|Western Balkans (ancient region of Illyria and some lands adjacent)|
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The Illyrian // languages were a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria). Some sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving (aside from the Messapian writings if they can be considered Illyrian), it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family. Because of the uncertainty, most sources provisionally place Illyrian on its own branch of Indo-European, though its relation to other languages, ancient and modern, continues to be studied.
Illyrian was part of the Indo-European language family. Its relation to other Indo-European languages—ancient and modern—is poorly understood due to the paucity of data and is still being examined.
Today, the main source of authoritative information about the Illyrian language consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in classical sources, and numerous examples of Illyrian anthroponyms, ethnonyms, toponyms and hydronyms. Given the scarcity of the data it is difficult to identify the sound changes that have taken place in the Illyrian languages; the most widely accepted one is that the Indo-European voiced aspirates /bʰ/, /dʰ/, /ɡʰ/ became voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /ɡ/.
A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains an unproven hypothesis. The theory is based on classical sources, archaeology and onomastics. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture. Some Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents.
A grouping of Illyrian with the Venetic language and Liburnian language, once spoken in northeastern Italy and Liburnia respectively, has also been proposed. The consensus now is that Illyrian was quite distinct from Venetic and Liburnian.
Centum vs. Satem
In the absence of sufficient lexical data and texts written in the Illyrian languages, the theories supporting the Centum character of the Illyrian language have been based mainly on the Centum character of the Venetic language, which was thought to be related to Illyrian, in particular regarding Illyrian toponyms and names such as Vescleves, Acrabanus, Gentius, Clausal etc. The relation between Venetic and Illyrian was later discredited and they are no longer considered closely related. Scholars supporting the Satem character of the Illyrian languages highlight particular toponyms and personal names such as Asamum, Birzinimum, Zanatis etc. in which these scholars claim that there is clear evidence of the Satem character of the Illyrian language. They also point to other toponyms including Osseriates derived from /*eghero/ (lake) or Birziminium from PIE /*bherǵh/ or Asamum from PIE /*aḱ-mo/ (sharp).
Even if the above-mentioned Venetic toponyms and personal names are accepted as Illyrian in origin, it is not clear that they originated in a Centum language. Vescleves, Acrabanus, Gentius and Clausal are explained by proponents of the hypothesis that the Illyrian languages had a Centum character, through comparison with IE languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek, or reconstructed PIE. For example, Vescleves has been explained as PIE *wesu-ḱlewes (of good fame). Also, the name Acrabanus as a compound name has been compared with Ancient Greek /akros/ with no signs of palatalization, or Clausal has been related to /*klew/ (wash, rinse). In all these cases the supporters of the Centum character of the Illyrian language consider PIE *ḱ > /*k/ or PIE *ǵ > /*g/ followed by an /l/ or /r/ to be evidence of a Centum character of the Illyrian language. However, it has been shown that even in Albanian and Balto-Slavic, which are Satem languages (with some uncertainty surrounding Albanian), the palatovelars have been generally depalatized (the depalatization of PIE *ḱ > *k and *ǵ > *g before /r/ and /l/ regularly in Albanian) in this phonetical position. The name Gentius or Genthius does not help either as there are two Illyrian forms for it, Genthius and Zanatis. If Gentius or Genthius derives from *ǵen- ("to be born"), this is proof of a Centum language, but if the name Zanatis is similarly generated (or from *ǵen-, "know") then Illyrian is a Satem language. Another problem related to the name Gentius is that it cannot be stated whether the initial /g/ of the sources was a palatovelar or a labiovelar.
Taking into account the absence of sufficient data and sometimes the dual nature of their interpretation, the Centum/Satem character of the Illyrian language is still uncertain and requires more evidence.
The Greeks were the first literate people to come into frequent contact with the speakers of Illyrian languages. Their conception of "Illyrioi", however, differed from what the Romans would later call "Illyricum". The Greek term encompassed only the peoples who lived on the borders of Macedonia and Epirus. Pliny the Elder, in his work Natural History, still applies a stricter usage of the term Illyrii when speaking of Illyrii proprie dicti ("Illyrians properly so-called") among the native communities in the south of Roman Dalmatia.
For a couple of centuries before and after the Roman conquest in the late 1st century BC, the concept of Illyricum expanded towards the west and north. Finally it encompassed all native peoples from the Adriatic to the Danube, inhabiting the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia, regardless of their ethnic and cultural differences.
An extensive study of Illyrian names and territory was undertaken by Hans Krahe in the first decades of the twentieth century. He and other scholars argued for a broad distribution of Illyrian peoples considerably beyond the Balkans, though in his later work, Krahe curbed his view of the extent of Illyrian settlement.
The further refinements of Illyrian onomastic provinces for that Illyrian area included in the later Roman province were proposed by Géza Alföldy. He identified five principal groups: (1) "real Illyrians" south of the river Neretva and extending south of the provincial boundary with Macedonia at the river Drin to include the Illyris of north and central Albania; (2) the Delmatae who occupied the middle Adriatic coast between the "real Illyrians" and the Liburni; (3) the Venetic Liburni of the northeast Adriatic; (4) the Japodes who dwelt north of the Delmatae and beyond the Liburni, where names reveal a mixture of Venetic, Celtic and Illyrian; and (5) the Pannonian people north in Bosnia, Northern Montenegro, and western Serbia.
These identifications were later challenged by Radoslav Katičić who on the basis of personal names which occur commonly in Illyricum distinguished three dialect areas: (1) South-Eastern Illyrian, extending southwards from the southern part of Montenegro and including most of Albania west of the river Drin, though its demarcation to the south remains uncertain; (2) Central Illyrian consisting of most of ex-Yugoslavia, north of southern Montenegro to the west of Morava, excepting ancient Liburnia in the northwest, but perhaps extending into Pannonia in the north; (3) Liburnian, whose names resemble those of the Venetic territory to the northeast.
The onomastic differences between the South-Eastern and Central areas are not sufficient to show that two clearly differentiated dialects of Illyrian were in use in these areas. However, as Katičić has argued, the core onomastic area of Illyrian proper is to be located in the southeast of that Balkan region, traditionally associated with the Illyrians (centered in modern Albania).
Traditionally Illyrian has referred to any non-Celtic language in the northwestern Balkans. Recent scholarship from the 1960s and on tends to agree that the region inhabited by Illyrian tribes can be divided into three distinct linguistic and cultural areas, of which only one can be properly termed "Illyrian". No written texts regarding self-identification exist from the Illyrians and no inscriptions in Illyrian exist, with the only linguistic remains being place names (toponyms) and some glosses.
Since there are no Illyrian texts, sources for identifying Illyrian words have been identified by Hans Krahe as being of four kinds: inscriptions, glosses of Illyrian words in classical texts, names—including proper names (mostly inscribed on tombstones), toponyms and river names—and Illyrian loanwords in other languages. The last category has proven particularly contentious. The names occur in sources that range over more than a millennium, including numismatic evidence, as well as posited original forms of placenames. There are no Illyrian inscriptions (Messapian inscriptions are treated separately, and there is no consensus that they are to be reckoned as Illyrian). The spearhead found at Kovel and thought by some to be Illyrian is considered by the majority of runologists to be Eastern Germanic, and most likely Gothic, while a votive inscription on a ring found near Shkodër which was initially interpreted as Illyrian was shown to actually be Byzantine Greek.
The Illyrian languages were likely extinct between the 2nd and 6th centuries AD, with the possible exception of the language that developed into Albanian according to the theory of Albanian descent from Illyrian.
- Albanian language
- List of ancient cities in Illyria
- Messapian language
- Thracian language
- Paeonian language
- Venetic language
- Liburnian language
- Pan-Illyrian theories
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Illyrian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- If the Messapian language was close enough to the Illyrian languages to be considered an Illyrian language, then Illyrian would also have been spoken in southern Italy.
- Woodard 2008, p. 6: "While the Illyrians are a well-documented people of antiquity, not a single verifiable inscription has survived written in the Illyrian language."
- Wilkes 1995, p. 67: "Though almost nothing of it survives, except for names, the Illyrian language has figured prominently in several theories regarding the spread of Indo-European languages into Europe."
- Mallory & Adams 1997.
- Christidis, Arapopoulou & Chritē 2007.
- Wilkes 1995, p. 183: "We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians."
- Wilkes 1995, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians (north Pannonian), exhibiting names such as Liccaius, Bato, Cralus, Lirus and Plassarus."
- Boardman 1982, Polomé, Edgar C. "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian), pp. 866-888; Birnbaum & Puhvel 1966, Hamp, Eric P. "The Position of Albanian", pp. 97-121.
- Andersen 2003, p. 22.
- Christidis, Arapopoulou & Chritē 2007, p. 746.
- Woodard 2008.
- Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 288
- Christidis, Arapopoulou & Chritē 2007, p. 748.
- Blench 1999, p. 250; Woodard 2008, p. 259; Fortson 2004, p. 35.
- Boardman 1982, p. 874: "Clausal, river near Scodra, may be derived from an IE theme *klew- 'wash, rinse (: Gk. κλύζω, Lat. cluō, 'purge')."
- Kortlandt 2008; Hamp 1960, pp. 275–280; Demiraj 1988, p. 44; Demiraj 1996, p. 190.
- Krahe 1955, p. 50
- Mayer 1957, p. 50.
- Krahe 1925.
- Krahe 1955.
- Alföldy 1964, pp. 55–104.
- Benać 1964, Katičić, Radoslav. "Suvremena istrazivanja o jeziku starosjedilaca ilirskih provincija – Die neuesten Forschungen über die einheimische Sprachschicht in den illyrischen Provinzen", pp. 9-58.
- Katičić 1965, pp. 53–76; Katičić 1976.
- Katičić 1976, pp. 179–180.
- Suić and Katičić question the existence of a separate people of Illyrii. For them, Illyrii proprie dicti are peoples inhabiting the heartland of the Illyrian kingdom; Suić, M. (1976) "Illyrii proprie dicti" ANUBiH 11 gcbi 11, 179-197. Katičić, R. (1964) "Illyrii proprie dicti" ZAnt 13-14, 87-97 Katičić, R. (1965) "Nochmals Illyrii proprie dicti" ZAnt 16, 241-244. This view is also supported in Papazoglu, F. (1989) "L'organisation politique de l'Illyrie meridionale (A propos du livre de P. Cabanes sur "Les Illyriens de Bardylis a Genthios")" ZAnt. 39, 31-53.
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- Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 279. ISBN 9781444351637.
- Gustav Must, reviewing Krahe 1955 in Language 32.4 (October 1956), p. 721.
- Ognenova 1959, pp. 794–799.
- Fol 2002, p. 225: "Romanisation was total and complete by the end of the 4th century A.D. In the case of the Illyrian elements a Romance intermediary is inevitable as long as Illyrian was probably extinct in the 2nd century A.D."
- Eastern Michigan University Linguist List: The Illyrian Language.
- Fortson 2004, p. 405: "Although they were to play an important role in the Roman army and even furnished later Rome with several famous emperors (including Diocletian, Constantine the Great and Justinian I), the Illyrians never became fully assimilated Romans and kept their language."
- Wilkes 1995, p. 266: "Alongside Latin the native Illyrian survived in the country areas, and St Jerome claimed to speak his 'sermo gentilis' (Commentary on Isaiah 7.19)."
- Alföldy, Géza (1964). "Die Namengebung der Urbevölkerung in der römischen Provinz Dalmatia". Beiträge zur Namenforschung. 15: 55–104.
- Andersen, Henning (2003). Language Contacts in Prehistory: Studies in Stratigraphy, Volume 2001. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 1-58811-379-5.
- Benać, Alojz (1964). Symposium sur la Délimitation Territoriale et Chronologique des Illyriens à l’Epoque Préhistorique. Sarajevo: Naučno društvo SR Bosne i Hercegovine.
- Best, Jan G. P.; de Vries, Nanny M. W.; Henri Frankfort Foundation (1982). Interaction and Acculturation in the Mediterranean: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Mediterranean Pre- and Protohistory, Amsterdam, 19–23 November 1980. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-6032-195-2.
- Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan (1966). Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings of the Conference on Indo-European Linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963. Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.
- Blench, Roger (1999). Archaeology and Language II: Archaeological Data and Linguistic Hypotheses. Psychology Press. ISBN 0-415-11761-5.
- Boardman, John (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 3: The Prehistory of the Balkans and the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22496-9.
- Bunson, Matthew (1995). A Dictionary of the Roman Empire. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-510233-9.
- Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos; Arapopoulou, Maria; Chritē, Maria (2007). A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83307-8.
- Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Dyck, Andrew Roy (2008). Catilinarians. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83286-1.
- Davison, David; Gaffney, Vincent L.; Wilkes, John J.; Marin, Emilio (2006). Dalmatia: Research in the Roman province 1970-2001: Papers in Honour of J.J. Wilkes. Archaeopress. ISBN 1-84171-790-8.
- Demiraj, Shaban (1988). Gjuha shqipe dhe historia e saj. Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar.
- Demiraj, Shaban (1996). Fonologjia historike e gjuhës shqipe. Akademia e Shkencave e Republikës së Shqipërisë.
- Demiraj, Shaban (1999). Prejardhja e shqiptarëve në dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "Shkenca". ISBN 99927-654-7-X.
- Fol, Aleksandŭr (2002). Thrace and the Aegean: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Thracology, Sofia – Yambol, 25–29 September 2000. International Foundation Europa Antiqua. ISBN 954-90714-5-6.
- Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.
- Hamp, Eric Pratt (1960). "Palatal before resonant in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 76: 275–280.
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- Hornblower, Simón; Spawforth, Antony (2003). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
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- Kortlandt, Frederik (2008). Balto-Slavic Phonological Developments (PDF). Leiden University.
- Krahe, Hans (1925). Die alten balkanillyrischen geographischen namen auf grund von autoren und inschriften. C. Winter.
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- Krahe, Hans (1962). "Die Struktur der alteuropäischen Hydronomie". Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse. 5: 285–341.
- Krahe, Hans (1964). Unsere ältesten Flussnamen. O. Harrassowitz.
- Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History (Volume 6): The Fourth Century B.C. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23348-8.
- Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-884964-98-2.
- Mayani, Zĕchariă (1962). The Etruscans begin to speak. Souvenir Press.
- Mayer, Anton (1957). Die Sprache der alten Illyrier, Volume 1. In Kommission bei R. M. Rohrer.
- Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí (2003). The Celts: A History. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-923-0.
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- Pomeroy, Sarah B.; Burstein, Stanley M.; Donlan, Walter; Roberts, Jennifer Tolbert (2008). A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-537235-2.
- Wilkes, John J. (1995). The Illyrians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-19807-5.
- Williams, Craig Arthur (2004). Epigrams: Martial. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-515531-9.
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- Harmatta, János (1967). "Zum Illyrischen". Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 15: 231–234.
- Krahe, Hans (1929). Lexikon altillyrischen Personennamen. Heidelberg.
- Krahe, Hans (1950). "Das Venetische: seine Stellung im Kreise der verwandten Sprachen". Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse. 3: 1–37.
- Tovar, Antonio (1977). Krahes alteuropäische Hydronymie und die westindogermanischen Sprache. Winter. ISBN 3-533-02586-1.
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