|Native to||India, Pakistan|
|Region||Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir|
|7 million (2011 census)|
|Perso-Arabic script (contemporary),|
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)
Official language in
Kashmiri (English: //) or Koshur (English: //; कॉशुर, كٲشُر) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. There are also speakers in parts of the neighbouring Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir.
- 1 Geographic distribution and status
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Writing system
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Vocabulary
- 6 Literature
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Geographic distribution and status
There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India. Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir. There are also about 130,000 speakers in the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir, primary concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys, and in the district of Haveli.
The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India, and is a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state. Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language. Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.
|Stop / |
|plain||p b||t d||ts||ʈ ɖ||tʃ dʒ||k ɡ|
Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ṣ ś of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.
Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.
|ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر ڑ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ھ ء ؠ ے|
There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Sharada script, the Devanagari script and the Perso-Arabic script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.
The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D. This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.
Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications). Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds. The Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.
|بڑی حے||baṛī he||h||/h/||ح|
|عین||ain||’, –||/ʔ, ∅/||ع|
|بڑی قاف||baṛī kāf||k||/k/||ق|
|نون||nūn||n, ̃||/n, ̃/||ن|
|بڑی یے||baṛī ye||y||/j/||ے|
|چھوٹی یے||choṭī ye||-y-||/ʲ/||ؠ|
|Transliteration||IPA||Initial & combined glyph|
|Vowel mark indicated on consonant k||क||का||कॅ||कॉ||कॆ||के||कऺ||कऻ||कि||की||कॖ||कॗ||कु||कू||कॊ||को||कं|
The other version of the proposal is shown below:
|Vowel mark indicated on consonant k||क||का||कॅ||कॉ||कॖ||कॗ||कि||की||कु||कू||कॆ||के||कै||कॊ||को||कौ||क्व or कव||कं|
Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or “generic” noun qualities.
The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun. TA relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms. The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:
Process Masculine Feminine Meaning vowel change sur suɨr child consonant change hokh hoch dry vowel/consonant change tot təts hot suppletive form marɨd zanān man/woman masculine only kāv --- crow feminine only --- məch fly
Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.
Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense. Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked. However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. Nom. -Ø -Ø -Ø -Ø Erg. -an -av -i -av Dat. -as -an -i -an Abl. -i/ɨ -av -i -av Voc. -ā -av -iy -av
Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending -un), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries. Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.
Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -ān added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb yun (to come):
Present Masculine Feminine 1st Person Sing. chus yivān chas yivān 2nd Person Sing. chukh yivān chakh yivān 3rd Person Sing. chu yivān cha yivān 1st Person Pl. chi yivān cha yivān 2nd Person Pl. chiv yivān chavɨ yivān 3rd Person Pl. chi yivān cha yivān
Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions. The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.
As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative. Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.
Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb parun ("to read"):
Simple Past (Transitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person por pər’ pər pari 2nd Person poruth pərith pərɨth par’ath 3rd Person por pər’ pər pari
A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.
Simple Past (Special Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -us -’ -as -i 2nd Person -kh -vɨ -kh -vɨ 3rd Person -Ø -Ø -ch -i
Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.
Simple Past (Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -yas -yēyi -yēyas -yēyi 2nd Person -yākh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ 3rd Person -yōv -yēyi -yēyi -yēyi
In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change. Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:
Indefinite Past (Transitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st/3rd Person -yōv -ēyi -ēyi -ēyi 2nd Person -yōth -ēyath -ēyath -ēyath Remote Past (Transitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st/3rd Person -ēyōv -ēyāyi -ēyāyi -ēyāyi 2nd Person -ēyōth -ēyēyath -ēyēyath -ēyēyath
As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:
Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -ās -āyas -āyas -āyi 2nd Person -kh -kh -āyakh -āyivɨ 3rd Person -av -āyi -āyi -āyi Remote Past (Special Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -āyās -ēyāyi -ēyēyas -ēyēyi 2nd Person -ākh -ēyvɨ -āyakh -āyivɨ 3rd Person -ēyōv -ēyēyi -ēyāyɨ -ēyāyɨ
Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:
Indefinite Past (Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -yas -yēyi -yēyas -yēyi 2nd Person -yākh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ 3rd Person -yōv -yēyi -yēyi -yēyi Remote Past (Intransitive) Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Person -yēyās -yēyi -yēyās -yēyi 2nd Person -yēyakh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ 3rd Person -yēyōv -yēyi -yēyāyɨ -yēyɨ
Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:
Future (Intransitive) Singular Plural 1st Person -mɨ -mav 2nd Person -akh -yi 3rd Person -yi -an
The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:
Future (Transitive) Singular Object Plural Object 1st Person Sing. -an -akh 1st Person Pl. -ɨhōn -ɨhōkh 2nd Person Sing. -ɨhǝn -ɨhǝkh 2nd Person Pl. -ɨhūn -ɨhūkh 3rd Person Sing. -yas -yakh 3rd Person Pl. -ɨnas -ɨnakh
There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary āsun (“to be”)—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).
Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. mut -mɨt’ -mɨts -matsɨ
The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -ān in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement. A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.
Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.
Nominative Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st bɨ ǝs’ bɨ ǝs’ 2nd tsɨ toh’ tsɨ toh’ 3rd prox. yi yim yi yim 3rd R I hu hum hɔ humɨ 3rd R II su tim sɔ timɨ Ergative Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st me asi me asi 2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi 3rd prox. yem’ yimav yemi yimav 3rd R I hom’ humav homi humav 3rd R II tǝm’ timav tami timav Dative Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st me asi me asi 2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi 3rd prox. yemis yiman yemis yiman 3rd R I homis human homis human 3rd R II tǝmis timan tǝmis timan Ablative Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st me asi me asi 2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi 3rd prox. yemi yimav yemi yimav 3rd R I homi humav homi humav 3rd R II tami timav tami timav
There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl. 1st Sing. m’ōn mēn’ mēn’ m’āni 1st Pl. sōn sǝn’ sǝn’ sāni 2nd Sing. cōn cǝn’ cǝn’ cāni 2nd Pl. tuhund tuhɨnd’ tuhɨnz tuhɨnzɨ 3rd Sing. Prox. yem’sund yem’sɨnd’ yem’sɨnz yems’sɨnzi 3rd Pl. Prox. yihund yihɨnd’ yihɨnz yihanzɨ 3rd Sing. R I hom’sund hom’sɨnd’ hom’sɨnz hom’sɨnzɨ 3rd Pl. R I huhund huhɨnd’ huhɨnz huhɨnzɨ 3rd Sing. R II tǝm’sund tǝm’sɨnd’ tǝm’sɨnz tǝm’sɨnzɨ 3rd Pl. R II tihund tihɨnd’ tihɨnz tihɨnzɨ
There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all. Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns. The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective wozul (“red”):
Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Pl. Nom. wozul wozaj wozal wozaji Erg. wozal wozaji wozalav wozalan Dat. wozalis wozaji wozalan wozalan Abl. wozalis wozaji wozalav wozalav Voc. wozaliā wozaj wozalav wozalav
Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.
The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor (“more”) and sitha (“most”), respectively.
Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary
Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi. Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word yadi.
First person pronoun
Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ba/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myoon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hā̃v vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).
- Shina language
- Dardic languages
- List of topics on the land and the people of “Jammu and Kashmir”
- List of Kashmiri poets
- States of India by Kashmiri speakers
- Kashmiri Wikipedia
- Kashmir Valley
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- Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
- Kashmiri at Ethnologue (20th ed., 2017)
- "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
- "Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2 June 2007.
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- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 9-16.
- K.L. Kalla, The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications,
... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
- "Sarada". Lawrence. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
- "The Sharada Script: Origin and Development". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
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- Daniels & Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. pp. 753–754.
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- "Devnagari Script for Kashmiri: A Study in its Necessity, Feasibility and Practicality". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Government of India. (2009). Proposal to add six characters in the Devanagari block for representation of Kashmiri language in Devanagari script.
- Pandey, Anshuman. (2009). Comments on India’s Proposal to Add Devanagari Characters for Kashmiri.
- The central vowels are typically transcribed ⟨ạ⟩ and ⟨u’⟩ when transliterating Arabic script, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ when transliterating Nagari.
- Everson, Michael & Pravin Satpute. (2006). Proposal to add four characters for Kashmiri to the BMP of the UCS.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 25.
- Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri (2002). Kashmir News Network, pp.80.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. ii.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 28.
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- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 31.
- Wade 1888, p. 16.
- Bhatt, Rajesh (2007)."Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages", MIT Ergativity Seminar, pp.6.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 32.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 39.
- Wade 1888, pp. 10-15.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 83-84.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 119.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 84.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 86.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 87.
- Zakharyin, Boris (2015). "Indo-Aryan Ergativity and its Analogues in Languages of Central and Western Eurasia", The Poznań Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp.66.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 89-90.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 91-92.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 93.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 94.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 94-95.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-97.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-99.
- Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 100-101.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 103.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 105.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 107.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 108.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 53.
- Koul & Wali 2006, p. 52.
- Koshur 2002, pp.79.
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- Wade 1888, p. 20.
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- Wade 1888, p. 21.
- Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7,
... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
- Krishna, Gopi (1967). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boston: Shambhala. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.
- John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming, In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6,
... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...
- Chapter on Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir in "The Rise, Growth And Decline Of Indo-Persian Literature" by R. M. Chopra, 2012, published by Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd Edition 2013.
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|Kashmiri edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
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