Inclusive; Arranged in Chronological Order. Richmond: R. M. Smith. p. 8 – via Internet Archive.