Help:IPA/Turkish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tr}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

For a more in-depth coverage of the sounds of Turkish, see Turkish phonology.

IPA Orthography English
approximation
b b about
β[1] v like vase, but with both lips
c[2] k cure
d d ado
c jump
f f food
ɡ[2] g ago
ɟ[2] g argue
h h home
j y, ğ[3] yet
k[2] k coal
l l late
ɫ[2] l tail
m m much
n n not
ɲ[4] n canyon
ŋ[5] n wing
p p pan
ɾ r AmE pretty or Scottish r
s s send
ʃ ş shoe
t t table
ç change
v[1] v vase
z z zone
ʒ j leisure
Vowels
IPA Orthography English
approximation
a a father
æ[6] e cat
e e bed
i i creek
o o Leo
œ ö somewhat like bird
u u soup
ɯ ı somewhat like roses
y ü somewhat like cue
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı [torbaˈɫɯ] 'with bag'
Torbalı [ˈtorbaɫɯ] (a place name)[7]
ː â, î, û[8], ğ[3] âlem [aːˈlem] 'world'

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b [β] is the allophone of the /v/ sound around rounded vowels.
  2. ^ a b c d e [c]~[k], [ɟ]~[ɡ], [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩; in native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  3. ^ a b In Turkish, the letter ⟨ğ⟩ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
  4. ^ [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
  5. ^ [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
  6. ^ Allophone of /e/ before liquids [l, m, n, ɾ] in coda/syllable-final position, and in the suffix -mez
  7. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  8. ^ Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨^⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents [c], if the letter ⟨g⟩ represents [ɟ] and the letter ⟨l⟩ represents [l] before the back vowels [a] and [u].
    Yet the düzeltme işareti is primarily used for indicating palatalization instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when pronounced as [kaˈtil], yet it means "killer" when pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long, because the sound /k/ doesn't become /c/ in this case.
    ⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it only indicates the vowel length.