It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Hindi and Urdu in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here. Changes should reflect consensus; especially if the conventions of this key are already in wide use, any substantive change to it should be discussed on the talk page first so as not to create discrepancies between the key and transcriptions.
^ abcIn the letter series beginning with क, क = क् + अ; ka = k + a. Thus 'क' has the inherent vowel 'अ', giving 'क' without added vowel sign using diacritics (The halanta "्" is removed). But the IPA shown here has the consonant 'k' only & does not include the vowel 'a'.
^ abcdefghTo an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t tʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d dʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t d] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [tʰ dʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [θð] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
^/ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r], mostly as an allophone in word-initial and syllable-final positions, and geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill, e.g. zarā[zəɾaː] (ज़रा – ذرا 'little') versus well-trilled zarrā[zəraː] (ज़र्रा – ذرّہ 'particle').
^[v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
^/ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
^ abcd/iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i], [u] at the end of a word.
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