Help:IPA/Punjabi

The charts below show the way (both in Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi scripts) in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
b ਬ, ਭ ب , بھ abash
d ਦ, ਧ د, دھ ado
ɖ ਡ, ਢ ڈ, ڈھ somewhat like guard
ਜ, ਝ ج, جھ hedge
f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ ਗ, ਘ گ gate
ɦ ہ ahead
j ي yak
k ਕ, ਘ ک scan
کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ somewhat like burner
ŋ bank
p ਪ, ਭ پ, بھ span
پھ pan
q ਕ਼ ق a k in the throat
ɾ ر US: better
ɽ ڑ somewhat like US: larder
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
t ਤ, ਧ ت, دھ stable
تھ table
ʈ ਟ, ਢ ٹ, ڈھ somewhat like art
ʈʰ ٹھ somewhat like table
ਚ, ਝ چ, جھ archer
tʃʰ چھ catch
v و very
x ਖ਼ خ Scottish loch
ɣ ਗ਼ غ like a French r
z ਜ਼ ز zen
Vowels
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
ਆ, ਾ آ, ـا bra
ਏ, ੇ ے play
ɛː ਐ, ੈ yell
ə ਅ, - ـَ nut
[1] ਈ, ੀ ی feet
ɪ [1] ਇ, ਿ ـِ dill
ਓ, ੋ و old
ɔː ਔ, ੌ dog
[1] ਊ, ੂ loot
ʊ [1] ਉ, ੁ ـُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant
í ì... tone (placed over vowel)[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.
  2. ^ In any word, there is a choice of three tones: high-falling (ì), low-rising (í), and level (i)