|Equipment||cannonball of c.18 centimetres (7 in) circumference and 28 ounces (794 g) weight|
|Country or region||Ireland|
Road bowling (Irish: Ból an bhóthair; also called [long] bullets) is an Irish sport in which competitors attempt to take the fewest throws to propel a metal ball along a predetermined course of country roads. The sport originated in Ireland and is mainly played in counties Armagh and Cork.
Spectators often bet on the outcome and proffer advice to their favoured competitor in the course of a match or "score". Road bowling in Ireland is governed by the voluntary Irish Road Bowling Association (Irish: Ból Chumann na hÉireann). The 2016 All-Ireland Series took place in Madden, County Armagh.
Rules and playing style
The "bullet" or "bowl" (Irish: ból) is an iron and steel cannonball of c.18 centimetres (7 in) circumference and 28 ounces (794 g) weight. There are two or more players or teams in a match or "score". The one with the fewest shots to the finish line wins. If two players or teams approach the finish line with equal shots, the winner is decided by which throw goes farther past the finish line.
A road shower advises the thrower about the throw (or shot) much like a golf caddy, while another helper stands ahead of the thrower, feet apart, to show the best line or path in the road.
The thrower runs to the throwing mark and, in the Northern or County Armagh style, extends the arm and bowl behind him as he runs. At the throwing mark the arm is snapped forward by arching the back and shoulders, releasing the bowl underhand before stepping over the mark.
In the Southern or County Cork style, as the thrower runs to the mark the arm and bowl are lifted up and back, then whirled downward into an underhand throw, releasing the bowl before stepping over the mark.
Wherever the bowl stops (not where it leaves the road surface), a chalk mark is made at the nearest point on the road and the next throw is taken from behind that mark.
Over tight curves, or corners where two roads meet, the bowl may be thrown through the air (lofted). The loft must strike the road or pass over it. If the loft fails to reach the road, it counts as one shot, and the next throw must be taken again from the same mark.
Fintan Lane, in his book Long Bullets: A History of Road Bowling in Ireland, traces the sport to the 17th century and suggests that it was once far more widespread than it is today. Until the 19th century, the game was also played in Scotland, the north of England and in North America. In the past, players were given twenty shots (a score) each, the winner determined by who went the greatest distance. Though the modern game is a fixed distance in fewest shots, the expression "score" for a match survives. Disputes between competitors or spectators often created public disturbance and courtcases resulted down to the 1950s.
Bol-Chumann na hÉireann was formed in 1954 to replace the less organised All-Ireland Bowl Players Association. There were irregular contests between Cork and Armagh champions over the decades, but the first national championship between them was in 1963. The first World Championship was as part of Cork 800 in 1985.
The Irish form of road bowling is concentrated in counties Cork and Armagh (especially south Armagh). It is also played in Mayo (Castlebar), Limerick, Waterford, Louth, Monaghan and more recently in Tyrone and Wexford and also in Dagenham, London, UK.
The Irish game also has players in Boston, Massachusetts; Cambridge, New York, and Bennington, Vermont, vicinity; Middletown, Connecticut; Traverse City, Michigan; the Bronx, New York; New Zealand; Asheville, North Carolina; Savannah, Georgia  and is growing in the fairs and festivals of the state of West Virginia. The largest Irish road bowling event in the world is held annually in September in Wheeling, West Virginia, with 737 bowlers participating in 2016.
In popular culture
The song Out the Road by Gaelic Storm is about a road bowling score. Additionally, footage of a road bowling score is included in a YouTube video shot by band founders Pat Murphy and Steve Twigger about their trip to Murphy's native County Cork during the production of their album Chicken Boxer (which includes Out the Road).
Game terminology (as used primarily in Ireland) includes:
- bowl of odds
- when one bowler is one full shot fewer than his opponent, i.e., when a bowler is equal to or farther in distance than his opponent, but has thrown one less shot.
- break butt
- To step over the butt before releasing the bowl
- the bowl that is thrown or "shot"
- County Armagh name for the game of road bowling. Also long bullets. See also bullet.
- the throwing mark on the road. See also break butt
- a sharp curve in the road or a corner where two roads meet. See also open the corner
- fág a' bealach!
- anglicised as Faugh A Ballagh and meaning "clear the way" (to warn spectators on the road in front of the thrower)
- get sight
- see open the corner
- a left-handed thrower (from Irish: citeóg)
- to throw through the air.
- long bullets
- see bullets
- open the corner
- also get sight. to throw so deeply into the curve that the next throw is a straight shot out.
- a match
- a throw
- a tuft of grass placed in the road at a spot where the bowl should first strike the surface. An experienced bowler can "split the sop". (from Irish: sop, meaning a "small bundle (of straw)")
- stylish bowler
- a bowler with a smooth well-coordinated delivery.
- Mick Barry (1919–2014) of County Cork was All-Ireland Champion on eight separate occasions between 1965 and 1975.
- John Buckley, Roman Catholic bishop of Cork and Ross, sometimes bowled in his cassock.
- Stephen Wallington of Cabell County, West Virginia, is the current Novice 1 North American Road Bowling Champion.
- Joe McVeigh (1925–1990) of Armagh won several All-Ireland titles in the 1950s, and broke the record for the noted Knappaph course just outside Armagh, completing it in 22 shots. The record still stands, and a commemorative headstone is placed at the roadside to acknowledge the achievement.
- Martin Coppinger of Bantry, County Cork was several times an All-Ireland senior champion.
- David Murphy of Innishannon, County Cork was European champion on three separate occasions and All-Ireland senior champion.
- Klootschieten - a similar sport played in the far eastern parts of the Netherlands, and in northern Germany.
- Lane, Fintan (2005). Long Bullets: A History of Road Bowling in Ireland. Cork: Galley Head Press. ISBN 095421594X.
- "General Introduction". Road Bowling. Ask About Ireland. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Ó Tuama, Seamus (25 November 2015). "Classy Killian Kingston pulls off double". Irish Examiner. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Bol Chumann na hEireann - About Us". irishroadbowling.ie. Irish Road Bowling Association. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "In This Kind of Bowling, the Lanes Have Cars". WSJournal.
- "Early History". Road Bowling. Ask About Ireland. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Ból Chumann na hÉireann/The National Assoc". Road Bowling. Ask About Ireland. Retrieved 9 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
- "International". Road Bowling. Ask About Ireland. Retrieved 9 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
- WBUR report on road bowling in the Boston area
- State Line Irish Road Bowling, Cambridge, New York, & Bennington, Vermont Archived 2012-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
- Northern Michigan Banshees Road Bowling Club
- Asheville Irish Road Bowling Association, Asheville, North Carolina Archived 2010-03-12 at the Wayback Machine
- Washington Post - Go Play in the Road
- McArthur, Thomas Burns; McArthur, Roshan (2005-12-15). "Hiberno-English". Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press. p. 717. ISBN 9780192806376. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Mick Barry 'The Bowlplayer of all time'". Road Bowling. Ask About Ireland. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "'King of the road' dies, 95". Irish Examiner. 8 December 2014.
- "Local road bowler headed to competition in Ireland". Herald Dispatch, Huntington, WV. 19 August 2014.