Help:IPA/Sardinian

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sardinian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sc}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b baca, bia, bàbaru bike
β abauditu, ebreu, nebodaza[1] between baby and bevy
d dormi, sardu, doadura, (Logudorese) andalibeni done
dz acasazare, pranzu, cazare dads
gioba, Barbagia, culingiosso, panagèlicu jab
ɖ abbaraddadu, mundu, cherveddu About this sound[keɾˈveɖːu][2] dine (Indian English)
ð abbacada, cantat [ˈkantaða], a therga[1] this
f foras, ufanu fast
ɡ gabbia, gherra, ghia, sangrau, fogu gas
ɣ buttega, sa gherra, arcu ’e chelu[1] like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
k corsía, àlpaca, chelu, cuadra, bruke, piachente[3] scar
l levantinu, abbalaucadu lip
ʎ brigliaju, origlietas, bragliosu, contissigliu roughly like million
m meledada, mamudinu, acampàda[4] mother
ɱ cunforma[4] some value
n nebodaza, energía nest
ŋ abbengare, abbiènghidu[4] sing
ɲ apitzigàgnulu, gnagnajolu roughly like canyon
ɳ afandare, mundu roughly like corndog
p pabasolu, písiri, splajare, ’alvispaltu spin
ɾ carena, dijimire batter (American English)
r rasada, ferrutzos trilled r
s secada, stantes, dilmissu sorry
ʃ scelestu, lescenscia, balascios, isciri ship
t taneddu, àteu star
ts (Logudorese) tzacare, tzarra, catzare, Tzitzeddu, (Campidanese) tzaccau, tzitadi cats
ciabbata, cedda, cibbu, ciacosu, celibbadu chip
θ althrolitu, furrithu, tharalau, atheddina, istathu thin
v vacada, servu, jurafalzu, sa faína vent
z casara, ixemplu, su sole zipper
ʒ (Logudorese) abbajocada, ajozi, conjugadu, ojos, (Campidanese) paxi, axedu, dexi measure
ʔ[5] pacu, connòschere, sa pache, sa luna getting (Cockney)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a Arba, areddare, àteru, proiàt roughly like father
e meri, panagèlicu, ape, isdentadu roughly like pay
ɛ xena, lèghere, ghèneru[6] bed
i filu, síncheru, paxi, ixemplu see
o ogru, còtzula, abbaosu, cando law (British English)
ɔ connòschere, ogros[6] off
u domu, úrtima too
 
Semivowels
j eja, (Logudorese) gioja,[7] calzulaieddu,[8] (Campidanese) Sardinnia[9] you
 
SuprasegmentalsÌ
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ cantat [ˈkantaða] primary stress
ˌ propiamente [ˌpɾopi.aˈmɛnte] secondary stress
. via [ˈvi.a] syllable break

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Phonemic /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ between vowels are usually realized as [β], [ð], [ɣ], and sometimes even omitted. Omission does not normally occur when those are the realizations for phonemic /p/, /t/, /θ/, /k/.
  2. ^ After a vowel it is a double voiced retroflex stop, represented by [ɖɖ] or [ɖː].
  3. ^ Usually, /k/ is written down following either the Italian style (by using ⟨ch⟩ before e and i: e.g. anchilla, chelu, chena, chi, etc.), the Byzantine style (by using ⟨k⟩: e.g. ankilla, kelu, kena, ki, etc.) or (now rare) the Spanish style (by using ⟨qu⟩ before e and i: e.g. anquilla, quelu, quena, qui, etc.)
  4. ^ a b c Nasal consonants always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is velar [ŋ], but before /v/ or /f/, it is labiodental [ɱ]. It is [m] only before /p/, /b/ or /m/ and [ɳ] before /ɖ/.
  5. ^ Glottal stops usually occur for intervocalic /k/ in some dialects of Barbagia, and for intervocalic /l/ and /n/ in some dialects of Sarrabus.
  6. ^ a b [ɛ] and [ɔ] occur in stressed position if the following syllable does not contain /i/ (unless it is a development of /e/), /u/, or a palatal.
  7. ^ One of the cases in which the grapheme ⟨j⟩ does not represent the sound [ʒ].
  8. ^ A rare case, using the grapheme ⟨i⟩, normally representing a full vowel /i/.
  9. ^ Phonetically transcribed as [saɾˈdinja], as opposed to Sardigna in Logudorese, transcribed as [saɾˈdiɲɲa]. In Campidanese this semivowel is more usual.

Further reading[edit]

  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1989) [1957]. Dizionario Etimologico Sardo (in Italian). Trois.
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (1994). ELLO ELLUS, grammatica della lingua sarda (in Italian). Nuoro (Sardinia): Poliedro Edizioni.
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (2007). Sardo e italiano a confronto. CUEC.
  • Mura, Riccardo; Virdis, Maurizio (2015). Caratteri e strutture fonetiche, fonologiche e prosodiche della lingua sarda. Il sintetizzatore vocale SINTESA (in Italian). Condaghes.
  • Puddu, Mario (2015) [2000]. Ditzionàriu de sa limba e de sa cultura sarda (in Sardinian). Condaghes.