Iberian language

Iberian
Native toModern Spain and France
RegionMediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula
Extinct1st–2nd century AD
Language codes
ISO 639-3xib
xib
Glottologiber1250[1]
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The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula. The ancient Iberians can be identified as a rather nebulous local culture living in the area between the 7th and 1st century BC. The Iberian language, like all the other Paleohispanic languages except Basque, became extinct by the 1st to 2nd centuries AD after being gradually replaced by Latin due to the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.

Iberian is unclassified: while the scripts used to write it have been deciphered to various extents, the language itself remains largely unknown. Links with other languages have been suggested, especially the Basque language, based largely on the observed similarities between the numerical systems of the two.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Iberian language in the context of Paleohispanic languages

. The Iberian language was widely spoken along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

In the north, the Iberian language inscriptions reached the south of France up to the Hérault river. Important written remains have been found in Ensérune, between Narbonne and Béziers in France, in an oppidum with mixed Iberian and Celtic elements. The southern limit would be Porcuna, in Jaén (Spain), where splendid sculptures of Iberian riders have been found. Further inland the exact distribution of the Iberian language inscriptions is uncertain. Tthe culture reached the interior through the Ebro river (Iberus in Latin) as far as Salduie (Zaragoza) but no further.[citation needed]

Among the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula the following might have spoken the Iberian language: Ausetani (Northeastern Catalonia), Ilergetes (Lleida and Huesca up to the Pyrenees), Indigetes (coast of Girona), Laietani (Barcelona), Cassetani (Tarragona), Ilercavones (Murcia and Levante up to Tarragona), Edetani (Valencia, Castellón and Teruel), Contestani (Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena and Albacete), Bastetani (Granada, Almería and Murcia) and Oretani (Jaén, Ciudad Real, Albacete and Cuenca). The Turduli and Turdetani spoke the Tartessian language.

For some scholars such as Velaza (2006), Iberian was the native language spoken by the autochthonous population of these territories, while for others such as De Hoz (1993), Iberian was more of a lingua franca.

History[edit]

Iberian scripts in the context of paleohispanic scripts

The origin of the Iberian language is unknown. Although Iberian ceased to be written in the 1st century AD, it may have survived in some areas until the Visigothic period, according to Menéndez Pidal.[2]

Theory: Catalana [3] (Velaza 2006): this hypothesis says that the Iberian language originated in Northern Catalonia, where the earliest Iberian inscriptions are documented (600 BC) (Ullastret). Its expansion in a north-south direction would have been due to broad population movements not long before the first written documents, perhaps in the 800's BC, given that the Iberian language appears homogeneous in Iberian texts, and if it has been established with greater antiquity (in the 900's or 1000's BC, for example), it would have been more differentiated in different parts of the territory. The presence of uninterpretable elements such as Iberian anthroponyms between inscriptions in this area is not considered statistically significant in this regard.

Writing[edit]

Lead plaque from Ullastret using the dual variant of the Northeastern Iberian script.

The oldest Iberian inscriptions date to the 4th century BC or maybe the 5th century BC, and the latest ones date from the end of the 1st century BC or maybe the beginning of the 1st century AD. More than 2,000 Iberian inscriptions are currently known. Most are short texts written on ceramic including personal names which are usually interpreted as ownership marks. Many coins minted by Iberian communities during the Roman Republic have legends in Iberian. The longest Iberian texts were made on lead plaques; the most extensive is from Yátova (Valencia), with more than 600 signs.

Three different scripts have been identified for the Iberian language:

Northeastern (or Levantine) Iberian script[edit]

Lead plaque from La Bastida de les Alcuses (Mogente) using the Southeastern Iberian script.

The Northeastern Iberian script is also known as the Iberian script because it is the Iberian script most frequently used in 95% of the extant texts (Untermann 1990). These inscriptions have been found mainly in the northeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: chiefly on the coast from Languedoc-Roussillon to Alicante, but also inland to the Ebro Valley. This script is almost completely deciphered.

All the Paleohispanic scripts with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they use a set of signs with syllabic values for the occlusives and another set of signs with monophonematic values for the remaining consonants and thevowels. From a writing systems point of view, they are neither alphabets nor syllabaries; rather, they are mixed scripts called semi-syllabaries. Researchers do not agree on the origin of the scripts; some are linked only to the Phoenician alphabet, while others are linked to the Greek alphabet.

Southeastern (or Meridional) Iberian script[edit]

Lead plaque from la Serreta (Alcoy) using the Greco-Iberian alphabet.

The Southeastern Iberian script is a semi-syllabary too, but it is more similar to the Tartessian script than to the Northeastern Iberian script. The Southeastern Iberian inscriptions have been found mainly in the southeastern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula: Eastern Andalusia, Murcia, Albacete, Alicante, and Valencia. This script is not completely deciphered.

Greco-Iberian alphabet[edit]

Lead plaque from Castellet de Bernabè, Valencia

The Greco-Iberian alphabet is a direct adaptation of an Ionic variant of a Greek alphabet adjusted to the needs of the Iberian language. The inscriptions that use the Greco-Iberian alphabet have been found mainly in Alicante and Murcia.

Description[edit]

Current extent of linguistic knowledge[edit]

Very little is known for certain about Iberian. The initial phase of transcription and compiling Iberian material is finished, and the investigation now focuses on identifying grammatical elements in the texts. The hypotheses currently proposed are hypothetical as hard proof would require the discovery of a bilingual text between Iberian and a known language.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Iberian had five vowels commonly transcribed as a e i o u. Other modern languages on the peninsula such as Basque and Spanish also have such systems. Although five-vowel systems are extremely common all over the world, some think that the vowel similarity between the two languages points to a Sprachbund amongst the ancient languages of the Iberian peninsula.[4]

The front vowels (in frequency order: a, i, e) appear more frequently than the back vowels (u, o). Although there are indications of a nasal vowel (ḿ), this is thought to be an allophone. Judging by Greek transcriptions, it seems that there were no vowel length distinctions; if this is correct, then Iberian uses the long ē (Greek ῆτα ēta) as opposed to the short epsilon (Greek ἔψιλόν épsilón).

Diphthongs[edit]

The second element of diphthongs was always a closed vowel, as in ai (śaitabi), ei (neitin), and au (lauŕ). Untermann observed that the diphthong ui could only be found in the first cluster.

Semivowels[edit]

It is possible that Iberian had the semivowels /j/ (in words such as aiun or iunstir) and /w/ (only in loanwords such as diuiś from Gaulish). The fact that /w/ is lacking in native words casts doubt on whether semivowels really existed in Iberian outside of foreign borrowings and diphthongs.

Consonants[edit]

  • Vibrants: There are two vibrants: r and ŕ. Iberian specialists do not agree about the phonetic values assigned to either vibrant. Correa (1994) hypothesized that ŕ was an alveolar flap [ɾ] and r was a "compound vibrant", that is, a trill [r]. Later, Rodríguez Ramos (2004) suggested that ŕ was an alveolar flap [ɾ] and r is a retroflex flap [ɽ] in line with Ballester (2001) who thought that r represents a uvular fricative [ʁ]. However, Ballester (2005) later changed his hypothesis and took r for an alveolar flap [ɾ] and ŕ for the alveolar trill [r]. Neither r nor ŕ occurs word-initially, which is also the case in Basque.
  • Sibilants: There are two sibilants: s and ś. The distinction is unclear, and there are multiple proposals. Ballester (2001) theorizes that s was an alveolar [s] and ś was an alveolo-palatal [ɕ]. Rodríguez Ramos (2004) proposes that ś was alveolar [s] and s was an affricate, either dental [ts] or palatal [tʃ] (like English "ch"). This proposal coincides with the observation by Correa on adaptations of Gallic names in Iberian texts.
  • Laterals: The lateral l is normally interpreted as [l]. It is extremely rare in final position, and its distribution may sometimes be complementary with ŕ: aŕikal-er ~ aŕikaŕ-bi.
  • Nasals:
    • The n was probably alveolar [n].
    • m: Researchers studying Iberian do not agree on the kind of nasal represented by this letter. The letter m rarely occurs word-initially. Velaza (1996) hypothesizes it could be an allophone of medial n, as shown in the example of iumstir/iunstir. José A. Correa (1999) suggests it may be a geminate or long nasal consonant. Ballester (2001) considers it to be a labialized nasal in Iberian and Celtiberian. Rodríguez Ramos (2004) mentions that it could be an allophone of n related to a preceding vowel.
    • There is some controversy over the sound ḿ. While it's thought to be some type of nasal, there is no certainty about its value. Several linguists agree on the value [na], based on similarities with texts written in the Greek alphabet, as there are similarities between the suffixes -ḿi / -nai, and in the onomastic elements -ḿbar- / -nabar-. Another part of this theory seems to contradict itself with the transcription of ḿbar-beleś into Latin as VMARBELES. Correa (1999) proposes that it was a labialized nasal. It is not clear that the sign is always pronounced in the same form. Rodríguez Ramos (2004) considers it a nasalized vowel produced by progressive nasalization.
  • Plosives: There are five plosives.
unvoiced voiced
velar /k/ /ɡ/
dental /t/ /d/
labial /b/
The evidence indicates the non-existence of a phoneme p',' as it is not documented either in the Greek alphabet or in the dual Iberian systems. It is only found in Latin inscriptions naming native Iberians and is thought to be an allophone of b.
The phoneme b may have been pronounced similar to w (this would be explained by the frequency of the sign bu), and as such it could have been a nasalized bilabial.

Morphology[edit]

There are a number of known affixes, especially applied to last names. For the Iberian language these seem to be postpositional and apparently more agglutinative than fusional.

The best known are the following:

-ar: applied to proper names to mark possession.
-en: of a similar or identical use to -ar.
-ka: the person who receives something.
-te: ergative.
-ku: ablative.[5] Possibly related to the Basque local genitive -ko.
-ken / -sken: usually understood as genitive plural because of its use on coins in ethnic names (with parallels on Latin and Greek coins).
-k: seems to mark the plural. -k is a plural marker in Basque.

Lexicon[edit]

The meanings of some words have been uncovered:[6]

  • aŕe take, akin to the Latin formula hic est situs ("here he is") (Untermann 1990, 194) because of a bilingual inscription from Tarragona C.18.6
  • eban and ebanen, equivalent to the Latin coeravit ("he cared [to be done]") in tombstones (Untermann 1990, 194), because of a bilingual inscription from Sagunto F.11.8
  • iltiŕ and iltun as typical Iberian toponyms for city names, meaning something like "city"/"town"[7]
  • ekiar: verb or verbal noun with a meaning like "to do" / "to make" compared with the Basque verb egin (Beltrán 1942;[8] Correa 1994, 284). likine-te ekiar usekerte-ku with a meaning akin to "made by Likinos of Osicerda" (Correa 1994, 282)
  • seltar and siltar as meaning something like "tomb" on tombstones (Untermann 1990, 194).[9]
  • śalir as meaning something like "money" / "coin", because of its use in coins (as iltiŕta-śalir-ban) and its use in lead plaque inscriptions besides numbers and quantities (Untermann 1990, 191).[10]

Personal names[edit]

Thanks to a Latin inscription which includes a list of Iberian cavalry soldiers in the Roman army (the Turma Salluitana attested in the Bronze of Ascoli), the forms of Iberian proper names have been unraveled. Iberian names are formed mainly by two interchangeable elements, each usually formed of two syllables, which are written together (Untermann 1998). For example, the element "iltiŕ" can be found in the following names: iltiŕaŕker, iltiŕbaś, iltiŕtikeŕ, tursiltiŕ, baiseiltiŕ or bekoniltiŕ. This discovery was a giant step. From this moment it was possible to identify with some of confidence the names of persons in the texts. Nevertheless, the list of components of Iberian names varies between researchers. The basic list comes from Untermann (1990) and was recently updated by Rodríguez Ramos (2002b); complementary data and criteria can be found in the Faria papers (the last two: 2007a and 2007b).

The following list includes some of the elements proposed as components of Iberian names: abaŕ, aibe, aile, ain, aitu, aiun, aker, albe, aloŕ, an, anaŕ, aŕbi, aŕki, aŕs, asai, aster, ata, atin, atun, aunin, auŕ, austin, baiser, balaŕ, balke, bartaś, baś, bastok, bekon, belauŕ, beleś, bels, bene, beŕ, beri, beŕon, betan, betin, bikir, bilos, bin, bir, bitu, biuŕ, bolai, boŕ, boś, boton, ekes, ekaŕ, eler, ena, esto, eten, eter, iar, iaun, ibeś, ibeis, ike, ikoŕ, iltiŕ, iltur, inte, iskeŕ, istan, iunstir, iur, kaisur, kakeŕ, kaltuŕ, kani, kaŕes, kaŕko, katu, keŕe, kibaś, kine, kitaŕ, kon, koŕo, koŕś, kuleś, kurtar, lako, lauŕ, leis, lor, lusban, nalbe, neitin, neŕse, nes, niś, nios, oŕtin, sakaŕ, sakin, saltu, śani, śar, seken, selki, sike, sili, sine, sir, situ, soket, sor, sosin, suise, taker, talsku, tan, tanek, taneś, taŕ, tarban, taŕtin, taś, tautin, teita, tekeŕ, tibaś, tikeŕ, tikirs, tikis, tileis, tolor, tuitui, tumar, tuŕś, turkir, tortin, ulti, unin, uŕke, ustain, ḿbaŕ, nḿkei.

In some cases linguists have encountered simple names, with only one element for a suffix: BELES, AGER-DO and BIVR-NO are in the plaque of Ascoli, neitin in Ullastret and lauŕ-to, bartas-ko or śani-ko in other Iberian texts. More rarely there have been indications of an infix, which can be -i-, -ke- or -ta- (Untermann used oto-iltiŕ in front of oto-ke-iltiŕ or with AEN-I-BELES). In rare cases Untermann also encountered an element is- or o- prefacing a proper name (is-betartiker; o-tikiŕtekeŕ; O-ASAI).

In the elements that formed Iberian names, it is common to encounter patterns of variation, as in eter/eten/ete with the same variations as in iltur/iltun/iltu; kere/keres as lako/lakos; or alos/alor/alo and bikis/bikir/biki).

Some Iberian onomastic elements have lookalikes in Aquitanian or Basque. This has been explained by Vascologists like Mitxelena[11] as an "onomastic pool". However, since the meaning of most Iberian words remains opaque to date, the connection remains speculative except in a very small number of cases.[12] An ancient sprachbund involving these two languages is deemed likely by some linguists.[4] But as Trask notes,[13] Basque has been of no help in translating Iberian inscriptions.

Influences on other languages[edit]

External relations[edit]

Iberian and Basque[edit]

Whether Iberian and Basque are related is still a much-debated question. Many experts on Iberian observe that there is a relationship of some sort between Iberian and Aquitanian, a precursor of the Basque language. But so far there is not enough evidence determine if the relationship is due to genetics or linguistic borrowing.[14] Lexical and onomastic coincidences could be due to borrowing, while the similarities in the phonological structures of the two languages could be due to linguistic areal phenomena (cf. the similarities between Basque and Old Spanish in spite of their being languages of two different families). More scientific studies on Iberian language are needed to shed light on this question.

From a historical perspective, the first features where a relationship between Basque and Iberian was claimed were:

  • the suffixes -sken / -ken on Iberian coins (which were compared to the genitive plural on similar ancient coins) with the Basque plural (-k) and genitive (-en) endings[15]
  • Iberian town names containing ili (particularly iliberri), where parallels were drawn with Basque hiri ("town") and berri ("new").[16]

Although other pairs have been proposed (such as eban, ars, -ka, -te), the meanings of these Iberian morphs are still controversial.

The main arguments today which relate to coinciding surface forms between Basque and Iberian are:

  • Phonetics: Proto-Basque phonology, first proposed by Michelena, is very similar to what is known about the Iberian phonological system. The lack of /m/, common to both Proto-Basque and Iberian, is especially significant[17].
  • Onomastics: Aquitanian-Latin inscriptions contain personal and deity names which can clearly be related to modern Basque words but also show structural and lexical resemblances with Iberian personal names.[18] But Iberian influence on the Aquitanian name system, rather than a genetic link, cannot be dismissed either.
  • In Iberian iltiŕ and iltur, ili is read "city".[19] Modern Basque hiri, "city", is derived from the very similar Proto-Basque root *ili[20]
  • The Iberian genitive ending -en and maybe the genitive plural-(s)ken, compared to the Basque genitive -en and the Basque genitive plural *ag-en as reconstructed by Michelena.[21] But Michelena was skeptical about this comparison.
  • An Iberian formula which frequently appears on tombstones, aŕe take, with variants such as aŕe teike, which on a bilingual inscription from Tarragona may be equivalent to the Latin hic situs est ("here is"), as proposed by Hübner.[22] This was compared by Schuchardt (1907)[23] with Basque "(h)ara dago" “there is/stays”.
  • The Iberian word ekiar, explained as something akin to “he made”,[24] proposed to be linked with the Basque verb ‘egin’ "make"[25].
  • The Iberian word śalir explained as “money”, “coin” or “value”, proposed to be linked to Basque word ‘sari’ (probably Proto-Basque *sali) meaning “value”, “payment”, “reward”.[26]

Numerals[edit]

In 2005 Eduardo Orduña published a study showing some Iberian compounds that according to contextual data would appear to be Iberian numerals and show striking similarities with Basque numerals. The study was expanded upon by Joan Ferrer (2007 and 2009) based on terms found on coins, their values, and new combinatorial and contextual data. The comparison proposes the following:

Iberian Iberian meaning Proto-Basque[4][27] Modern Basque and meaning
erder / erdi- "half" erdi "half"
ban "one" *badV / *bade? bat "one" (but cf -n final compound forms such as bana "one each")
bi / bin ''two'' biga bi (older biga) "two" (also cf -n final compound forms such as bina "two each")
irur ''three'' hirur hiru(r) "three"
laur ''four'' laur lau(r) "four"
borste / bors ''five'' bortz / *bortzV? bost (older bortz) "five"
śei ''six'' sei "six"
sisbi ''seven'' zazpi "seven"
sorse ''eight'' zortzi "eight"
abaŕ / baŕ ''ten'' *[h]anbar ? hamar "ten"
oŕkei ''twenty'' hogei "twenty"

The basis of this theory is better understood if we compare some of the attested Iberian compounds with Basque complex numbers (the dots denote morpheme boundaries and are not normally written in Basque; also note that the final -r in numbers 3 and 4 also occurs in bound forms in Basque i.e. hirur- and laur-):

Iberian word Basque comparison Basque Meaning Basque analysis
abaŕ-ke-bi hama.bi "twelve" "10-2"
abaŕ-ke-borste hama.bost "fifteen" "10-5"
abaŕ-śei hama.sei "sixteen" "10-6"
oŕkei-irur hogei.ta.hiru "twenty three" "20 and 3"
oŕkei-ke-laur hogei.ta.lau "twenty four" "20 and 4"
oŕkei-abaŕ hogei.ta.(ha)mar "thirty" "20 and 10"
oŕkei-(a)baŕ-ban hogei.ta.(ha)maika "thirty one" "20 and 11"

Even so, at the time, Orduña did not claim this similarity to due to genetics but instead felt that it was due to Iberian loanwords in the Basque language. In contrast, Ferrer believes that the similarities could be caused due to either genetic relationship or loans, but indicates that the loan of the entire system of numerals is rare (but has known to occur such as the case of Middle Chinese numeral being borrowed wholesale into Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, and Thai).

Joseba Lakarra (2010) has rejected both the loan and genetic hypotheses, but he does not offer an alternative hypothesis. Lakarra’s arguments focus almost exclusively on Basque historical grammar but also follow de Hoz' (1993) view that the borrowing hypothesis is implausible due to the limited and remote area where Iberian was spoken as first language in Southeast Spain which was quite a ways from Aquitanian.

Javier de Hoz (2011, pp. 196–198) feels that the internal contextual and combinatorial arguments support the hypothesis that these Iberian elements are numerals. In fact, concerning the specific values, he agrees with the equivalences between Iberian ban with Basque 'one' and between Iberian erder with Basque 'half' according to the marks of value found in coins, while he views the rest of the proposed equivalences a working hypothesis.

Regarding the equivalence between possible Iberian numerals and Basque numerals, he agrees with Lakarra (2010) that the shape of the documented Iberian forms does not fit the expected Proto-Basque forms. Finally, he sees the greatest difficulty in the hypothesis as paradoxically its extent and systematic nature, because if the hypothesis was correct, it would result in a close relationship between Iberian and Basque, which should show a close relationship between other Iberian and Basque subsystems as clearly as this one. However, no other close relationships between the two languages have been identified.

Eduardo Orduña (2011) insists that the Iberian elements proposed as numerals are not only similar to the Basque numerals but also combine as numerals and appear in contexts where numerals are expected. He observes that Lakarra (2010) not dispute these arguments [neither does de Hoz (2010)]. Regarding de Hoz' hypothesis that Iberian was a lingua franca, Orduña points out that this is an unconfirmed hypothesis, while Lakarra presents it as an established fact.

The problems with Lakarra's hypothesis have been collected by Ferrer (2013) in a later work. Regarding the phonetic difficulties noted by Lakarra, Orduña argues that the phonetics are compatible with Proto-Basque as reconstructed by Michelena, which is regarded by Iberists as the best reconstruction so far, while Lakarra's internal Basque reconstruction is not as highly regarded, in particular due to its vague chronology. Finally, in contrast to his initial opinion supporting the loan hypothesis, Orduña now sees a genetic relationship as the best hypothesis of the two numeral systems.

Francisco Villar (2014, 259) notes that the similarities between Iberian numerals and Basque numerals resemble those documented for the Indo-European languages and consequently argues that the only sustainable hypothesis at this point is genetic one. Villar also believes that if the reconstruction of Proto-Basque proposed by Lakarra (2010) is incompatible with the evidence derived from the numerals, then the reconstruction must be corrected, as like all reconstructions, it is hypothetical and perfectible.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

General works[edit]

(1998) La epigrafía ibérica de los noventa, Revista de Estudios Ibéricos 3, pp. 127–151.
(2001) Hacia una tipología del ibérico, Religión, Lengua y Cultura Preromanas de Hispania, pp. 335–362.
(2011) Historia lingüística de la Península Ibérica en la Antigüedad II. El mundo ibérico prerromano y la indoeuropeización, Madrid, ISBN 978-84-00-09405-8.
  • Panosa Domingo, Mª. Isabel (1999) La escritura ibérica en Cataluña y su contexto socioeconómico (siglos V-I a. C.), Argitalpen Zerbitzua, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Vitoria-Gasteiz, ISBN 84-8373-160-6.
  • Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2004) Análisis de Epigrafía Íbera, Vitoria-Gasteiz, ISBN 84-8373-678-0.
  • Untermann, Jürgen
(1980) Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum II: Die Inschriften in iberischer Schrift in Südfrankreich, Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-88226-098-4.
(1990) Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum. III Die iberischen Inschriften aus Spanien, Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-88226-491-3.
(1996) Los plomos ibéricos: estado actual de su interpretación, Estudios de Lenguas y Epigrafía Antiguas – ELEA 2, pp. 75–108.
(2001) Die vorrömischen Sprachen der iberischen Halbinsel. Wege und Aporien bei ihrer Entzifferung, Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden, ISBN 3-531-07375-3.
(2005) La lengua ibérica en el sur de Francia in Oriol Mercadal Fernández (coord) Món ibèric: als Països Catalans : XIII Colloqui Internacional d'Arqueologia de Puigcerdà : homenatge a Josep Barberà i Farràs : Puigcerdà, 14 i 15 de novembre de 2003 Vol. 2, ISBN 84-933111-2-X , pp. 1083–1100.
  • Valladolid Moya, Juana (1997) La epigrafía ibérica: estado actual de los estudios, Tempus. Revista de Actualización Científica, 17, pp. 5–53.
  • Velaza, Javier (1996) Epigrafía y lengua ibéricas, Barcelona.

Iberian writing[edit]

  • Correa Rodríguez, José Antonio (2004) Los semisilabarios ibéricos: algunas cuestiones, Estudios de Lenguas y Epigrafía Antiguas – ELEA 5, 75-98.
  • de Hoz Bravo, Javier
(1985–86) La escritura greco-ibérica, Veleia 2-3, pp. 285–298.
(1989) El desarrollo de la escritura y las lenguas de la zona meridional, Tartessos: Arqueología Protohistórica del Bajo Guadalquivir, pp. 523–587.

Lexicon, phonology and grammar[edit]

  • Ballester, Xaverio
(2001) Fono(tipo)logía de las (con)sonantes (celt)ibéricas, Religión, lengua, y cultura prerromanas de Hispania, 287-303, Salamanca.
(2003) El acento en la reconstrucción lingüística: el caso ibérico, Palaeohispánica 3, pp. 43–57.
  • Correa Rodríguez, José Antonio
(1994) La transcripción de las vibrantes en la escriptura paleohispanica, Archivo de Prehistoria Levantina 21, pp. 337–341.
(1999) Las nasales en ibérico, Pueblos, lenguas y escrituras en la Hispania preromana, pp. 375–396, Salamanca.
(2001) Las silbantes en ibérico, in Francisco Villar, María Pilar Fernández Alvárez (coords) Religión, lengua y cultura prerromanas de Hispania ISBN 84-7800-893-4 , pp. 305–318.
  • de Hoz Bravo, Javier
(1981) Algunas precisiones sobre textos metrológicos ibéricos, Archivo de Prehistoria Levantina 40, pp. 475–486.
(2002) El complejo sufijal -(e)sken de la lengua ibérica, Palaeohispánica 2, pp. 159–168.
(2003) Las sibilantes ibéricas, in S. Marchesini & P. Poccetti (eds). Linguistica è storia. Sprachwissenschaft ist Geschichte. Scritti in onore di Carlo de Simone, Pisa, 85-97.
(2006) Nova lectura de la inscripció ibèrica de La Joncosa (Jorba, Barcelona), Veleia 23, pp. 129–170.
(2007) Sistemes de marques de valor lèxiques sobre monedes ibèriques, Acta Numismàtica 37, pp. 53–73.
(2009) "El sistema de numerales ibérico: avances en su conocimiento", Palaeohispanica 9, pp. 451–479.
(2005) Sobre algunos posibles numerales en textos ibéricos, Palaeohispanica 5, pp. 491–506.
(2006) Segmentación de textos ibéricos y distribución de los segmentos, doctoral dissertation, UNED-Madrid (unpublished doctoral dissertation).
(2008) Ergatividad en ibérico Emerita Vol. 76, Nº 2, pp. 275–302.
(2011) Los numerales ibéricos y el protovasco, Veleia 28, pp. 125-139.
  • Pérez Orozco, Santiago (2009) Construcciones posesivas en ibérico, Estudios de lenguas y epigrafía antiguas – ELEA 9, pp. 561–578.
  • Quintanilla Niño, Alberto
(1998) Estudios de Fonología Ibérica, Vitoria-Gasteiz, ISBN 84-8373-041-3.
(2005) Palabras de contenido verbal en ibérico, Palaeohispanica 5, pp. 507–520.
  • Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús
(2000b) Vocales y consonantes nasales en la lengua íbera, Faventia 22, Fasc. 2, pp. 25–37.
(2002) Índice crítico de formantes de compuesto de tipo onomástico en la lengua íbera, Cypsela 14, pp. 251–275.
(2002b) Problemas y cuestiones metodológicas en la identificación de los compuestos de tipo onomástico de la lengua íbera, Arse Nº 36, pp. 15–50.
(2004) Sobre los fonemas sibilantes de la lengua íbera, Habis 35, pp. 135–150.
  • Siles Ruiz, Jaime (1985) Léxico de inscripciones ibéricas, Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Bellas Artes y Archivos, Madrid, ISBN 978-84-505-1735-4.
  • Silgo Gauche, Luis (1994) Léxico Ibérico Estudios de lenguas y epigrafía Antiguas – ELEA, ISSN 1135-5026, Nº. 1, pages 1–271.
  • Untermann, Jürgen
(1984) Inscripciones sepulcrales ibéricas, Cuadernos de prehistoria y arqueología Castellonenses 10, pp. 111–120.
(1985–1986) Las gramática de los plomos ibéricos, Veleia 2-3, pp. 35–56.
(1998) La onomástica ibérica, Iberia 1, pp. 73–85.
(1999) Über den Umgang mit ibersichen Bilinguen in E. Seebold, W. Schindler & J. Untermann Grippe, Kamm und Eulenspiegel: Festschrift für Elmar Seebold zum 65. Geburtstag ISBN 978-3-11-015617-1, pp. 349–358.
  • Velaza Frías, Javier
(1991) Léxico de inscripciones ibéricas: (1976–1989), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, ISBN 84-7875-556-X.
(1994) Iberisch EBAN TEBAN Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 104, 142-150.
(2004) Eban, teban, diez años después, Estudios de Lenguas y Epigrafía Antiguas – ELEA 5, pp. 199–210.
(2002) Ibérico-te, Palaeohispánica 2, pp. 271–275.
(2006) Tras las huellas del femenino en ibérico: una hipótesis de trabajo, Palaeohispánica 6, pp. 247–254

Origins and relationships[edit]

  • Ballester, Xaverio (2001) Las adfinitas de las lenguas aquitania e ibérica, Palaeohispánica 1, 2001 , pp. 21–33.
  • Ferrer i Jané, Joan (2013):“Los problemas de la hipótesis de la lengua ibérica como lengua vehicular”, E.L.E.A. 13, 115-157.
  • de Hoz Bravo, Javier (1993) La lengua y la escritura ibéricas y las lenguas de los iberos, Lengua y cultura en Hispania prerromana: actas del V Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas de la Península Ibérica : (Colonia 25-28 de Noviembre de 1989) (Francisco Villar and Jürgen Untermann, eds.), ISBN 84-7481-736-6, Salamanca, pp. 635–666.
  • Gorrochategui Churruca, Joaquín (1993) La onomástica aquitana y su relación con la ibérica, Lengua y cultura en Hispania prerromana: actas del V Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas de la Península Ibérica: (Colonia 25-28 de Noviembre de 1989) (Francisco Villar and Jürgen Untermann, eds.), ISBN 84-7481-736-6, Salamanca, pp. 609–634.
  • Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús
(2001) La cultura ibérica desde la perspectiva de la epigrafía: un ensayo de síntesis, Iberia: Revista de la Antigüedad 4, pp. 17–38.
(2002) La hipótesis del vascoiberismo desde el punto de vista de la epigrafía íbera, Fontes Linguae Vasconum: Studia et Documenta, 90, pp. 197–218, ISSN 0046-435X.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Iberian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Garatea Grau, Carlos (2005) El problema del cambio lingüístico en Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Munich, p.167
  3. ^ "Ibèric - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure". ca.wikipedia.org (in Catalan). Retrieved 2019-09-04.
  4. ^ a b c Trask, R.L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2
  5. ^ "Partiendo de resultados suficientemente seguros de esta índole se ofrece la identificación de un cierto número de sufijos con funciones morfológicas: -en, -ar y -ḿi, que indican pertenencia y posesividad, -te como señal de ergativo, -ku junto con topónimos como sufijo de ablativo" Jürgen Untermann (2005) "La lengua ibérica en el País Valenciano" in XIII Colloqui Internacional d'Arqueologia de Puigcerdà. Món Ibèric als Països Catalans ISBN 84-933111-2-X pp. 1135–1150, Puigcerdà, p. 1148.
  6. ^ see also Jürgen Untermann (2005) "La lengua ibérica en el País Valenciano" in XIII Colloqui Internacional d'Arqueologia de Puigcerdà. Món Ibèric als Països Catalans ISBN 84-933111-2-X pp. 1135–1150, Puigcerdà, p. 1148: "hay que mencionar los monumentos bilingües, muy pocos y muy breves"..."los únicos que aseguran la traducción exacta de dos palabras ibéricas: tebanen "curavit" y aretake "hic situs est". La aparición de ciertas palabras en ciertos tipos de soportes nos permite contar con significados por cierto poco precisos, pero no del todo imposibles: por ejemplo de las palabras seltar, tal vez "tumba", śalir, tal vez "dinero (de plata)", iltir y biur, tal vez "ciudad, comunidad", ekiar "ha fabricado" o "es obra de (un artesano)"."
  7. ^ 'Stadt' / 'Burg' / 'Gemeinde' (Untermann 1990 p. 187ff)
  8. ^ Beltrán Villagrasa, P. (1942) Sobre un interesante vaso escrito de San Miguel de Liria[permanent dead link], Valencia, p. 51
  9. ^ Correa 1994, 283: "tumba" / "estela"; Michelena 1979, 36: "doit signifier 'stèle, tombeau', ou quelque chose dans ce genre-là"
  10. ^ Correa 1994, 283: "dinero" / "moneda". Michelena 1979, 36 quotes Tovar 1951: 'valor' / 'moneda'.
  11. ^ Michelena, Luis (1977), pp. 547–548: "[...] cada vez soy más escéptico en cuanto a un parentesco lingüístico ibero-vasco. En el terreno de la onomástica, y en particular de la antroponimia, hay, sin embargo, coincidencias innegables entre ibérico y aquitano y, por consiguiente, entre ibérico y vasco. Como ya he señalado en otros lugares, parece haber habido una especie de pool onomástico, del que varias lenguas, desde el aquitano hasta el idioma de las inscripciones hispánicas en escritura meridional, podían tomar componentes de nombre propios."
  12. ^ Gorrochategui, J. (1984)
  13. ^ Trask, R.L. (1995): «Origin and Relatives of the Basque Language: Review of the Evidence», Towards a History of the Basque Language, p. 388.
  14. ^ Correa, J.A. (1994) pp. 284ff; Untermann, J. (1996) concludes: ya está fuera de duda el que la lengua ibérica tiene algo que ver con la lengua vasca, y aumentan cada vez más los indicios positivos en favor de ello, pero todavía no son suficientes para permitirnos aplicar los métodos acreditados de la lingüística comparativa e histórica (quoted in Rodríguez 2002, p. 197)
  15. ^ Caro Baroja, J. (1951) "Le problème ibérique à la lumière des dernières recherches" Jahrbuch für kleinasiatiche Forschung p. 248–263 (p. 685 in the edition of the link)
  16. ^ Humboldt, W. (1821) Prüfung der Untersuchungen über die Urbewohner Hispaniens vermittelst der vaskischen Sprache, chapter 14. Ortnamen, die von iria abstammen, especially p. 24, Noch unverkennbarer Vaskisch sind die Namen, die von iria herkommen, welches, Stadt und, nach dem handschriftlichen Wörterbuch, auch Ort, Gegend bedeutet and p. 29 (Iliberi = Neustadt)
  17. ^ Rodríguez (2002) p. 201
  18. ^ Untermann, J. (1998) pp. 82f: por su forma exterior muestran un grado tan alto de semejanza con los elementos de la toponimia y antroponimia ibérica que es imposible imputarla a la casualidad
  19. ^ Untermann (1998) 7.5
  20. ^ Schuchardt, H. (1907) "La declinación ibérica" RIEV p. 557.
  21. ^ Michelena 1979, 34
  22. ^ Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, Berlin, 1893, p. 145; Untermann, J. (1990) p. 194
  23. ^ Followed by Bähr (1947) and Tovar (1954) (Silgo Gauche, L. Léxico ibérico, 1994, Valencia, in ELEA 1 ISSN 1135-5026)
  24. ^ Correa (1994) 5.3.3
  25. ^ Gómez Moreno, M. (1949) Misceláneas. Historia, Arte, Arqueología. Madrid. p. 279; Vicente Redón, J.D. et al (1989) "El mosaico romano con inscripción ibérica de "La Caridad" (Caminreal, Teruel)" Xiloca 3, pp. 9–27, p. 15 footnote 28
  26. ^ Michelena, L. (1990) p. 318; quoted in Rodríguez, J. (2000) "La Lengua Íbera: en Busca del Paradigma Perdido" Archived 2009-08-19 at the Wayback Machine Revista Internacional d'Humanitats 3 [p. 10 http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/archivos/PDIGMA.pdf Archived 2008-08-08 at the Wayback Machine]
  27. ^ Trask, L.Etymological Dictionary of Basque Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine (edited for web publication by Max W. Wheeler) 2008. Reconstructed Proto-Basque forms are marked with *, the other forms represent archaic but attested forms.

External links[edit]